Chapter 10 Product and Brand Decisions

Introduction to Brands and Products

Brand and product concepts Local, international, and global brands Product design issues Attitudes toward foreign products Strategic alternatives New product issues
10-2

Basic Product Concepts
A product is a good, service, or idea
Tangible attributes Intangible attributes

Product classification
Consumer goods Industrial goods

10-3

Product Types Buyer orientation Amount of effort expended on purchase Convenience Preference Shopping Specialty 10-4 .

Brands Bundle of images and experiences in the customer’s mind A promise made by a particular company about a particular product A quality certification Differentiation between competing products The sum of impressions about a brand is the brand image 10-5 .

Brand Equity The added value that accrues to a product as a result of investments in the marketing of the brand An asset that represents the value created by the relationship between the brand and customer over time 10-6 .

Local Products and Brands Brands that have achieved success in a single national market Represent the lifeblood of domestic companies Entrenched local products/brands can be a significant competitive hurdle to global companies 10-7 .

International Products and Brands Offered in several markets in a particular region Euro brands The Smart car was developed by DaimlerChrysler for the European market. 10-8 .

Global Products and Brands Global products meet the wants and needs of a global market and are offered in all world regions Global brands have the same name and similar image and positioning throughout the world 10-9 .

—Alfred Zeien Former Gillette CEO 10-10 . A global company views the world as a single country. of course. we use the same production methods. We sell them the same products. We even use the same advertising—in a different language. We know Argentina and France are different. we have the same corporate policies. but we treat them the same.Global Products and Brands A multinational has operations in different countries.

Global Brand Characteristics Quality signal—allows a company to charge a premium price in a highly competitive market Global myth—marketers can use global consumer culture positioning to link the brand identity to any part of the world Social responsibility—shows how a company addresses social problems 10-11 .

Global Products and Brands Global brands are not the same as global products iPod = brand Mp3 player= product 10-12 .

Branding Strategies Combination or tiered branding allows marketers to leverage a company’s reputation while developing a distinctive identity for a line of products Sony Walkman Co-branding features two or more company or product brands NutraSweet and Coca-Cola Intel Inside 10-13 .

Brand Extension Brand acts as an umbrella for new products Ex: The Virgin Group • Virgin Entertainment: Virgin Mega-stores and MGM Cinemas • Virgin Trading: Virgin Cola and Virgin Vodka • Virgin Radio • Virgin Media Group: Virgin Publishing. Virgin Television. Virgin Holidays 10-14 . Virgin Net • Virgin Hotels • Virgin Travel Group: Virgin Atlantic Airways.

7. 24. Louis Vuitton Cisco Honda Samsung Merrill-Lynch Pepsi Nescafe Google Dell 10-15 . 4. 22. Coca-Cola Microsoft IBM GE Intel Nokia Toyota Disney 9. 20. Citi 12. Marlboro 13. Mercedes-Benz 11. 8. Hewlett-Packard 14. 21.World’s Most Valuable Brands. 2006 1. 25. 23. 3. 5. 18. McDonald’s 10. 2. 6. BMW 16. Gillette 17. American Express 15. 19.

Global Brand Development Questions to ask when management seeks to build a global brand Does this move fit the company and/or its markets? Will anticipated scale economies materialize? How difficult will it be to develop a global brand team? Can a single brand be imposed on all markets successfully? 10-16 .

Global Brand Development Global brand leadership Using organizational structures. and cultures to allocate brand-building resources globally. and to develop a global brand strategy that coordinates and leverages country brand strategies 10-17 . to create global synergies. processes.

Global Brand Development Create a compelling value proposition Think about all elements of brand identity and select names. marks. and symbols that have the potential for globalization Research the alternatives of extending a national brand versus adopting a new brand identity globally Develop a company-wide communication system 10-18 .

and eliminate complexity 10-19 . unravel confusion.Global Brand Development Develop a consistent planning process Assign specific responsibility for managing branding issues Execute brand-building strategies Harmonize.

. Big brand requires less brain work (top) than weaker one. 10-20 Slide 11-90 . .This Is Your Brain . .

Local versus Global Products and Brands: A Needs-Based Approach Self-actualization External/Internal Esteem Social Safety Physiological Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 10-21 .

