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4.

Knowledge Engineering
Outline
• Structure of knowledge engineering
• Theoretical aspects of knowledge
elicitation (psychological, linguistic and
methodological)
• Classification of practical methods of
knowledge elicitation

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 1


4.1. Definition and structure

Knowledge engineering
is a science about data and knowledge
acquisition, structuring and formalizing
methods and technologies for effective
intelligent and/or information systems’
development.

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 2


Main Stages of Intelligent System’s
Development
• Exploratory design & requirement’s analysis
• Data and Knowledge Acquisition
• Information’s Structuring (Conceptualization)
• Formalization and business-processes model’s
development
• Pilot Prototype Development
• Testing

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 3


Knowledge Engineering Structure

Knowledge Engineering

Structuring
Knowledge Knowledge
capture representation
Object-or. Process
approach approach

Modular Net
Direct Computer-aided

Acquisition Logic Frames

Elicitation Semantic
Discovery Productions
Networks
Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 4
Knowledge Engineering

Knowledge Capture : is the process of acquiring knowledge


from its source/ expert/ group of experts/literature (books,
documents, papers).

Knowledge structuring is the process of organizing the


acquired knowledge into the knowledge fields. Knowledge
fields shows the main concepts of the domain and
relationship between them.

Knowledge Formalizing is the process of transformation of


knowledge fields into knowledge base, which are xpressed
in knowledgerepresentation languages.

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 5


Where can you find data and knowledge?
Technological
and working
documentation

Industrial
Knowledge in the
technologies and
specialists’
business-processes
memory

Organizational Existing
framework and Drafts, maps,
positions’ sketches
assignment
Information

Partial
automation of Normative-
earlier software legal
generation information
Existing
electronic
archives and
Gavrilovadatabases
T. Course on KE, part 4 6
Misinterpretation problem
E xpert ’s Model Ana lys t’s m odel

Know l edge fi el d
1 3
w or ld
R ea l

4
Te xt/
Ex pert Messa ge

2 A nal yst
Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 7
«Expert– Analyst» interaction
100%
80%
70%
60%
in verbal form
Can present

40%
Expresses

30%

Realizes
Knows

Listens

Stores in
memory
expert analyst
Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 8
4.2. Theoretical issues of knowledge
elicitation

C. Gnosiological aspect

B. Linguistic aspect

A. Psychological aspect

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 9


A. Psychological Aspect of KE

Psychological aspect

Contact Level Procedural Level Cognitive Level

Personality & temper Time & pace Field independence

gender non-verbal components rigidity

age Place & distance Cogn. equiv. range

Style & method

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 10


Morning larks & night owls
circadian rhythms
Morningness Eveningness
■ + Easy to arrive on ■ + Good in evening
time work-related activity
■ +Regular scheduling ■ + More flexible
■ +Better sleep ■ - Hectic in the
■ - Badly do shifting morning and in the
rush

by Timothy Monk (School of

Medicine, Pitt)
Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 11
Non-verbal Components
Consideration
■ Pose (straight, openly, small droop, limply, visual contact –
between evasion and “stare drilling”) Egan, 1990
■ Mimicry(if it necessary you may be intolerable, but you must
smile)
■ Head movement (nods, back -arrogance, forward
-dependence)
■ Dress-code (better under-dressed, than over-dressed, expert +
corporative standard consideration Berceley vs Stanford )

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 12


Working distance borders

Intimate Personal Social Public

0.5 1.5 3.5

PROXEMICS

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 13


How to seat (SOBR)
■ Seat Straight before expert
■ Оpen pose
■ Slight Bias forward
■ Relax and hold visual contact

(по Egan, 1990)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 14


Test N 16. Make classifications
■ Milk
■ Cow
■ Paper
■ Water
■ Sea
■ Driver
■ Computer
■ Peace
■ Dream
■ Exam

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 15


Test N 17. Perception/attention
warming-up
8 expressions’ types:
•Joy
•Sorrow
•Disgust
•Anger
•Fear
•Interest
•Disregard, boring
•Pain

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 16


How to think?
“Six hats” method of thinking
(by de Bono)
red yellow white

Feeling, emotions, Logical positive, Information (neutral)


intuition benefits

blue green black

Thinking about thinking, Creative efforts, Caution, criticism,


reflective possibilities, growth risk assessment

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 17


Home task
■ Write down 6 comments on other student’s
paper under “6 hats”.
■ Choose your favourite hat.

