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Project Guide:Guide:Mr.

Naveen Singh Manager QA (SMS)


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Presented By:Rakesh Yadav (4636) Akash Sharma (4635) Manoj Sahu () Bhushan Sahu () Umed Diwan ()

Phases In Steel Making

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Blast Furnace
y

Hot Metal Chemical Composition C% Si% S% Mn% 4 0.8 0.06(max) 0.5

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Electric Arc Furnace


y EAF is prime station of SMS. It is melting unit
y y y y

of SMS. Its capacity is 40 ton. Decarburization & Dephosphorization of steel is carried out by oxidation process. Basicity of slag is maintained between 1.8 to 2.5 . Impurity of steel in the form of slag are drained out through slag door. Estimated oxygen is blow to get desired tap carbon.
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y y

Approximate 80-90% chemistry adjustment is done at EAF during tapping. EAF is backbone of SMS. Productivity of shop significantly depend upon the performance of EAF.

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Ladle Refining Furnace


y y y y y y

LRF is for secondary steel making. Almost 100% chemistry is met here. Steel purification and homogenenization is accomplished. Refining of steel is done at LRF through deoxidation and desulphurization. Continuous Argon purging of hot metal is done. Basicity of slag is maintained 2.5 to 3.0 to achieve FeO level less than 1%. Calcium treatment is done to change the morphology of inclusion.
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y y

Normal process time at LRF is 50-60 minutes. After the required alloy addition heat is transferred for CCM or VD as per requirement.

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Vacuum Degasing
y

A Vacuum Degassing System or Degasser is used in the secondary refining of steel subjecting molten metal to a vacuum to remove oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen to produce ultra-low carbon steel for the automotive, electrical, construction, and rail markets.Vacuum degassing is normally performed in the ladle and the removal of dissolved gases results in cleaner, stronger, higher quality, more pure steel.
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Degasser Principle: Principle:


Sieverts law:Dissolution of diatomic gasses in steel is directly proportional to partial pressure. [hH]^2 =Kp H2

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Sources of inclusion of gases:


1.Hydrogen : # By absorbed moisture associated with the raw materials (Lime) used in steelmaking. # By hot metal (25 ppm) and scrap (2 7 ppm).

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2. Nitrogen: # By atmosphere (Mainly) through air bubbles entrained during tapping. # By Nitrogen impurities of ferroalloys.

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3. Oxygen: # By Oxygen blowing in furnace. # By atmospheric exposer.

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Effects of inclusion of gases


y

Hydrogen :Hair Cracks. Nitrogen :Surface Cracks. Oxygen :Blow Holes & Pin Holes.

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VACUUM DEGASSING PROCESSES :


Vacuum degassing is practiced in the steel industry for several purposes. They are : y y y y y

To remove gases. To improve cleanliness by inclusion floatation. To produce steel of low carbon content ( < 0.03%) To maintain homogeneity of temperature and chemistry. To control pouring temperatures, especially for continuous casting operations.
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Vacuum degassing processes, in the broadest sense, refer to the exposure of molten steel to a low-pressure environment to remove gases (chiefly hydrogen and oxygen) from the steel. The effectiveness of any vacuum degassing operation depends upon the surface area of liquid steel that is exposed to low pressure and slags fluidity obtained from LRF. y Hydrogen and Nitrogen removal is a diffusion and partial pressure phenomenon. Oxygen removal is a function of chemical reaction of oxygen with carbon and the partial pressure of carbon monoxide.
y
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Introduction to VD of JNIL
y y y y y y y

Make METEC Consisting of six steam ejectors with three condensers for vacuum creation. VD also have O ring for sealing of chamber. Cover car with heat shield and flooding valve. Argon purging line. Wire injection machine. Emergency hole.
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Steam Line:Line:-

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Ejector valve opening sequence:sequence:EJECTORS TIME 1. 4+4A 1.5-2 min 2. 3A+3+4A+4 1 min 3. 4+3+2 2 min 4. 4+3+2+1 30-60 sec PRESSURE 735-200 Torr 200-65 Torr 65-6 Torr 6 -0.4 Torr
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Argon Purging:Purging:-

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Water Line:Line:-

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Holding time norms for different grades:grades:Grade 1.Ball Bearing Grade (SAE 52100) 2. Free Cutting Steel (12L14 & EN-1A) Holding Time 17-20 min

No holding Only 5 min VD process

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3. Semi Free Cutting Steel (EN8M & EN15AM) 4. Alloy steel & all carbon steel

No holding Only 5 min VD process 10 min

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Example For Ball Bearing Steel


