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Artificial Intelligence and

Knowledge-based Systems

Prof. Tatiana Gavrilova


Saint-Petersburg

Tatiana Gavrilova 2
Saint-Petersburg State Technical University
Intelligent Computer Technologies Department

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Prof. Tatiana Gavrilova

DSc, PhD, Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnic University,


Intelligent Computer Technologies Dpt.,
School of Information Technologies
& Consulting company «Business Engineering Group»,
E-mail: tgavrilova@gmail.com, www.csa.ru/ailab/TAG.htm

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Tatiana Gavrilova
Education:
1975 - MSc, St.Petersburg State Railway University
1986 - Ph.D in computer science at St. Petersburg State Technical University.
1996 - Doctor of Science Degree in Artificial Intelligence at the same University.
Research area: Knowledge Acquisition, Cognitive Modelling, Human-Computer
Interaction, Distance Learning.
Experience:
1996 - present:
present Full Prof. in Intelligent Computer Technologies Dpt at St.Petersburg
State Technical University, Head of AI Lab in the Institute of High Performance
Computing and Data Bases.
Membership:
Head of St.Petersburg Association for Artificial Intelligence, Member of editorial
board of journal “AI News”, chair-person of Programme Committee of Int. conference
PEG (Prolog Education Groupe), member of St.Petersburg Scientific Union.
Publications
More than 150
International co-operation
30 countries
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My hats

Lab
University

Consulting
company Trainings

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Course Outline
1. Introduction to Artificial intelligence
2. Knowledge and Data
3. Knowledge-based systems (KBS)
20 tests, 1 paper

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Motto

■I hear and I forget,


■ I see and I remember,
■ I do and I UNDERSTAND

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Test N 1
(who is who) (what is it)
McCarthy ? AI

Colmerauer Branches of AI

Turing
Knowledge Management
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I. Introduction to AI

1.1 Pre-history of Artificial


intelligence (AI): brief synopsis of
evolution

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First steps (not very serious)
■ Myths:
– God AMON statue, Egypt, 800 BC
– God Gefest made automatic people (“Iliada” by
Gomer)
■ Great names:
– Aristotle
■ Literature:
– Pigmalion
– Pinoccio

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Raimon Lully (12??-13??)

In the 13th Century, the Spanish philosopher and


monk wrote "Ars generalis ultima" (Ars
Magna).
He invented logic-mechanical machine
(“knowledge wheels”) with subjects and
predicates of theological propositions arranged
in geometrical figures.
This was the first recorded logical machine in
the history of mankind.
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Great names (pre-history)
■ Leibnitz
■ Descartes
■ Mill

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Mathematical and philosophical
ascenders
In the 16th and 17th century, Descartes from
France and Leibnitz from Germany tried to
formulate the “universal language of Science”.

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Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650)
■ Rene Descartes was a philosopher whose
work, “La geometrie”, includes his
application of algebra to geometry from
which we now have Cartesian geometry.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz
(1646-1716)
■ Founder of Berlin Academy, integral
calculation, tried to invent universal
methods for problem solving and to build
calculating devices (as Pascal did) first
summerising machine (1676).
■ He first understood the role of binary
system "Explication de l`Arithmetique
Binairy" (1703) . Only 250 later it will be
used.
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John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1870)

His impact to cognition theory and logics was


done in the book «Logics syllogistique and
inductive” in 1843. His other important
philosophic work in
gnosiology is “The survey
of philosophy of William
Hamilton” 1865.

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Hardware ascender:
Mechanical Calculator
■ It was in the 19th
century that
Charles Babbage
made the analytical
engine which was
the first mechanical
programmable
computer.

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XX century scientists that
influenced AI
 Turing (1912-1954)
 Shannon (1916- 1970)
 Ashby (1903- 1967)
 Wiener (1894-1964)

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Alan TURING (1912-1954)
 Main works in mathematical logics and
calculations. In 1936-1937гг. he
coined the term of abstract
algorithm equivalent
or calculated function,
later called Turing machine.
■ He is also an author of
famous “Turing” test.
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Ross Ashby (1903- 1967)

Psychiatrist, one of the founding fathers of cybernetics.


His main work is the book «Introduction to
Cybernetics».
Ashby invented homeostat – the self-organising system
that modelled alive world ability to preserve the state of
physiological systems..
Ashby's system is a sort of analogue computer that can
adapt and has target.
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Claude Shannon (1916- 1970)
His PhD thesis in 1938г.
was a milestone in computer
science. In 1947г. his main work
“Mathematical theory of
communication” was published.
The kernel ideas of that book were
laid into the foundations of information theory.
Shannon’s famous block scheme:

Source Coder Channel Decoder Receiver


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Norbert Wiener (1894-1964)
The word cybernetics was
coined by Norman Wiener
in his book "Cybernetics, or
control and communication
in the animal and the machine"
published in 1948.
Only in 1951-52 the first
electronic
computer was made.