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 18


B. Linguistic aspect

Linguistic aspect

Common Code Conceptual Structure User Lexicon

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 19


Test N18
(40 object’s properties)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 20


Test N19
Conceptual structure of a pen

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 21


Lingvo-cultural problem
■ Don’t speak to the driver (USA)
■ It is strictly forbidden for passengers to speak to
the driver (Germany)
■ You are graciously requested to refrain from
speaking to the driver (England)
■ What have you got to gain by speaking to the
driver (Scotland)
■ Don’t answer the driver (Italy)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 22


c. Gnosiological Aspect of KE

Theory

Empirical law

HypothesisHypothesis
Hypothesis

Generalized fact

Fact
Fact
Fact
Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 23
4.3

. Practical Techniques
4.3.1.Classification and Methods
of practical methods of knowledge
elicitation
4.3.2. Active and passive individual methods of
knowledge elicitation
4.3.3.Group communicative methods of knowledge
elicitation
4.3.4. Textological methods of knowledge elicitation

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 24


He who says, he doesn’t know;
He who knows, never says.

Lao-Tsy

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 25


4.3.1.Classification of practical methods of
knowledge elicitation

KE Techniques

Communicative Textological

- Document Analysis
Groupe Individual
- Literature Analysis
- Round Table
- Brain Storm Passive Active
- Games - Observations - Interview
- Verbal Reports - Ques
Questionnaire
- Lectures - Role Games

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 26


What is the price of
knowledge capture?
■ Quizzes ■ 5-20$*Na
■ Interview ■ 5-100$*Ni
■ “Round table” (focus- ■ 500-1000$ *Nt
group)
■ Observation ■ 20--30$*No*T
(monitoring)
■ Consulting ■ 70-500$*Nk*T
■ Document analysis ■ 15-20$*T

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 27


Passive individual methods of
knowledge elicitation

Passive Methods Comparison


Method Pros Cons

Observations Expert is free from Lack of feedback.


analysts’ influence.
Analyst can see real
process.
Thinking aloud or Freedom of Fragmentarity.
verbal protocols expression for expert. Lack of feedback.
Decision making Details «noise».
uncovering.

Lectures Structured statement. Weak feedback.


Concentrated Good lectors
information. deficiency among
experts.

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 28


4.3.2. Active and passive
individual methods of knowledge
elicitation
Active Methods Comparison
Method Virtues Shortcomings

Questionnaire Experts polling Needs questionnaires


design Standardization designing skills
Easy for analyze Feedback unavailability

Interview Feedback, Long training


detailing opportunity

Games Right hemisphere Hard for the analyst


activation Techniques’ unavailability
Flexibility Hard to record
Scenario changes
opportunity

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 29


Interview procedure
■ Before: preparation by reading books and docs to learn the
fundamentals, appointment, planning, preparing questions,
choice of method, arriving on time.
■ During:
 Seating using SOBR,
 Introduction, explanation and encouragement,
 Making time-table of meetings,
 Doing and recording (pen-and-paper, audio-records or
video).
■ After: analysis and comments.

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 30


Asking Questions
■ Question wording, use only simple words
■ Question order (start with easy, funnel
sequence – from general to more specific,)
■ Construction of response categories
(absolute or relative ranking, numerical
rating scales)
■ Using visual and manual aids

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 31


Questions Classification
■ By form (open-ended, closed or multi-
choice)
■ Personal, impersonal
■ Direct, indirect
■ Extra (buffer or bridge, exploratory or filter
before branching, control)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 32


Training for Interview

Training

Common Special Specific Psychological

System Branch Communication


Interview Skills
Approach Study Technology

Common Cognitive
Culture Psychology

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 33


Test N20(Madrid-Nice)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 34


Test N21
(Intelligence service or
reconnaissance)

TEST

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 35


Test N22
(Interview)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 36


4.3.3. Group communicative methods
of knowledge elicitation

Group Methods Comparison

Method Virtues Shortcomings

• Objective knowledge
• High organizing
fragments
«Round-table charges
• Procedure’s revival
discussion» • Realization
• Knowledge exchange
complexity
between participants