Inclusion at LRFOxygen20-30 ppm Hydrogen- 1.52 ppm Nitrogen- 80-90 ppm y After VDOxygen10 ppm Hydrogen- 1.1-1.2 ppm Nitrogen- 50-60 ppm
y
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VD TREATMENT PROCESS
y VD treatment to be done after achieving vacuum of 1
y y y y y y y

torr for specified holding time. After VD treatment send sample for chemistry confirmation and take temperature. Feed Al wire as per chemistry required. Then add Ca-Si wire. Now add alloys as per chemistry. Add 120kg Of RADAX to prevent temp loss. Then send final sample and take temperature. Lift heat for CCM.
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Different Grades & Their Target Composition


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Grade:Grade:- EN1A(Free Cutting Steel)


# Liquidus Temperature:- 1516 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% At VD .07 1.15 .60 .275 .04

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Grade:Grade:- 16/20 Mn Cr5


# Liquidus Temperature:- 1509 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al%
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At VD .18 1.15 --.025 .2 1.06 .025


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Grade:Grade:- SUP 11A


# Liquidus Temperature:- 1516 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al% B%
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At VD .59 .85 ----.25 .85 .025 .0025


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Grade:Grade:- EN 353
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1511 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Ni% Mo% Al% At VD .16 .75 --.025 .25 .77 1.0 .11 .025

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Grade:Grade:- 12L14(Free Cutting)


# Liquidus Temperature:- 1516 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Pb%
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At VD .07 1.15 .050 .275 .04 .25


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Grade:Grade:- 15B25
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1507 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al% Ti% B%
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At VD .26 1.02 ------.17 .025 .025 .0027


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Grade:Grade:- 17 Cr 3
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1514 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al%
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At VD .17 .75 --.025 .2 .75 .025


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Grade:Grade:-SAE 19 Mn B 4
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1508 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al% Ti% B%
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At VD .25 1.05 ----.2 .5 .025 .025 .0027


35

Grade:Grade:- C-70
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1492 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Al%
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At VD .69 .75 .02 .02 .28 .015


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Grade:Grade:- EN 8A
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1502 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Al%
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At VD .35 .80 --.025 .25 .025


37

Grade:Grade:- EN 15A
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1491 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al%
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At VD .37 1.5 --.020 .25 .08 .025


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Grade:Grade:- EN 18C
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1498 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al%
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At VD .37 .75 --.025 .25 1.00 .025


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Grade:Grade:- SUP 7
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1470 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr%
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At VD .57 .85 ----1.95 --40

Grade:Grade:- SUP 9A
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1480 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al%
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At VD .60 .85 ----.25 .85 .025


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Grade:Grade:- 55 Si 7
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1474 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% At VD .55 .85 ----1.75 ---

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Grade:Grade:- SAE 9254


# Liquidus Temperature:- 1470 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% At VD .55 .75 ----1.45 .70

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Grade:Grade:- EN 8M
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1494 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr%
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At VD .38 1.18 --.15 .20 --44

Grade:Grade:- EN 18/41 Cr 4
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1498 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al% At VD .41 .75 --.025 .2 1.00 .025

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Grade:Grade:- SAE 1141


# Liquidus Temperature:- 1493 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al% At VD .41 1.60 .02 .085 .25 .13 .012

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Grade:Grade:- SAE 1541


# Liquidus Temperature:- 1491 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al% At VD .43 1.50 .02 .02 .28 .13 .025

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Grade:Grade:- EN 18D
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1496 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Al% At VD .40 .73 --.025 .25 .98 .025

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Grade:Grade:- EN 19/SAE 4140(WRM)


# Liquidus Temperature:- 1495 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Mn% Al% At VD .4 .78 ----.2 1.00 .22 .025

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Grade:Grade:- SCM 420H


# Liquidus Temperature:- 1512 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr% Mo% Al% At VD .19 .65 --.025 .25 1.00 .17 .025

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Grade:Grade:- S 55 C
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1495 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Al% At VD .55 .70 --.025 .25 .025

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Grade:Grade:- S 45 C
# Liquidus Temperature:- 1495 Deg. Chemical Compositions C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr%
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At VD .44 .75 --.025 .2 .025


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ADVANTAGES

Production of high quality steel. y High Control on chemistry. y Minimum defects.


y

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LIMITATIONS
1.Low capacity ladles Ladle No.
1-6 7&8

Capacity
39 to 40 ton (max) 42 ton

Solution:Placed order for 42 tons capacity ladle.


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2. Time consuming:VD is lengthy process, hence some times we have to hold the EAF. Because single LRF is unable to prepare heat. Solution:Ongoing project of second LRF, so that we dont need to hold EAF.

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VD ABNORMALTIES
1.Vacuum delay due to leakage. Actions:(a) Check point (b) O ring check (c) Smoke Test (d) Checking of spring of NRV(Non Returning Valve)

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2. Ladle lining erosion and puncher This mainly occurs in slag zone. Action:(a) Emergency hole (b) Lift the ladle in tilt position as soon as possible.

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