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GOVT GIRLS SEN. SEC.

SCHOOL SAMRALA
CLASS IX
TOPIC- LIGHT
INTRODUCTION

• Light, form of energy visible to the


human eye that is radiated by moving
charged particles.
NATURE OF LIGHT
• LIGHT EMISSION
When a photon, or packet of light
energy, is absorbed by an atom,
the atom gains the energy of the
photon, and one of the atom’s
electrons may jump to a higher
energy level. The atom is then
said to be excited. When an
electron of an excited atom falls
to a lower energy level, the atom
may emit the electron’s excess
energy in the form of a photon.
The energy levels, or orbitals, of
the atoms shown here have been
greatly simplified to illustrate
these absorption and emission
processes.
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
• The waves that
accompany light are
made up of oscillating,
or vibrating, electric and
magnetic fields, which
are force fields that
surround charged
particles and influence
other charged particles
in their vicinity
TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVES
• ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
• POLARIZATION
LASER
• A laser is a special kind of light
source that produces very regular
waves that permit the light to be
very tightly focused.
BEHAVIOUR OF LIGHT
• REFRACTION

Refraction is
the bending of
a light ray as it
passes from
one substance
to another
INTERFERENCE & DIFFRACTION
• Constructive wavefront, or
crest, from one wave
interference occurs when a
coincides with a wavefront
from another, forming a
wave with a larger crest.
Destructive interference
occurs when a wavefront of
one wave coincides with a
trough of another, cancelling
each other to produce a
smaller wave or no wave at
all.
OPTICS
• Optics, branch of physical science
dealing with the propagation and
behavior of light.
• .
SEPERATING OF WHITE LIGHT
IN TO COLOURED LIGHT
INCANDESCENT BULB
• White light, such as that produced by
an incandescent bulb, is composed of
many colors of light—each with a
different wavelength—and spreads
out in all directions.
• .
QUANTUM THEORY OF LIGHT
– Radiant energy has
a dual nature and
obeys laws that
may be explained in
terms of a stream
of particles, or
packets of energy,
called photons, or
in terms of a train
of transverse waves
(see Photon;
Radiation; Wave
Motion).
• .
ELECTRIC LIGHTING
• Electric Lighting,
illumination by
means of any of a
number of devices
that convert
electrical energy into
light.
TYPE OF LAMP
• A fluorescent lamp consists of a
tube phosphor-coated, starter, and
ballast. The tube is filled with an inert
gas (argon) plus a small amount of
mercury vapor.
COMPUTERIZED TRAFFIC LIGHT
• “Smart” traffic
lights can sense
and respond to
traffic because
of a wire loop
embedded in
the road.
Electric current,
run through the
loop, creates a
magnetic field.
REFRACTION OF LIGHT BY
DIOMOND
• The brilliance of diamonds is due to
their high refractive index, a measure
of how strongly a transparent
material bends light rays.
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