• Reach profound knowledge


levels • Only for new
«Brain storm» • Experts’ activation research problems
• New knowledge (hypothesis) • Low efficiency
acquisition

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 37


4.3.4. Games

Expert games classification

Expert games

By number
Special tools usage Computer usage
of participants

Individual
Games with simulator Computer games
(with expert)
Group (role games Games without
Face-to-face games
in group) anything

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 38


Tatiana Gavrilova

Expert games comparison


Method Virtues Shortcomings
• Prompt decision-making
• Method’s lack
situation acquisition
Individual • High requirements to analyst
• Determination of information
communicative skills
being used by the expert
• Real situation
• Game methods background
• Emancipation
knowledge
Group • More objective knowledge
• Games development for
• Detection of logic particular subject domains

• Expert’s interest • Complexity


Computer • Dynamism • High costs on developing
• Attractive design

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 39


Tatiana Gavrilova

Analysts’ common mistakes


• Formal contact (“facade’s” level)
Psychological
• Dominance -subordination
• Cognitive structure’s intrusion

• Subject’s missing(« Application arrives.... From


Linguistic somebody to somebody»
• Synonymy («Agreement-convention-contract»)
• Semantic multiplicity (“The contract was hard for me”)

• Causal lacunas (“It is not always I can settle a


Methodical bargain”)
• Left «noise» (often, expensive, must, it’s clear)
• «It’s elementary, Watson»

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 40


Test N23
(Mafia)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 41


4.3.5. Textological methods of
knowledge elicitation
Text Compression Algorithm “4R”
■ Look-up Reading for “understanding” and
new words selection.
■ Reading and marking SKW (Set of Key
Words) and writing them down.
■ Reading and SKW linking into network
(knowledge field).
■ Reading again and field checking.

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 42


Test N24
(Knowledge acquisition from
text)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 43


4.4. Knowledge Structuring
Goals and Requirements
Level

Conceptual Model
Level

Specification
Level

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 44


What is structuring for KBS
Knowledge Knowledge field Knowledge base

Mess of Mental Knowledge


extracted models representation
knowledge models
Mind maps, concept Frames,
maps, semantic nets,
decision tables productions

Elicitation Structuring Formalization


Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 45
Any fool can know.
The point is to understand.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 46


. Knowledge Structuring Methods and Tools
Cognitive Aspects of Visualising Techniques

Visual organisation of subjective space,


the perception and evaluation of its
coordinates, colours and shapes are
different in RH vs. LH individuals. The
RH provides isomorphic reflection of
objects and scenes, while the LH
introduces an object into generalised
classes of phenomena and provides for
logical operations.
Therefore visual techniques and graphical approach activating RH
functions work as versatile cognitive tools for more transparent and
effective data/knowledge base design procedures.
Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 47
Visual mapping as cognitive tools
Concept maps help in increasing the total quantity of formal
content knowledge because it facilitates learners and developers to
use the skill of searching for patterns and relationship. This
organisational knowledge and the total quantity of formal content
knowledge facilitate meaningful learning and development.

Concept and ontology mapping provides a powerful tool for


both learning, assessment of that learning and design of different
complex applications like expert systems and hypertext tutorials.
The integration of concept mapping software programs as one of a
suite of knowledge representation tools embedded in constructivist
learning environments will be much more successful than their use
in the context of traditional teacher-centred pedagogues.

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 48


Knowledge structuring methods

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 49


Knowledge structuring

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 50


Main structuring laddering methods

Structuring methods

Two-fold
Top-down Bottom-up

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 51


Minimal Structuring Algorithm

{R}
{X} {Y}
■ Goals or outputs {Y}
■ Glossary of input factors {X}
■ Conceptual Structure (Sc - ontology)
■ Functional Structure {R}( Sf - decision
table or reasoning model R)
Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 52
Conceptual Structure (WHAT?)

