Chapter 10 Product and Brand Decisions

Introduction to Brands and Products

Brand and product concepts Local, international, and global brands Product design issues Attitudes toward foreign products Strategic alternatives New product issues
10-2

Basic Product Concepts
A product is a good, service, or idea
Tangible attributes Intangible attributes

Product classification
Consumer goods Industrial goods

10-3

Product Types Buyer orientation Amount of effort expended on purchase Convenience Preference Shopping Specialty 10-4 .

Brands Bundle of images and experiences in the customer’s mind A promise made by a particular company about a particular product A quality certification Differentiation between competing products The sum of impressions about a brand is the brand image 10-5 .

Brand Equity The added value that accrues to a product as a result of investments in the marketing of the brand An asset that represents the value created by the relationship between the brand and customer over time 10-6 .

Local Products and Brands Brands that have achieved success in a single national market Represent the lifeblood of domestic companies Entrenched local products/brands can be a significant competitive hurdle to global companies 10-7 .

10-8 .International Products and Brands Offered in several markets in a particular region Euro brands The Smart car was developed by DaimlerChrysler for the European market.

Global Products and Brands Global products meet the wants and needs of a global market and are offered in all world regions Global brands have the same name and similar image and positioning throughout the world 10-9 .

we have the same corporate policies.Global Products and Brands A multinational has operations in different countries. We even use the same advertising—in a different language. We know Argentina and France are different. of course. We sell them the same products. but we treat them the same. A global company views the world as a single country. we use the same production methods. —Alfred Zeien Former Gillette CEO 10-10 .

Global Brand Characteristics Quality signal—allows a company to charge a premium price in a highly competitive market Global myth—marketers can use global consumer culture positioning to link the brand identity to any part of the world Social responsibility—shows how a company addresses social problems 10-11 .

Global Products and Brands Global brands are not the same as global products iPod = brand Mp3 player= product 10-12 .

Branding Strategies Combination or tiered branding allows marketers to leverage a company’s reputation while developing a distinctive identity for a line of products Sony Walkman Co-branding features two or more company or product brands NutraSweet and Coca-Cola Intel Inside 10-13 .

Virgin Holidays 10-14 . Virgin Television.Brand Extension Brand acts as an umbrella for new products Ex: The Virgin Group • Virgin Entertainment: Virgin Mega-stores and MGM Cinemas • Virgin Trading: Virgin Cola and Virgin Vodka • Virgin Radio • Virgin Media Group: Virgin Publishing. Virgin Net • Virgin Hotels • Virgin Travel Group: Virgin Atlantic Airways.

20. Citi 12. American Express 15. 21. 6. Coca-Cola Microsoft IBM GE Intel Nokia Toyota Disney 9. 22. 5. 4. 25. 2006 1. 19. BMW 16. 7.World’s Most Valuable Brands. Marlboro 13. 2. 23. McDonald’s 10. 24. Gillette 17. Hewlett-Packard 14. 8. 3. Mercedes-Benz 11. Louis Vuitton Cisco Honda Samsung Merrill-Lynch Pepsi Nescafe Google Dell 10-15 . 18.

Global Brand Development Questions to ask when management seeks to build a global brand Does this move fit the company and/or its markets? Will anticipated scale economies materialize? How difficult will it be to develop a global brand team? Can a single brand be imposed on all markets successfully? 10-16 .

to create global synergies. processes. and to develop a global brand strategy that coordinates and leverages country brand strategies 10-17 . and cultures to allocate brand-building resources globally.Global Brand Development Global brand leadership Using organizational structures.

and symbols that have the potential for globalization Research the alternatives of extending a national brand versus adopting a new brand identity globally Develop a company-wide communication system 10-18 . marks.Global Brand Development Create a compelling value proposition Think about all elements of brand identity and select names.

Global Brand Development Develop a consistent planning process Assign specific responsibility for managing branding issues Execute brand-building strategies Harmonize. unravel confusion. and eliminate complexity 10-19 .

Big brand requires less brain work (top) than weaker one. 10-20 Slide 11-90 . . .This Is Your Brain . .

Local versus Global Products and Brands: A Needs-Based Approach Self-actualization External/Internal Esteem Social Safety Physiological Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 10-21 .

