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Chapter 11 Operational Amplifiers and Applications

Chapter Goals
Understand the magic of negative feedback and the characteristics of ideal op amps. Understand the conditions for non-ideal op amp behavior so they can be avoided in circuit design. Demonstrate circuit analysis techniques for ideal op amps. Characterize inverting, non-inverting, summing and instrumentation amplifiers, voltage follower and first order filters. Learn the factors involved in circuit design using op amps. Find the gain characteristics of cascaded amplifiers. Special Applications: The inverted ladder DAC and successive approximation ADC

Differential Amplifier Model: Basic


Represented by: A = open-circuit voltage gain vid = (v+-v-) = differential input signal voltage Rid = amplifier input resistance Ro = amplifier output resistance The signal developed at the amplifier output is in phase with the voltage applied at the + input (non-inverting) terminal and 180 out of phase with that applied at the - input (inverting) terminal.

LM741 Operational Amplifier: Circuit Architecture


Current Mirrors

Ideal Operational Amplifier


The ideal op amp is a special case of the ideal differential amplifier with infinite gain, infinite Rid and zero Ro .
v ! id A vo

and

lim vid ! 0 Ap g

If A is infinite, vid is zero for any finite output voltage. Infinite input resistance Rid forces input currents i+ and i- to be zero. The ideal op amp operates with the following assumptions: It has infinite common-mode rejection, power supply rejection, openloop bandwidth, output voltage range, output current capability and slew rate It also has zero output resistance, input-bias currents, input-offset current, and input-offset voltage.

The Inverting Amplifier: Configuration

The positive input is grounded. A feedback network composed of resistors R1 and R2 is connected between the inverting input, signal source and amplifier output node, respectively.

Inverting Amplifier:Voltage Gain


The negative voltage gain implies that there is a 1800 phase shift between both dc and sinusoidal input and output signals. The gain magnitude can be greater than 1 if R2 > R1 The gain magnitude can be less than 1 if R1 > R2 vs  isR  i R  vo ! 0 The inverting input of the op 1 2 2 amp is at ground potential But is= i2 and v- = 0 (since vid= v+ - v-= 0) (although it is not connected directly to ground) and is said to R vs vo @is ! ! 2 and Av ! be at virtual ground. R vs R 1 1

Inverting Amplifier: Input and Output Resistances


Rout is found by applying a test current (or voltage) source to the amplifier output and determining the voltage (or current) after turning off all independent sources. Hence, vs = 0
vx ! i R  i R 2 2 1 1

But i1=i2
@vx ! i ( R  R ) 1 2 1

R ! ! R since v ! 0 in i 1 s


vs

Since v- = 0, i1=0. Therefore vx = 0 irrespective of the value of ix .


@Rout ! 0

Inverting Amplifier: Example


Problem: Design an inverting amplifier Given Data: Av= 20 dB, Rin = 20k;, Assumptions: Ideal op amp Analysis: Input resistance is controlled by R1 and voltage gain is set by R2 / R1.   AvdB! 20log Av , @ Av ! 10 40dB/20dB ! 100 and Av = -100     10  


A minus sign is added since the amplifier is inverting.


R ! R ! 20k; 1 in R Av !  2 R !100R ! 2M; 2 1 R 1


The Non-inverting Amplifier: Configuration

The input signal is applied to the non-inverting input terminal. A portion of the output signal is fed back to the negative input terminal. Analysis is done by relating the voltage at v1 to input voltage vs and output voltage vo .

Non-inverting Amplifier: Voltage Gain, Input Resistance and Output Resistance


Since i-=0 But vid =0
R 1 v ! vo 1 R R 1 2

and

vs  v ! v id 1

@vs ! v 1 R R v o ! vs 1 2 R 1 R v o R1  R2 @ Av ! ! ! 1 2 R vs R 1 1 vs R ! !g Since i+=0 in i  Rout is found by applying a test current source to the amplifier output after setting vs = 0. It is identical to the output resistance of the inverting amplifier i.e. Rout = 0.

