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RAYAT BAHRA GROUP OF INSTITUTES

A SEMINAR ON GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILES(GSM) & CCNA. TAKEN AT RELIANCE COMMUNICATIONS DURATION: 01 JULY 2011 To 30 SEPT. 2011

SUBMITTED TO: Dr. Charanjeet Singh ( H.O.D.) (Electronics & Comm. Engg.)

SUBMITTED BY: Arvind Goswami Prashant Thakur VII SEMESTER (Electronics & Comm. Engg.)

Company Profile GSM channels Location register Interference Numbering arrangement Advantages & Disadvantages Introduction to CCNA N/W Layers & Devices IP Addresses Ethernet Cabling Subnetting.

Reliance Group, an offshoot of the Group founded by Shri Dhirubhai H Ambani (1932-2002), ranks among Indias top three private sector business houses in terms of net worth. The group has business interests that range from telecommunications (Reliance Communications Limited) to financial services (Reliance Capital Ltd) and the generation and distribution of power (Reliance Infrastructure Limited).

GSM Network Structure

Mobile Station ( MS )
Equipment used by mobile service subscribers for access to services.

Mobile Equipment Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)


Mobile stations are not fixed to one subscriber. A subscriber is identified with the SIM card.

Base Transceiver Station ( BTS )


Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Wireless transmission Wireless diversity Wireless channel encryption Conversion between wired and wireless signals

BaseBand Unit: voice and data speed adapting and channel coding RF Unit: modulating/demodulating, transmitter and receiver Common Control Unit: BTS operation and maintenance

Base Station Controller ( BSC ) Managing Wireless network-BSS Monitoring BTS Controls:
Wireless link distribution between MS and BTS Communication connection and disconnection MS location, handover and paging Voice encoding, transcoding (TC), rate, adaptation, The operation and maintenance functions of BSS.

Mobile Service Switching Center ( MSC ) Holds all the switching functions Manages the necessary radio resources,
updating the location registration carrying out the inter-BSC and inter- MSC tender

Inter-working with other networks (IWF).

Home Location Register ( HLR )

Manages the mobile subscribers database


subscriber information part of the mobile location information 3 identities essential the International Mobile subscriber Identity the Mobile station ISDN Number the VLR address

Visitor Location Register ( VLR )

Dynamically stores subscriber information needed to handle incoming/outgoing calls Mobile Station Roaming Number When a roaming mobile enters an MSC area. This MSC warns the associated VLR of this situation; the mobile enters a registration procedure through which it is assigned a mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity, if applicable The location area in which the mobile has been registered Data related to supplementary service parameters

AUC/EIR
Authentication Center(s) (AUC)
Providing the authentication key used for authorizing the subscriber access to the associated GSM PLMN.

Equipment Identity Register(s) (EIR)


Handling Mobile Station Equipment Identity

Reasons for interference


Environmental factors: Terrain (mountains, hills, plains, water bodies, etc.); The quantity, heights, distribution and materials of buildings; The vegetation of the region; Weather conditions; Natural and artificial electromagnetic noises; Frequency; How MS is moved.

Numbering Arrangement
International Mobile Subscriber Identification number (IMSI)
It identifies a unique international universal number of a mobile subscriber, which consists of MCC+MNC+MSIN. 1) MCC: country code, 460 2MNC: network code, 00 or 01 3MSIN: subscriber identification, H1H2H3H4 9XXXXXX, H1H2H3H4: subscriber registering place H1H2: assigned by the P&T Administrative Bureau (operator )To different provinces, to each province H3H4: assigned by each province/city The IMSI of user will be written into the SIM card by specific device and software and be stored into the HLR with other user information.

Mobile Subscriber ISDN NumberMSISDN

It is the subscriber number commonly used. China uses the TDMA independent numbering plan: CC+NDC+ H1H2H3H4 +ABC

CC: country code, 86 NDC: network code, 135139, 130 H1H2H3H4: HLR identification code ABCD: mobile subscriber number inside each HLR

International Mobile Equipment Identification code (IMEI)

It will uniquely identify a mobile station. It is a decimal number of 15 digits. Its structure is:
TAC+FAC+SNR+SP TAC=model ratification code, 6 digits FAC=factory assembling code, 2 digits SNR=sequence code, 6 digits SP=reserved, 1 digit

Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN)

The MSRN is temporarily distributed to the subscriber by the VLR according to the request by the HLR when this subscriber is called. The MSRN is released and can be assigned to other subscriber later. CC + NDC + 00 + M1M2M3 + ABC CC: country code, 86 NDC: mobile network code, 135139, 130 M1M2: same as the H2H3 of MSISDN ABC: 000 -- 999

Advantages of GSM
GSM is mature. Less signal deterioration inside buildings Ability to use repeaters Talk-time is generally higher in GSM phones due to the pulse nature of transmission The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules allows users to switch networks and handsets at will GSM covers virtually all parts of the world so international roaming is not a problem.

Disadvantages of GSM
No full ISDN bandwidth of 64 Kbit/s to the user Reduced concentration while driving Electromagnetic radiation Abuse of private data possible High complexity of the system Several incompatibilities within the GSM standards

APPLICATION LAYER PRESENTATION LAYER SESSION LAYER TRANSPORT LAYER NETWORK LAYER

DATA LINK LAYER


PHYSICAL LAYER

HUBS SWITCHES

BRIDGES
ROUTER

IT IS A 32 BIT ADDRESS.

A IP HAS 4 OCTETS OF 8 BITS.


CLASSES OF IPV4.

CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C CLASS D CLASS E

0----127. 128----191. 192----223. 224----239. 240----255.

CLASS
A

OCTET 1
NETWORK BITS

OCTET 2 OCTET 3 OCTET 4 CIDR


HOST BITS HOST BITS HOST BITS 8

NETWORK BITS

NETWORK BITS

HOST BITS

HOST BITS

16

NETWORK BITS

NETWORK BITS

NETWORK BITS

HOST BITS

24

DUE TO LIMITED ADDRESSES OF IPV4, IT WILL

SOON BE REPLACED BY IPV6. IT IS A 128 BIT ADDRESS. IT HAS 16 OCTETS.

GROUPS
1. LINK LOCAL ADDRESS. 2. UNIQUE LOCAL / SITE LOCAL ADDRESS. 3. GLOBAL ADDRESS

Three types of Ethernet cables are available:

1. Straight-through cable.
2. Crossover cable. 3. Rolled cable.

CATEGORY 1 DEVICES

CATEGORY 2 DEVICES

ROUTERS, COMPUTERS, PRINTERS, FAX

SWITCHES, HUBS

STRAIGHT CABLES ARE USED TO CONNECT DIFFERENT CATEGORY

DEVICES
CROSS CABLES ARE USED TO CONNECT SAME CATEGORY DEVICES. FOR CONFIGURING A ROUTER, IT IS CONNECTED THROUGH ROLL

OVER CABLE TO PC.

CIDR(CLASSLESS
One larger network and

break it into a bunch of smaller networks of equal size.


Subnet Mask

INTER DOMAIN ROUTING)

Its basically the method

Value 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

CIDR /8 /16 /24

that ISPs (Internet service providers) use to allocate a number of addresses to a company, a homea customer. They provide addresses in a certain block size, something

THANK YOU