Asian Hierarchy of Needs

10-22

Country of Origin as Brand Element
Perceptions about and attitudes toward particular countries often extend to products and brands known to originate in those countries
Japan Germany France Italy
French perfume

10-23

Packaging
Consumer packaged goods refers to products
whose packaging is designed to protect or contain the product during shipping, at retail, or point of use Eco-packaging is key because package designers must address environmental issues Offers communication cues that provide consumers with a basis for making a purchase decision

10-24

Labeling Provides consumers with various types of information Regulations differ by country regarding various products Health warnings on tobacco products American Automobile Labeling Act clarifies the country of origin and final assembly point European Union requires labels on all food products that include ingredients from genetically modified crops 10-25 .

Aesthetics Global marketers must understand the importance of visual aesthetics Aesthetic styles (degree of complexity found on a label) differ around the world 10-26 .

Product Warranties Express warranty is a written guarantee that assures the buyer is getting what he or she paid for or provides a remedy in case of a product failure Warranties can be used as a competitive tool 10-27 .

Create: Strategic Alternatives in Global Marketing Extension—offering product virtually unchanged in markets outside of home country Adaptation—changing elements of design. and packaging according to needs of different country markets Creation—developing new products for the world market 10-28 .Extend. function. Adapt.

Global Product Planning: Strategic Alternatives Product Same Different Communication Different Strategy 2: Product extension communication adaptation Strategy 4: Dual adaptation Same Strategy 1: Dual extension Strategy 3: Product adaptation communication extension 10-29 .

Product Invention Strategy 5 Important for reaching mass markets in less industrialized nations and certain segments industrialized countries • Hand-cranked radios for areas with no electricity • Total toothpaste by Colgate uses global benefit segmentation 10-30 .

How to Choose a Strategy Two errors that management makes in choosing a strategy NIH (not invented here) syndrome means managers ignore the advancements of subsidiaries overseas Managers impose policies upon subsidiaries because they assume what is right for customers in one market is right in every market 10-31 .

How to Choose a Strategy The product itself. defined in terms of the function or need it serves The market. defined in terms of the conditions under which the product is used. preferences of potential customers. and ability to buy the product Adaptation and manufacturing costs the company will incur 10-32 .

New Products in Global Marketing Pursue opportunities in competitive arenas of global marketplace Focus on one or only a few businesses Active involvement from senior management Ability to recruit and retain best employees Understand the importance of speed in bringing product to market 10-33 .

Identifying New Product Ideas What is a new product? New to those who use it or buy it New to the organization New to a market 10-34 .

The International New Product Department How big is the market for this product at various prices? What are the likely competitive moves in response to our activity? Can we market the product through existing structure? Can we source the product at a cost that will yield an adequate profit? Does product fit our strategic development plan 10-35 .

mechanical.Testing New Products When do you test a new product? Whenever a product interacts with human. or chemical elements because there is the potential for a surprising and unexpected incompatibility Test could simply be observing the product being used within the market 10-36 .

or a distinguished heritage. . A brand is defined in the text as a symbol about which consumers have beliefs or perceptions. promises. brand represents the relationship that marketing has established with a customer. What is the difference between a product and a brand? A product can be defined as a collection of tangible and intangible attributes. design attributes. and experiences in the customer’s mind that represent a promise by a particular company about a particular product. mystique.Let’s Discuss . The chrome on a Harley-Davidson motorcycle is a physical attribute. . Intangible product attributes include such things as reputation. as are cup holders in a minivan. In other words. 1. The former include physical features. and packaging. 10-37 . A more complete definition would describe a brand as a complex bundle of images.

Smart was exported to the U.Let’s Discuss . A local product or brand is perceived to have potential in a single national or regional market. and other markets. however. international. A typical Japanese refrigerator from Matsushita has three doors and a special chilling compartment for fish. . I International products or brands are those originally intended for a single home-country market or a specific geographic region. Coca-Cola’s Georgia-brand canned coffee is an example cited in the text. Vegemite is a vegetable food spread popular only in Australia. and global products differ? Cite examples. 10-38 . . GE recently experienced success in exporting full-sized refrigerators to Japan where consumers have responded favorably to the simple designs. marketers are aware of extension possibilities. The Smart car is an example of an international product. Once the European launch was successful. For example. How do local. it was specifically designed for the needs of the European market. 2.S.

. many brands include tangible aspects. packaging. company name. In addition. however. What are some of the elements that make up a brand? Are these elements tangible or intangible? The components of a brand image are shown in Figure 10-1. after-sales service.Let’s Discuss . the three-pronged Mercedes hood ornament. At the heart of the brand is a person’s expertise with it. . Examples include the contoured Coke bottle. 10-39 . 3. and attitudes of family and friends help define the brand. the brand name and logo. These elements are intangible.

