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publishing as Prentice Hall

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Open-ended Categorical Scaled-response

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Open-Ended

Open-ended question presents no response options to the respondent

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Open-Ended: Unprobed

Unprobed format seeks no additional information Advantage:


Allows respondent to use his or her own words

Disadvantages:
Difficult to code and interpret Respondents may not give complete answers
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Basic Question-Response Formats


Open-Ended: Probed

Probed format includes a response probe instructing the interviewer to ask for additional information Advantage:
Elicits complete answers

Disadvantage:
Difficult to code and interpret

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Closed-Ended

Closed-ended question provides options on the questionnaire that can be answered quickly and easily.

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Closed-Ended: Dichotomous

Dichotomous has only two response options, such as yes or no Advantage:


Simple to administer and code

Disadvantage:
May oversimplify response options

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Closed-Ended: Multiple Category

Multiple response has more than two options for the response Advantages:
Allows for broad range of possible responses Is simple to administer and code

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Closed-Ended: Multiple Category

Multiple response has more than two options for the response Disadvantages:
Must distinguish pick one from pick all that apply May alert respondents to response options of which they were unaware

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Scaled Response

Scaled-response question utilizes a scale developed by the researcher to measure the attributes of some construct under study

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Scaled Response: Unlabeled

Unlabeled uses a scale that may be purely numerical or only the endpoints of the scale are identified Advantages:
Allows for degree of intensity/feelings to be expressed Is simple to administer and code

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Scaled Response: Unlabeled

Unlabeled uses a scale that may be purely numerical or only the endpoints of the scale are identified Disadvantage:
Respondents may not relate well to the scale

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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Basic Question-Response Formats


Scaled-Response: Labeled

Labeled uses a scale in which all of the scale positions are identified with some description Advantages:
Allows for degree of intensity/feelings to be expressed Is simple to administer and code Respondents can relate to scale
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Basic Question-Response Formats


Scaled-Response: Labeled

Labeled uses a scale in which all of the scale positions are identified with some description Disadvantage:
Scale may be forced or overly detailed

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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Considerations in Choosing a QuestionResponse Format


The nature of the property being measured
Gender=dichotomous; liking for chocolate=scale

Previous research studies


Use format in previous study if desire to compare

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Considerations in Choosing a QuestionResponse Format


The data collection mode
Cannot use some scales on the phone

The ability of the respondent


Kids cant relate to scaled response

The scale level desired

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Basic Concepts in Measurement


Measurement: determining how much of a property is possessed by an object

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Basic Concepts in Measurement


Properties: specific features or characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish it from another object
Objective properties are physically verifiable Subjective properties are mental constructs
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Scale Characteristics Determine the Level of Measurement


Description: the use of a descriptor, or label, to stand for each unit on the scale; yes, no, male, female, etc.
All levels of measurement have description.

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Scale Characteristics Determine the Level of Measurement


Order: the relative sizes of the descriptors are known, allowing us to say one is greater/less than the other.

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Scale Characteristics Determine the Level of Measurement


Distance: the differences between the descriptors are known: there is a $1difference between $4 and $5. There is a 10-degree difference between 90 and 100 degrees.

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Scale Characteristics Determine the Level of Measurement


Origin: there is a true, natural zero: there is a zero level of dollars, market share, sales.

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Levels of Measurement Scales


Nominal scales: those that use only labels Ordinal scales: those with which the researcher can rank-order the respondents or responses

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Levels of Measurement Scales


Interval scales: those in which the distance between each descriptor is equal Ratio scales: ones in which a true zero exists

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Levels of Measurement Scales

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Why the Level of a Measurement Scale is Important


The scale affects what may or may not be said about the property being measured.

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Why the Level of a Measurement Scale is Important


Examples:
If you wish to calculate an average, you must use an interval or ratio scale. If you have a nominal or ordinal scale, you must summarize the results with a percentage or frequency distribution.

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Measuring Objective Properties


Physically verifiable characteristics such as age, gender, number of bottles purchased, etc.

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Measuring Subjective Properties


Cannot be directly observed because they are mental constructs such as a persons attitudes, opinions, or intentions. For subjective properties, researchers must translate mental constructs onto an intensity continuum.

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Workhorse Scales Used in Marketing Research


The Modified Likert Scale The Life-Style Inventory The Semantic Differential Scale Halo effect Other Scaled-Response Question Formats

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Reliability and Validity


Reliability: respondent responds in the same or a similar manner to an identical or nearly identical measure Validity: accuracy of responses to a measure Face validity

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Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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