A
C
S
A
F
W D N
D B
L
H G W R S U C G M
E
M
R U
N H L F B E

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 53


Functional Structure (How)
■ Decision Table
x1 x2 x3 xn y p

Color of Police- Cars … Choice Uncer-


Lights man tainty
red stop 0.9

yellow far far go 0.7

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 54


Test N25
Decision Table “How to buy a pen”

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 55


Test N26
Concept design

Name, please,
•Your 5 main skills
•Your 5 main abilities
•Your 5 main achievements

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 56


Test N27
Relationship design –
Associative chains

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 57


Constructing of Associative Links

■ Cloud-table (cloud-sky, sky-ground, ground


-house, house-furniture, furniture-table)
■ Table - moon
■ Mushroom- airplane
■ Ice – hair-dryer
■ Firewood – dance
■ Boat - hand watch

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 58


Test N28
(Structuring your domain)

TEST

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 59


Object-structured approach bases on:

Synthesis
of several approaches

Knowledge Structured
OOP + +
mapping analysis

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 60


Object-Structured Analysis
•s1 WHAT_FOR-Knowledge: Strategic Analysis of the System, its
Intention and Functioning.
•s2 WHO-Knowledge: Organisational Analysis of System
Developers Team.
•s3 WHAT-Knowledge: Conceptual Analysis of Subject Domain
Revealing Concepts and Relationships between them.
•s4 HOW-TO-Knowledge: Functional Analysis: Hypotheses and the
Models of Decision Making.
•s5 WHERE-Knowledge: Spatial Analysis: Environment,
Communications, etc.
•s6 WHEN-Knowledge: Temporal Analysis: Schedules, Time
Constraints, etc.
•s7 WHY-Knowledge: Causal Analysis: Explanation System.
•s8 HOW-MUCH-Knowledge: Economical Analysis: Resources,
Losses, Incomes, Revenue, SWAT, etc.

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 61


Object-Structured Analysis’ Matrix

Level Domain Problem Subproblem


Stratum Level u1 Level u2 Level u3 ........ un
Strategic Analysis s1 E11 E21 E31 Ei1 En1
Organisational Analysis E21
s2
Conceptual Analysis s3 E31
Functional Analysis s4 E41
Spatial Analysis s5 E51
Temporal Analysis s6 E61
Causal Analysis s7 E71
Economical Analysis s8 E81
..... Eij
sm Em1 Emn

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 62


Object-Structured Analysis’ Matrix for Personal
Medical Advisor in Pneumonia
Level Health Lung Auto-
Stratum Cosult- Deseases diagnostics ........ un
ing of Pneumo-
nia
Strategic Analysis s1 E11 E21 E31 Ei1 En1
Organisational Analysis E21
s2
Conceptual Analysis s3 E31 X
Functional Analysis s4 E41 X
Spatial Analysis s5 E51
Temporal Analysis s6 E61
Causal Analysis s7 E71 X
Economical Analysis s8 E81
..... Eij
sm Em1 Emn

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 63


Test N29
(OSA on the base of interview)

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 64


Visual design of knowledge
bases and hypertexts
CAKE - Computer Aided Knowledge Engineering

Hypertext Panel

Conceptual
Structure
Panel

Functional
Structure
Panel

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 65


Visual design of knowledge
bases and hypertexts
CAKE (Computer Aided Knowledge Engineering) is a
program tool of visual knowledge structuring for
intelliugent and learning systems development. It is
internded for knowledge engineers and systems anylysers
- designers of information systems in the different subject
domains.
CAKE helps to organize visual knowledge specification
that can be compiled into the expert system prototype for
better testing. Such approach reduces the development
cycle of industrial intelligent system development.

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 66


CAKE-interface

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 67


Knowledge
Representation
Software Tools
Acquisition Methods
Structuring
engineering

methods

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 Acquisition


Methods
Structuring methods
Representation
The main mistake in knowledge

Software Tools
68
Knowledge Engineering Tools
• first generation of KE tools - early 80-ies - the reconstruction of
semantic space of human expertise and repertory grid-centred
tools Expertise Transfer System (ETS) [Boose, 1986], AQUINAS
[Boose, Shema, Bradshaw, 1989; Gaines, 1986] and others.
• second generation KE tools - visual knowledge engineering -
(90-ies) provides ideas of CASE technology to AI [Aussenac-
Gilles, Natta, 1993; Eisenstadt, Domingue,Motta, 1991].
• new generation of KE tools - special tools that help knowledge
capture and structuring - last 5-7 years - KA tools that help to cut
down the revise and review cycle time and to refine, structure and
test human knowledge and expertise in the form of ontology
[PROTEGE, WebOnto, OntoEdit].
Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 69
Analyst's Motto (triad):

■From acquisition
■Via structuring
■To formalization !

Gavrilova T. Course on KE, part 4 70