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Importance of Desalting Operating Principles of Desalting Desalter efficiency and its significance
Submitted by:

Inderdip Shere Suma Shettigar Suraj Shah Shraddha Potdukhe

IMPORTANCE OF DESALTING

WHAT IS DESALTING?

Removal of impurities from crude oil.

Contaminants are broadly classified into: 1. Water 2. Salts 3. Bottom sediments 4. Trace metals

PROBLEMS DUE TO CONTAMINANTS


Corrosion Damages refinery tower trays, pumps , lines and valves Scaling in preheat exchangers Poisoning of catalysts Excessive down time

MERITS OF DESALTING
Removes contaminants Prevents corrosion and fouling Saves energy Reduces maintenance Increases the capacity of CDU Stabilizes the operation

TYPES OF DESALTING

Single stage Double stage

TWO STAGE DESALTER FLOW DIAGRAM


RAW CRUD E

TO At mos Colum n

HOT TRAIN EXCHANGERS

RAW CHARGE PUMP


COLD TRAIN
MIX VAL E V

1ST STAGE

2ND STAGE

MIX VAL E V

WASH WATER TO FIRS T STAGE

WASH WATER PUM P

BRINE EXCHANGE R

CRUDE WATE R MIX TURE

METHODS

Settling
of chemicals

Addition

Electrical

desalting

STEPS:
Heating Mixing: emulsion Settling

CHEMICAL ADDITION

The Desalter removes contaminants from crude oil by first emulsifying the crude oil with chemicals and wash water to promote thorough contact of the water and oil. The salts containing some of the metals that can poison catalysts are dissolved in the water phase. After the oil has been washed and mixed as an emulsion of oil and water, demulsifying chemicals are then added. Solids present in the crude will accumulate in the bottom of the desalter vessel.

ELECTRICAL DESALTERS
Forming an emulsion Demulsification process:breaking of emulsion is accomplished by coalescing the small particles of emulsion.

When emulsion is made to pass through an electric field:


The particles of water become polarized Orientation. Random collision resulting in Settling

Electrical Coalescence

Dipole Coalescence
+++ ++ +

---+++ ++ +

Force of Attraction

----

F = K E2 r6/a4

Where: K = Dielectric constant of oil E = Voltage gradient r = Droplet radius a = Distance between

SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF ELECTRICAL DESALTING PROCESS


Electrical power Desalted crude oil

Desalter Pressure water

Crude oil Heat exchanger Mixing valve

Effluen t water

Heated to temp in the range 120-130 oC Water is added to the crude stream and passed through a mixing valve. The emulsified crude oil is subjected to high voltage (20000 to 24000 volts) electric field.

OPTIMUM PRESSURE FOR DESALTER

FACTORS THAT AFFECT DESALTER OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE


Crude Oil Feed Rate and Quality Temperature/Viscosity/Density Relationships Electrical Field Intensity Wash Water Rate, Quality and Flow Configuration

Factors That Affect Desalter Operation And Performance


Emulsion Formation (Pumps, Exchangers, Valves, Mixers) Control of Water Level and Emulsion Layers Demulsifier Technology and Addition Rate Mud Washing and Brine Recycle

Performance Evaluation

Desalting efficiency

Si - inlet salt concentration So-outlet salt concentration

Dewatering/ dehydrating efficiency Wi - inlet water content Ww - wash water rate Wo-outlet water content

Performance Evaluation

Mixing index

A optimum salt content. So-outlet salt concentration

Metal Contaminants

Metal contaminants such as


FCC Iron Cadmium vanadium

Jersey Nickel Equivalent Index 1000 * (Ni + 0.2V +0.1 Fe) Shell Contamination Index 1000 * (14Ni + 14Cu + 4V + Fe)

THANK YOU