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1.2. History of AI

AI - as a basement
of NIT
 AI Definition
 2 branches

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New Information Technology vs
Traditional Information Technology
Natural
Language Model Program Code
Computer

User
Domain Controller

Mathematician Programmer Operator

user

User Intelligent
Interface
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The term Artificial Intelligence was first coined
by John McCarthy in a proposal for the
conference at Dartmouth college in 1956.

In Moscow State University at 1954 a workshop


on “Automation and Mind” was launched by
academician Andrey Lyapunov.
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Artificial Intelligence: Definition 1
(by Minsky)
■ AI - is the science
of making
machines do things
that would require
intelligence if done
by men

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Artificial Intelligence: Definition

■ AI - is a branch of computer science aimed


at intelligent problem solving software
system development.
■ The interaction with such systems is
possible via natural language - like
dialogue.
■ AI-systems are based on knowledge.

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Two branches of
Artificial Intelligence
The two fundamental approaches are
AI

“Black box” or symbolic


Neuroscience AI

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Short history of AI
«Black box» Neuro-cybernetics
■ 50-60 - «maze ■ 50-70 - neural
scheme»(romantic) networks,
■ 60-70 – logical PERCEPTRON
approach ■ 70-90 - scepticism,

■ 70-90 – expert Lighthill’s


systems commission
■ From 90- industrial ■ 90- now - neuro-

AI computers, industrial
software
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Four Phases of Artificial intelligence
Phase I - Romantic period (50-th)

 Great enthusiasm,
 maze scheme,
 “toy” applications,
 computer plays chess,
 machine “translation”, etc.

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Four Phases of Artificial intelligence
Phase 2 - Logical period (1960-
1976)
•The scientists have generated the axiomatic approach
to problems solving. It was based on a set of axioms and
problems were treated as theorems to be solved.
•Resolution method by Robinson helped in automatic
proving of theorems.
•In 1973, Alain Colmerauer invented the PROLOG
programming language, which used the above principle.
PROLOG is used prominently in Europe and Japan.
• In 1965, Mc Carthy invented LISP, which was the first
language which did symbol processing instead of just
numerical computation.
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Four Phases of Artificial intelligence
Phase 3 - Knowledge based period (1976- 1990)

During this phase two famous knowledge based systems


MYCIN and DENDRAL were developed at Stanford
University, USA..

Phase 4 - Industrial AI systems (1990 – nowadays)

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Pyramid of Newell

Knowledge
Intelligence

Efficiency
Representation
Languages

Speed/
1970 - 1990
level

Programming
languages
ALGOL, FORTRAN
1960 - 1970

Assemblers 1950- 1960

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Situation and Prospect of AI Market

mln $ mln $
SW for AI
AI Languages
420 840
ES

650 NL-interface
230 Personal computer’s
languages Speech
270 recognition
20 Mainframe computer’s
languages 1986 1990 1994
1984 1988 1992 1996

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AI Market

mln $ Other Program tools


applications
Military 12% 16%
science Industry
10%
1570 Hardware
20%
Systems software 23%
620 for hardware
Medicine and 16%
13% Finances
education
1986 1990 1994 Informatics

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Situation and Prospect of AI Market

Gain % year
250

200

150 Europe
Japan
100 USA

50

0
1984 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 2000

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Situation and Prospect of AI Market

% from informatics market


35
30 30
28
25
20
15
10
5 5
0 0,16
1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

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Main IS Applications
Agriculture
Business
Chemestry
Communication
Computer Systems
Education
Electronics
Engineering
Environment
Geology
Image Processing
Information
Jurisprudence
Manufacturing
Mathematics
Medicine
Meteorology
Military science
Mining
Control systems
Science
Astronautics
Transport Systems

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350


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1.3. AI’s main research fields

Natural
Language
Understanding

Games
Intelligent
and computer-
robots
assisted
composition

New computer
Pattern
architectures
AI recognition

Knowledge-
Speech
based
Analysis and
systems Synthesis
AI
Software
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Artificial chess-player

http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/artificial_intelligence.php
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Robotics
The term ROBOT was coined by Karel
Chapek, Chec writer, who called artificial
workers as “robots”. “ROBOTA” – is a
term for “hard work”.

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Target Robots
Military Classifications
Manufacturing
Research Control
Home-purpose Mechanical
Hydravlique
Weight Digital
Heavy Perception
Middle Autonomy Antropomorphism Camera-eyed
Light Mobility Blind
Super- Embedded
Autonomous Hearing
light Stable
Human-like Other
On-wheels
Partly human-like Going
Abstract Swimming
Animal-like Flying
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Climbing
Machine vision problems
■ Clash between signal and symbol.
■ No recognition only reconstruction.
■ Knowledge/context (car<->road).
■ Compound ness.
■ Attempts: blocks->industrial objects->faces

->generalized objects.
■ Adding movement can help.

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Test 2
(robots)
?

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Test N3

Find regularity:

0 --> 1 9 --> 1
100 --> 2 2007 --> 2
45 --> 0 1995 --> 2
1 --> 0 45 --> 0
4 --> 0 27 --> 0
8 --> 2 368 --> 3
1986--> ?Tatiana Gavrilova 46
Test N 4
“Trains” problem
?

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