Non-inverting Amplifier: Example


Problem: Determine the output voltage and current for the given noninverting amplifier. Given Data: R1= 3k;, R2 = 43k;, vs= +0.1 V Assumptions: Ideal op amp Analysis: R 43k; Av ! 1 2 ! 1 ! 15.3 R 3k; 1 vo ! Av vs ! (15.3)(0.1V) ! 1.53V Since i-=0,


vo 1.53V io ! ! ! 33.3QA R  R 43k;  3k; 2 1

Finite Open-loop Gain and Gain Error


vo ! Av ! A(vs  v ) ! A( vs  Fvo ) 1 id vo A Av ! ! v s 1  AF AF is called loop gain.

R 1 v ! Fv v ! o 1 R R o 1 2 R 1 is called the F! R R feedback factor. 1 2

For AF >>1, R 1 Av $ !1 2 F R 1 This is the ideal voltage gain of the amplifier. If AF is not >>1, there will be Gain Error.

Gain Error
Gain Error is given by GE = (ideal gain) - (actual gain) For the non-inverting amplifier,
GE ! 1 A 1  ! F 1 AF F (1 AF )

Gain error is also expressed as a fractional or percentage error. 1 A




1 1 FGE ! F 1 AF ! $ 1 1 AF AF F 1 PGE $ v100% AF




Gain Error: Example


Problem: Find ideal and actual gain and gain error in percent Given data: Closed-loop gain of 100,000, open-loop gain of 1,000,000. Approach: The amplifier is designed to give ideal gain and deviations from the ideal case have to be determined. Hence, 1 F! . 10 5 Note: R1 and R2 arent designed to compensate for the finite open-loop gain of the amplifier.  6 A 10 Av ! ! ! 9.09x10 4 Analysis: 1 AF 10 6 1 10 5 10 5  9.09x10 4 v100 ! 9.09 PGE ! 10 5


Output Voltage and Current Limits


Practical op amps have limited output voltage and current ranges. Voltage: Usually limited to a few volts less than power supply span. Current: Limited by additional circuits (to limit power dissipation or protect against accidental short circuits). The current limit is frequently specified in terms of the minimum load resistance that the amplifier can drive with a given output voltage swing. Eg: i ! 5V ! 10mA o 500;


io ! i  i ! L F

vo

vo

R R R R L 2 1 EQ R ! R (R  R ) L 1 2 EQ

vo

For the inverting amplifier,


R !R R L 2 EQ

Example PSpice Simulations of Non-inverting Amplifier Circuits

The Unity-gain Amplifier or Buffer

This is a special case of the non-inverting amplifier, which is also called a voltage follower, with infinite R1 and zero R2. Hence Av = 1. It provides an excellent impedance-level transformation while maintaining the signal voltage level. The ideal buffer does not require any input current and can drive any desired load resistance without loss of signal voltage. Such a buffer is used in many sensor and data acquisition system applications.

The Summing Amplifier


Since i-=0, i3= i1 + i2, R R @vo !  3 v  3 v R 1 R 2 1 2 Scale factors for the 2 inputs can be independently adjusted by the proper choice of R2 and R 1. Any number of inputs can be connected to a summing junction through extra resistors. This circuit can be used as a simple digital-to-analog converter. This will be illustrated in more detail, later.

Since the negative amplifier input is at virtual ground, v v 1 i ! 2 i !  vo i ! 1 R 2 R R 1 2 3 3

The Difference Amplifier


R Since v-= v+ vo !  2 (v  v ) R 1 2 1 For R2= R1 vo ! (v1  v2) This circuit is also called a differential amplifier, since it amplifies the difference between the input signals. vo ! v-  i R ! v-  i R Rin2 is series combination of R1 2 2 1 2 and R2 because i+ is zero. R R R R 2 v-  2 v For v2=0, Rin1= R1, as the circuit ! v-  2 ( v  v- ) ! 1 R 1 R R 1 reduces to an inverting amplifier. 1 1 1 For general case, i1 is a function R of both v1 and v2. 2 v Also, v ! R R 2 1 2


Difference Amplifier: Example


Problem: Determine vo Given Data: R1= 10k;, R2 =100k;, v1=5 V, v2=3 V Assumptions: Ideal op amp. Hence, v-= v+ and i-= i+= 0. Analysis: Using dc values,
R 100k; A ! 2 ! ! 10 dm R 10k; 1   Vo ! A V  V ! 10(5  3) dm 1 2    Vo ! 20.0

Here Adm is called the differential mode voltage gain of the difference amplifier.