Asian Hierarchy of Needs

10-22

Country of Origin as Brand Element
Perceptions about and attitudes toward particular countries often extend to products and brands known to originate in those countries
Japan Germany France Italy
French perfume

10-23

Packaging
Consumer packaged goods refers to products
whose packaging is designed to protect or contain the product during shipping, at retail, or point of use Eco-packaging is key because package designers must address environmental issues Offers communication cues that provide consumers with a basis for making a purchase decision

10-24

Labeling Provides consumers with various types of information Regulations differ by country regarding various products Health warnings on tobacco products American Automobile Labeling Act clarifies the country of origin and final assembly point European Union requires labels on all food products that include ingredients from genetically modified crops 10-25 .

Aesthetics Global marketers must understand the importance of visual aesthetics Aesthetic styles (degree of complexity found on a label) differ around the world 10-26 .

Product Warranties Express warranty is a written guarantee that assures the buyer is getting what he or she paid for or provides a remedy in case of a product failure Warranties can be used as a competitive tool 10-27 .

function.Extend. Adapt. Create: Strategic Alternatives in Global Marketing Extension—offering product virtually unchanged in markets outside of home country Adaptation—changing elements of design. and packaging according to needs of different country markets Creation—developing new products for the world market 10-28 .

Global Product Planning: Strategic Alternatives Product Same Different Communication Different Strategy 2: Product extension communication adaptation Strategy 4: Dual adaptation Same Strategy 1: Dual extension Strategy 3: Product adaptation communication extension 10-29 .

Product Invention Strategy 5 Important for reaching mass markets in less industrialized nations and certain segments industrialized countries • Hand-cranked radios for areas with no electricity • Total toothpaste by Colgate uses global benefit segmentation 10-30 .

How to Choose a Strategy Two errors that management makes in choosing a strategy NIH (not invented here) syndrome means managers ignore the advancements of subsidiaries overseas Managers impose policies upon subsidiaries because they assume what is right for customers in one market is right in every market 10-31 .

preferences of potential customers. and ability to buy the product Adaptation and manufacturing costs the company will incur 10-32 . defined in terms of the function or need it serves The market. defined in terms of the conditions under which the product is used.How to Choose a Strategy The product itself.

New Products in Global Marketing Pursue opportunities in competitive arenas of global marketplace Focus on one or only a few businesses Active involvement from senior management Ability to recruit and retain best employees Understand the importance of speed in bringing product to market 10-33 .

Identifying New Product Ideas What is a new product? New to those who use it or buy it New to the organization New to a market 10-34 .

The International New Product Department How big is the market for this product at various prices? What are the likely competitive moves in response to our activity? Can we market the product through existing structure? Can we source the product at a cost that will yield an adequate profit? Does product fit our strategic development plan 10-35 .

mechanical. or chemical elements because there is the potential for a surprising and unexpected incompatibility Test could simply be observing the product being used within the market 10-36 .Testing New Products When do you test a new product? Whenever a product interacts with human.

1. A more complete definition would describe a brand as a complex bundle of images.Let’s Discuss . promises. 10-37 . or a distinguished heritage. as are cup holders in a minivan. mystique. . The former include physical features. The chrome on a Harley-Davidson motorcycle is a physical attribute. . What is the difference between a product and a brand? A product can be defined as a collection of tangible and intangible attributes. design attributes. brand represents the relationship that marketing has established with a customer. In other words. A brand is defined in the text as a symbol about which consumers have beliefs or perceptions. and experiences in the customer’s mind that represent a promise by a particular company about a particular product. and packaging. Intangible product attributes include such things as reputation.

S. and global products differ? Cite examples. 10-38 . . . GE recently experienced success in exporting full-sized refrigerators to Japan where consumers have responded favorably to the simple designs. marketers are aware of extension possibilities. and other markets. however. Once the European launch was successful. The Smart car is an example of an international product. international.Let’s Discuss . A typical Japanese refrigerator from Matsushita has three doors and a special chilling compartment for fish. Coca-Cola’s Georgia-brand canned coffee is an example cited in the text. Vegemite is a vegetable food spread popular only in Australia. For example. 2. How do local. Smart was exported to the U. A local product or brand is perceived to have potential in a single national or regional market. I International products or brands are those originally intended for a single home-country market or a specific geographic region. it was specifically designed for the needs of the European market.

Let’s Discuss . packaging. the brand name and logo. and attitudes of family and friends help define the brand. Examples include the contoured Coke bottle. the three-pronged Mercedes hood ornament. . These elements are intangible. In addition. after-sales service. . 3. At the heart of the brand is a person’s expertise with it. What are some of the elements that make up a brand? Are these elements tangible or intangible? The components of a brand image are shown in Figure 10-1. company name. however. many brands include tangible aspects. 10-39 .