Brands 10-40 .

For example. Customer preferences. . costs. 4. and environmental compatibility are all noted in the text as factors affecting design decisions. However.Let’s Discuss . Europe’s Single Market means a common harmonized standard for many products. country laws and regulations. 10-41 . This creates an opportunity for many companies to design pan-European products. product safety provisions in Europe are still established on a country-by-country basis. . What criteria should global marketers consider when making product design decisions? A standardized global product platform can offer potential cost savings. subject to remaining cultural differences between European countries.

Switzerland is synonymous with high-quality watches in various price ranges. few other consumer products benefit from an association with the former Communist country.Let’s Discuss . . is part of the appeal of Harley-Davidson. similarly. For example. Volkswagen’s “Fahrvehrgnugen” campaign from the early 1990s proclaimed the company’s German roots. Russia and the South Africa are two countries in which policy makers and business leaders have an uphill battle in combating negative country-of-origin perceptions. Similarly. How can buyer attitudes about a product’s country of origin affect marketing strategy? If buyers feel positive about a country. South Africa produces very fine wines at attractive prices. even though many of the cars it sells are assembled in low-wage countries like Mexico. “Made in U.S. While Russia is synonymous with high-quality vodka (a fact played up in ads for Stolichnaya). . 5. a company should consider playing up the country-of-origin in its marketing communications.A. but American consumers have been unresponsive even though apartheid has ended. 10-42 .

Identify several global brands. . As discussed in the text.Let’s Discuss . Nike has tremendous brand vitality. due in part to the use of celebrity athletes in its ads. Toyota. Was there potential long-term damage to the Coke brand stemming from the product recalls in Europe during summer 1999? 10-43 . . or Nike. Adidas. Sony. 6. Mercedes-Benz. What are some of the reasons for the global success of the brands you chose? Coca-Cola. Kodak.

Dynamically continuous innovations refer to products that share certain features with earlier generations while incorporating new features (e. Continuous innovations cause minimal disruption of existing consumption patterns and require the least amount of learning. . 7. the VCR’s impact is explained by time shifting: it freed viewers from programming schedules). Compare and contrast the three categories of innovation discussed in the chapter. Products that create new markets and consumption patterns are called discontinuous innovations (e.Let’s Discuss . Continuous innovation refers to products that are “new and improved” versions of existing ones and require less R&D expenditure to develop than dynamically continuous innovations.. Sony's Walkman).. Such products cause relatively smaller disruptions of previously existing consumption patterns. 10-44 .g. .g.

7. .Let’s Discuss . Which type of innovation do flat panel widescreen HDTVs represent? The Flat-screen TV is a continuous innovation although it represents a departure from the cathode-ray tube (CRT) technology. Thanks to innovative liquid-crystal display (LCD) and plasma-gas technologies used to manufacture screens for personal computers. sexy. brighter pictures. they enhance the enjoyment of viewing widescreen DVD movies at home. TV sets are sleek. 10-45 . . and cool. With their sharper.

bands.S. many foreign music acts need to secure a document known as the "P-1"-class visa. immigration specialists say: The traditional visa system isn't set up to cope with the new face of popular music. Repels British Invasion Immigration policy collides with surge of U. the British aren't coming.S. borders. To get into the U. scuttling fall concert plans This fall. Part of the problem.S. Immigration restrictions are stopping some popular United Kingdom acts from reaching U.. This visa requires acts to prove that they have been "internationally recognized" for a "sustained and 10-46 substantial" amount of time. .K.Headlines U.

BMW Marketing Innovation Consumer Target Marketing 10-47 .

10-48 . and costeffective way to reach the target audience is to eliminate waste coverage. The target audience is people with an average income of $100.000 and between the ages of 25 and 35. efficient.BMW Marketing Innovation The most effective. What is waste coverage?  A web-based campaign seemed the most effec way for BMW to minimize waste coverage and concentrate on its target audience.

BMW Marketing Innovation Because the competition started to imitate BMW’s advertising messages of outstanding quality. BMW decided they needed to come up with a unique way of reaching their target audience.  10-49 . BMW’s agency developed the concept “The Hire” series. Fallon’s responsibility also included the way in which these movies were to be delivered to their target audience.

as well as actors. BMW was willing to spend large amounts of money.  10-50 . or if it should be localized to adapt to language and consumer taste differences.BMW Marketing Innovation It was also questionable whether the campaign should be the same throughout the world. the company has not disclosed he specific amount. What do you think? In order to attract highly recognized directors.

and (4) anything else goes.BMW Marketing Innovation Here were the rules: (1) each short will have a different. (2) each short will feature a BMW and events will take place in the car. (3) the fulcrum of the action will be a nameless British driver played by Clive Owen. high-profile director. 10-51 .