Finite Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)


A(or Adm) = differential-mode gain Acm = common-mode gain vid = differential-mode input voltage vic = common-mode input voltage v v v ! v  id v ! v  id 1 ic 2 2 ic 2 A real amplifier responds to signal common to both inputs, called the common-mode input voltage (vic). In general, v  v  vo ! A (v  v )  Acm  1 2    dm 1 2  2   
vo ! A (v )  Acm (v ) ic dm id
 

An ideal amplifier has Acm = 0, but for a real amplifier,     Acm v  v   ic ! A v  ic  vo ! A v   dm  id dm  id CMRR   A      dm  A CMRR ! dm Acm
and CMRR(dB) ! 20log (CMRR) 10

Finite Common-Mode Rejection Ratio: Example


Problem: Find output voltage error introduced by finite CMRR. Given Data: Adm= 2500, CMRR = 80 dB, v1 = 5.001 V, v2 = 4.999 V Assumptions: Op amp is ideal, except for CMRR. Here, a CMRR in dB of 80 dB corresponds to a CMRR of 104. Analysis: v ! 5.001V  4.999V id v ! 5.001V  4.999V ! 5.000V ic 2     v  ic ! 25000.002  5.000 V ! 6.25V vo ! A v   dm  id CMRR    10 4   In the "ideal" case, vo ! A v ! 5.00 V dm id 6.25  5.00 output error ! v100 ! 25  5.00 The output error introduced by finite CMRR is 25 of the expected ideal output. 

uA741 CMRR Test: Differential Gain

Differential Gain Adm = 5 V/5 mV = 1000

uA741 CMRR Test: Common Mode Gain

Common Mode Gain Acm = 160 mV/5 V = .032

CMRR Calculation for uA741

Adm 1000 CMRR! ! ! 3.125x104 Acm .032 (d )! 20log10

! 89.9 d

Instrumentation Amplifier
R vo !  4 (va  v ) b R 3 va  iR  i(2 R )  iR ! v 2 1 2 b v v i! 1 2 2R 1 R R @vo !  4 1 2 (v  v ) R R 1 2 3 1

NOTE

Combines 2 non-inverting amplifiers with the difference amplifier to provide higher gain and higher input resistance.

Ideal input resistance is infinite because input current to both op amps is zero. The CMRR is determined only by Op Amp 3.

Instrumentation Amplifier: Example


Problem: Determine Vo Given Data: R1 = 15 k;, R2 = 150 k;, R3 = 15 k;R4 = 30 k; V1 = 2.5 V, V2 = 2.25 V Assumptions: Ideal op amp. Hence, v-= v+ and i-= i+= 0. Analysis: Using dc values,
R  R  30k;  150k;    ! 22 A !  4   2 !  1 1     dm R  R  15k;  15k;  3  1  Vo ! A (V  V ) ! 22(2.5  2.25) ! 5.50 dm 1 2
  

The Active Low-pass Filter


Use a phasor approach to gain analysis of this inverting amplifier. Let s = j[. vo ( j[ ) Z2( j[ ) Av ! ! Z j[ ! R 1 1 v( j[ ) Z ( j[ ) 1 1  R R 2 j[C  2 ! Z ( j[ ) ! 2 1 j[CR 1 R  2 2 j[C R R e jT 1 Av !  2 ! 2  R (1 j[CR ) R (1 j[ ) 2 1 1 [c [c ! 2Tf c ! 1 @ f c ! 1 2TR C RC 2 2  fc is called the high frequency cutoff of the low-pass filter. 

