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Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration in Living Organism

In the end of this lesson, students should be able to :

 explain the anaerobic respiration in human muscles  explain the anaerobic respiration in yeast  compare and contrast aerobic respiration with anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic Respiration in Human Muscles

Anaerobic Respiration in Human Muscles


 During vigorous exercise such as 100m sprint, muscle activity is vigorous  Oxygen need to be transported fast enough to the muscle for rapid cell respiration. This will enable the release of sufficient energy for the vigorous activity.  So, the breathing rate and heart beat are increased to supply more oxygen quickly to the muscles for rapid muscular contraction.  However, the supply of oxygen to the muscles is still insufficient to meet the demand for energy. So the muscles are in state of oxygen deficiency, and are said to incur an oxygen debt. debt.

Anaerobic Respiration in Human Muscles


 Under this condition, the muscles obtain the extra energy from anaerobic respiration.  During anaerobic respiration, the glucose molecules break down partially into lactic acid instead of carbon dioxide.  Due to the incomplete breakdown of glucose, the energy released during anaerobic respiration is much less than aerobic respiration.
Aerobic respiration 2898 kJ (38 ATP) Anaerobic respiration 150 kJ (2 ATP)

 The concentration of lactic acid may reach a level high enough to cause muscular cramps and fatigue.  Fast and deep breathing enables a person to inhale and more oxygen. The excess oxygen is used to oxidise the lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water.  Therefore, the oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen needed to remove the lactic acid from the muscle cells.

 The oxygen debt is said to have been paid when all the lactic acid has been eliminated through increased breathing.

Anaerobic Respiration In Yeast

Anaerobic Respiration In Yeast


 Yeast are able to undergo both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.  Yeast carries out anaerobic respiration when there is a lack of oxygen in the environment.  Anaerobic respiration in yeast cells is called fermentation

 The anaerobic reaction is catalysed by the enzyme zymase.  The products of anaerobic respiration in yeast are :
 Carbon dioxide  Ethanol  Energy

 The chemical equation for anaerobic respiration in yeast is :


C6H12O6
Glucose

2C2H50H
Ethanol

+ 2CO2

+ 210kJ
energy

carbon dioxide

Uses of Yeast Fermentation


 As a raising agent in baking bread When yeast ferment in warm conditions, it produces carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide bubbles are trapped in the dough and when baked, the carbon dioxide bubbles give the bread a spongy texture.

 Yeast is also used in brewing industries because ethanol can be used in wine and beer making.

 Activity 1

Similarities and Differences between Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration

The Similarities
Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration

Cellular respiration Breaking down of glucose Release energy stored in ATP molecules Catalysed by enzyme