Brands 10-40 .

. Europe’s Single Market means a common harmonized standard for many products. However. Customer preferences. What criteria should global marketers consider when making product design decisions? A standardized global product platform can offer potential cost savings. country laws and regulations. 4. costs. subject to remaining cultural differences between European countries. For example. product safety provisions in Europe are still established on a country-by-country basis. This creates an opportunity for many companies to design pan-European products. . 10-41 .Let’s Discuss . and environmental compatibility are all noted in the text as factors affecting design decisions.

Switzerland is synonymous with high-quality watches in various price ranges. 10-42 . but American consumers have been unresponsive even though apartheid has ended.S. . similarly. . 5. a company should consider playing up the country-of-origin in its marketing communications.A. How can buyer attitudes about a product’s country of origin affect marketing strategy? If buyers feel positive about a country. South Africa produces very fine wines at attractive prices. Russia and the South Africa are two countries in which policy makers and business leaders have an uphill battle in combating negative country-of-origin perceptions. For example. Volkswagen’s “Fahrvehrgnugen” campaign from the early 1990s proclaimed the company’s German roots. few other consumer products benefit from an association with the former Communist country. is part of the appeal of Harley-Davidson. “Made in U.Let’s Discuss . While Russia is synonymous with high-quality vodka (a fact played up in ads for Stolichnaya). even though many of the cars it sells are assembled in low-wage countries like Mexico. Similarly.

Toyota. Was there potential long-term damage to the Coke brand stemming from the product recalls in Europe during summer 1999? 10-43 . What are some of the reasons for the global success of the brands you chose? Coca-Cola. . Mercedes-Benz. . Sony. Adidas. Identify several global brands. due in part to the use of celebrity athletes in its ads. As discussed in the text. 6. Kodak.Let’s Discuss . Nike has tremendous brand vitality. or Nike.

Products that create new markets and consumption patterns are called discontinuous innovations (e.. .Let’s Discuss .. .g. Continuous innovation refers to products that are “new and improved” versions of existing ones and require less R&D expenditure to develop than dynamically continuous innovations. Such products cause relatively smaller disruptions of previously existing consumption patterns. Sony's Walkman). Continuous innovations cause minimal disruption of existing consumption patterns and require the least amount of learning. 10-44 . Compare and contrast the three categories of innovation discussed in the chapter. 7. Dynamically continuous innovations refer to products that share certain features with earlier generations while incorporating new features (e. the VCR’s impact is explained by time shifting: it freed viewers from programming schedules).g.

Let’s Discuss . brighter pictures. With their sharper. 10-45 . . Which type of innovation do flat panel widescreen HDTVs represent? The Flat-screen TV is a continuous innovation although it represents a departure from the cathode-ray tube (CRT) technology. Thanks to innovative liquid-crystal display (LCD) and plasma-gas technologies used to manufacture screens for personal computers. TV sets are sleek. sexy. . 7. they enhance the enjoyment of viewing widescreen DVD movies at home. and cool.

Part of the problem.Headlines U. many foreign music acts need to secure a document known as the "P-1"-class visa.S. Immigration restrictions are stopping some popular United Kingdom acts from reaching U. Repels British Invasion Immigration policy collides with surge of U. scuttling fall concert plans This fall.S. the British aren't coming. This visa requires acts to prove that they have been "internationally recognized" for a "sustained and 10-46 substantial" amount of time. . To get into the U.S. borders.. immigration specialists say: The traditional visa system isn't set up to cope with the new face of popular music.K. bands.

BMW Marketing Innovation Consumer Target Marketing 10-47 .

10-48 .BMW Marketing Innovation The most effective. What is waste coverage?  A web-based campaign seemed the most effec way for BMW to minimize waste coverage and concentrate on its target audience. efficient.000 and between the ages of 25 and 35. The target audience is people with an average income of $100. and costeffective way to reach the target audience is to eliminate waste coverage.

Fallon’s responsibility also included the way in which these movies were to be delivered to their target audience. BMW’s agency developed the concept “The Hire” series.  10-49 .BMW Marketing Innovation Because the competition started to imitate BMW’s advertising messages of outstanding quality. BMW decided they needed to come up with a unique way of reaching their target audience.