Active Low-pass Filter (continued)


At frequencies below fc (fH in the figure), the amplifier is an inverting amplifier with gain set by the ratio of resistors R2 and R 1. At frequencies above fc, the amplifier response rolls off at -20dB/decade. Notice that cutoff frequency and gain can be independently set.
               

jT jT R R R j[T  tan 1([ /[ c )] e e 2 2 ! ! Av ! 2 e j[ 1([ /[ ) R (1 ) 2 2   jtan 1 c  [  2   [  e [c phase R 1   R 1   magnitude   1 1 [ c  [ c         

        

        

Active Low-pass Filter: Example


Problem: Design an active low-pass filter Given Data: Av= 40 dB, Rin= 5 k;, fH = 2 kHz Assumptions: Ideal op amp, specified gain represents the desired lowfrequency gain. Analysis: A ! 1040dB / 20dB ! 100 v Input resistance is controlled by R1 and voltage gain is set by R2 / R1. The cutoff frequency is then set by C. R R ! R ! 5k; Av ! 2 R ! 100R ! 500k; and 2 1 1 in R 1 1 1 ! ! 159p C! 2Tf R 2T (2k z)(500k;) 2  The closest standard capacitor value of 160 pF lowers cutoff frequency to 1.99 kHz. 

Low-pass Filter Example PSpice Simulation

Output Voltage Amplitude in dB

Output Voltage Amplitude in Volts (V) and Phase in Degrees (d)

Cascaded Amplifiers

Connecting several amplifiers in cascade (output of one stage connected to the input of the next) can meet design specifications not met by a single amplifier. Each amplifer stage is built using an op amp with parameters A, Rid, Ro, called open loop parameters, that describe the op amp with no external elements. Av, Rin, Rout are closed loop parameters that can be used to describe each closed-loop op amp stage with its feedback network, as well as the overall composite (cascaded) amplifier.

Two-port Model for a 3-stage Cascade Amplifier

Each amplifier in the 3-stage cascaded amplifier is replaced by its 2-port     model. R R       in inC A A vo ! A vs  v   vC vA R R R R    outA  out in  inC  v Av ! o ! A A A Since Rout= 0 vA v vC vs Rin= RinA and Rout= RoutC = 0

A Problem: Voltage Follower Closed Loop Gain Error due to A and CMRR
The ideal gain for the voltage follower is unity. The gain error here is: A 1 CMRR GE ! 1 Av !   1   1 A  1   2(CMRR)   


v ! vs  vo id
    

v ! ic

vs  v o 2

vo ! A vs  vo 
    

2(CMRR)  

vs  vo  

 1  A 1  vo 2(CMRR)   Av ! !   vs 1   1 A  1   2(CMRR)   

Since, both A and CMRR are normally >>1, 1 1 $  A Since A ~ 106 and ~ 104 at low to moderate frequency, the gain error is quite small and is, in fact, usually negligible.

Inverted R-2R Ladder DAC

A very common DAC circuit architecture with good precision. Currents in the ladder and the reference source are independent of digital input. This contributes to good conversion precision. Complementary currents are available at the output of inverted ladder. The bit switches need to have very low on-resistance to minimize conversion errors.

Successive Approximation ADC


Binary search is used by the SAL to determine vX. n-bit conversion needs n clock periods. Speed is limited by the time taken by the DAC output to settle within a fraction of an LSB of VFS , and by the comparator to respond to input signals differing by small amounts. Slowly varying input signals, not changing by more than 0.5 LSB (VFS /2n+1 ) during the conversion time (TT = nTC) are acceptable. For a sinusoidal input signal with p-p amplitude = fc VFS, f e
o 2n2 (n1)T

To avoid this frequency limitation, a high speed sample-and-hold circuit is used ahead of the  successive approximation ADC. This is a very popular ADC with fast conversion times, used in 8- to 16- bit converters.

SAADC: Block Diagram

SAADC: Method of Operation