10-52 .  They researched target consumers and discovered that the average time a potential customer pays attention to any given advertisement. but also likeable. which the brand needs to do to combat negative perceptions some people have based on old associations with the 80’s style yuppie arrogance”.BMW Marketing Innovation BMW also wanted to change its image: “one of the goals was to make BMW look not only cool. and discovered WHAT?  Prospective BMW consumers would spend mor paying attention to a product-related web site advertisement on television.

What are thoughts on this language decision?  The site was to focus on targeting the global customer: one uniform campaign for all 10-53 markets of the world.com.BMW Marketing Innovation Ergo. The movies as well as the product information available at the site would only be available in English. BMW decided that the campaign for “The Hire” would be mostly web-based.com. shown only at BMWFilms. BMW decided that the campaign for “The Hire” would be mostly web-based.  Thus. shown only at BMWFilms. .

teaser clips of the segments were aired on television.is this a concern? 10-54 . BMW placed advertisements in magazines.  The first segment “The Ambush” was shown f first time over a high-speed Internet connect would take the average consumer ten minute download the segment . newspapers. and special promotional CDs were handed out to potential customers at promotional vents. and other forms of printed media.  Short .BMW Marketing Innovation To raise awareness about the campaign.

000+ household income range.BMW Marketing Innovation It was known that the people who had highspeed Internet connections were also the people who met at least one of the criteria for being a member of the target audience. Once all five segments had been released on the Internet. 10-55 . and Powder Keg. The Fellow. The average income of a broadband surfer falls into the $75. After “The Ambush” came four additional segments: Chosen. BMW purchased infomercial time on Bravo and Speedvision to show off the series. Star.

figures produced by independent sources would be the only way to measure the success rate (posttesting).  According to Nielsen/NetRatings:    68% of the audience is male 33% of surfers fall between 35-49 years of age average time spent on the site: 6 minutes 10-56 .BMW Marketing Innovation Success Measure Because revenue growth cannot be attributed directly to the web-based campaign.

000 unique viewers  Average time spent: seven minutes  Second month. do you believe that the program was a 10-57 success or not? .000 unique viewers. the site attracted 787.BMW Marketing Innovation Success Measure According to web tracker Jupiter Media Metrix:  During its first month. six million people downloaded the movies Based on the above figures for the BMWFilms. the site attracted 856.com campaign. average time spent: 16 minutes  Within the first three months of the launch.

it was done in a way that effectively minimized waste coverage.  Free publicity came in the form of many major periodicals writing about the campaign and its new form of product advertisement.  Additionally. which further sparked the curiosity of consumers. showroom traffic increased as present owners and “suspects’ visited dealerships to obtain their own copies of the DVD. A lot of free publicity came in the form of many major magazines. 10-58 .BMW Marketing Innovation BMW believes that the series not only showed off the product in a way that was not just the average commercial.

in the same breath.  The Season One directors were:  Ambush: John Frankenheimer    Chosen: Ang Lee The Follow: Wong Kar-Wai (aka WKW) Star: Guy Ritchie  Powder Keg: Alejandro González Iñárritu 10-59 . BMW ended up spending less than the average marketing campaign and. probably created better public relations and consequent sales than any other car campaign ever has.BMW Marketing Innovation Many ad gurus think that by giving each director final cut and a seven-figure ( ! ) budget.

The movies were viewed over 11 million times in four months and over 100 million times over the next 4 1/2 years until its end In 2005.BMW Marketing Innovation Success Measure BMW saw their 2001 sales numbers go up 12% from the previous year. Two million people registered with the website and a large majority of users who registered to the site sent film links to their friends and family causing the site to go  viral. 10-60 .

Jim McDowell: “I’m positive there will always be traditional advertising.” he says.” 10-61  . what does BMW see as the future impact of the success of BMWFilms.com? BMW’s CMO. It’s a situation of horses for courses-you pick the one that’s best for the task at hand and you use it in a way that maximizes its strengths.BMW Marketing Innovation End Discussion BMW came under criticism by some of the media for turning advertising into entertainment via product placement. Now that BMW is seen by some as playing Frankenstein with the DNA of marketing communications. “and new ways of communicating.

And. . now . . …where the rubber meets the road 10-62 .

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