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CARDIAC DISEASE AND DEFFECT

Heart rate and cardiac output


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Rheumatic heart disease

A condition in which the heart valves are damaged by rheumatic fever. fever- an inflammation disease that begins with a strep throat valve is the most common site of stenosis warnings of heart failure include:

rheumatic Mitral First

-persistent rales at the base of the lungs dyspnea on exertion, cough, and hemoptysis
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Congenital heart disease


Can

be grouped into
Atrial Septal Defect Septal Defect

Let to- right shunt

Ventricular Pantent

Ductus Arterisus

Right- to-let shunt


Tetralogy

of fallot syndrome

Eisenmenger

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Left-to-right shunt
Atrial

Septal Defect a hole in the septum between the right and the left atria
Defect

produces a left to right shunt because pressure in the left side of the heart > right side well tolerated with uncomplicated defect

Pregnancy No

spefic treatment is recommended endocarditis is rare

Bacteria

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Left-to-right shunt
Ventricular

Septal Defect-hole in the septum between the right and the left ventricle
asymptomatic bt fatigue or symptom of pulmonary congestion occurs occasionaly endocaditis comon with unrepared deffect- antibacterial prophylaxis recomended

Bacteria

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Left-to-right shunt
Pantent

Ductus Arteriosus-normal circulation conduit between the pulmonary artery and aorta that fails to close prophylaxis recommended at the time of labor

Antibiotic

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Right-to-left SHUNT
Tetralogy

of Fallot-combination of 4 deffects;
septal defect aorta

pulmonary stenosis

Ventricular Overriding Right

ventricular hypertrophy

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Right-to-left SHUNT
Eisenmenger

syndrome- a cynotic heart condition that develops when pulmonary resistance equals or exceeds systemic resistance to blood flow and a right-to-left shunt develops. hypoxia occurs as deoxygenated blood that should go to the lungs is pushed into the systemic circulation.

Tissue

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Mitral

valve prolapse--the valve that separates the

upper and lower chambers of the left side of the heart does not close properly

-blockers (atenol or metoprolol) may be given for chest pain or dysrhythmias.

Peripartum and postpartum cardiomyopathy. symptoms of congestive heart failure. May appear suddenly to a woman who has been healthy

Anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent clot formation. Fluid restriction to reduce pulmonary edema and treatment of CHF

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Cardiac defects
Acyanotic

Pantent ductus arteriosus-the normal fetal circulation conduit between the pulmonary artery and the aorta that fails to close Septal Defect (ASD)- a hole in the septum between the right and the left atria increased in female and Down Syndrome Septal Defect (VSD)-a hole in the septum between the right and the left ventrical increased in male of the aorta- a narrowing of the lumen of the aorta, usually at or near the ductus arteriosus (results in increased left ventrical work)
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Atrial

Venticular

Coarctation

Cardiac defects
Cyanotic
Tetralogy

of Fallot- (most common cyanotic defect)

Pulmonary stenosis Ventricular septal defect Overriding aorta R ventricular hypertrophy

Transposition

of great vessels: Increased in females, IDMs and LGAs(1. the aorta is connected to the right ventricle instead of the left. 2. the pulmonary artery is connected to the left ventricle instread of the right.

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Source:
Murray, McKinney, and Emily Sharon. Foundamentals of Meternal-Newborn Nursing. 4th . Louis, Missouri: Saunders Elsevier, 2006. 675.

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