What do you think? In order to attract highly recognized directors.BMW Marketing Innovation It was also questionable whether the campaign should be the same throughout the world.  10-50 . as well as actors. the company has not disclosed he specific amount. BMW was willing to spend large amounts of money. or if it should be localized to adapt to language and consumer taste differences.

and (4) anything else goes.BMW Marketing Innovation Here were the rules: (1) each short will have a different. (2) each short will feature a BMW and events will take place in the car. 10-51 . high-profile director. (3) the fulcrum of the action will be a nameless British driver played by Clive Owen.

which the brand needs to do to combat negative perceptions some people have based on old associations with the 80’s style yuppie arrogance”. and discovered WHAT?  Prospective BMW consumers would spend mor paying attention to a product-related web site advertisement on television. but also likeable. 10-52 .  They researched target consumers and discovered that the average time a potential customer pays attention to any given advertisement.BMW Marketing Innovation BMW also wanted to change its image: “one of the goals was to make BMW look not only cool.

shown only at BMWFilms. shown only at BMWFilms. What are thoughts on this language decision?  The site was to focus on targeting the global customer: one uniform campaign for all 10-53 markets of the world.BMW Marketing Innovation Ergo. BMW decided that the campaign for “The Hire” would be mostly web-based. .  Thus.com. BMW decided that the campaign for “The Hire” would be mostly web-based. The movies as well as the product information available at the site would only be available in English.com.

teaser clips of the segments were aired on television.BMW Marketing Innovation To raise awareness about the campaign.is this a concern? 10-54 .  The first segment “The Ambush” was shown f first time over a high-speed Internet connect would take the average consumer ten minute download the segment .  Short . newspapers. and other forms of printed media. and special promotional CDs were handed out to potential customers at promotional vents. BMW placed advertisements in magazines.

After “The Ambush” came four additional segments: Chosen.000+ household income range. The average income of a broadband surfer falls into the $75. and Powder Keg. The Fellow. Once all five segments had been released on the Internet. Star. 10-55 .BMW Marketing Innovation It was known that the people who had highspeed Internet connections were also the people who met at least one of the criteria for being a member of the target audience. BMW purchased infomercial time on Bravo and Speedvision to show off the series.

figures produced by independent sources would be the only way to measure the success rate (posttesting).  According to Nielsen/NetRatings:    68% of the audience is male 33% of surfers fall between 35-49 years of age average time spent on the site: 6 minutes 10-56 .BMW Marketing Innovation Success Measure Because revenue growth cannot be attributed directly to the web-based campaign.

do you believe that the program was a 10-57 success or not? . average time spent: 16 minutes  Within the first three months of the launch. the site attracted 787.BMW Marketing Innovation Success Measure According to web tracker Jupiter Media Metrix:  During its first month.000 unique viewers  Average time spent: seven minutes  Second month.com campaign.000 unique viewers. six million people downloaded the movies Based on the above figures for the BMWFilms. the site attracted 856.

BMW Marketing Innovation BMW believes that the series not only showed off the product in a way that was not just the average commercial.  Additionally. showroom traffic increased as present owners and “suspects’ visited dealerships to obtain their own copies of the DVD. 10-58 . A lot of free publicity came in the form of many major magazines.  Free publicity came in the form of many major periodicals writing about the campaign and its new form of product advertisement. it was done in a way that effectively minimized waste coverage. which further sparked the curiosity of consumers.

BMW Marketing Innovation Many ad gurus think that by giving each director final cut and a seven-figure ( ! ) budget. BMW ended up spending less than the average marketing campaign and.  The Season One directors were:  Ambush: John Frankenheimer    Chosen: Ang Lee The Follow: Wong Kar-Wai (aka WKW) Star: Guy Ritchie  Powder Keg: Alejandro González Iñárritu 10-59 . in the same breath. probably created better public relations and consequent sales than any other car campaign ever has.

10-60 . Two million people registered with the website and a large majority of users who registered to the site sent film links to their friends and family causing the site to go  viral.BMW Marketing Innovation Success Measure BMW saw their 2001 sales numbers go up 12% from the previous year. The movies were viewed over 11 million times in four months and over 100 million times over the next 4 1/2 years until its end In 2005.

what does BMW see as the future impact of the success of BMWFilms. Jim McDowell: “I’m positive there will always be traditional advertising. It’s a situation of horses for courses-you pick the one that’s best for the task at hand and you use it in a way that maximizes its strengths.” 10-61  .BMW Marketing Innovation End Discussion BMW came under criticism by some of the media for turning advertising into entertainment via product placement. “and new ways of communicating.com? BMW’s CMO. Now that BMW is seen by some as playing Frankenstein with the DNA of marketing communications.” he says.

…where the rubber meets the road 10-62 . now . .And. .

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