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# Multi-rate Digital

Signal Processing
Dr Suprava Patnaik
Pending Topics

- Decimation
- Interpolation

## Multistage decimation and interpolation

Poly-phase Filtering

## Filter banks and wavelet transform

23
rd
and 25
th
Tutorial (Assignment & class
performance evaluation- 25 marks)

## Midtest(30)+ End test(50)

Why Multi-rate Processing

## Multirate signal processing deals with a change in

sampling rate for discrete signals.

## Multirate signal processing is used for the practical

applications in signal processing to save costs,
processing time, for compression, feature extraction,
device compatibility and many other practical reasons.
Basic Sampling Rate Alteration Devices Basic Sampling Rate Alteration Devices

integer factor

## Down-sampler Down-sampler - Used to decrease the sampling rate by

an integer factor
Up-Sampler
Up-Sampler
Time-Domain Characterization Time-Domain Characterization

## An up-sampler with an up-sampling factor up-sampling factor L, where L is a

positive integer, develops an output sequence with
a sampling rate that is L times larger than that of the
input sequence x[n].

## Up-sampling operation is implemented by inserting

equidistant zero-valued samples between two
consecutive samples of x[n]

Input-output relation

Block-diagram representation
] [n x
u
L x[n]
] [n x
u

'

t t

otherwise , 0
, 2 , , 0 ], / [
] [
L L n L n x
n x
u
0 10 20 30 40 50
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Input Sequence
Timeindexn
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 10 20 30 40 50
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Outputsequenceup-sampledby3
Timeindexn
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

## In practice, the zero-valued samples inserted by the up-sampler

are replaced with appropriate nonzero values using some type of
filtering process.

## This process is called interpolation interpolation

Example of Up-Sampling

X(n)=8 8 4 -5 -6

Y(n)=8 0 0 8 0 0 4 0 0 -5 0 0 -6 0 0, L=3
If T=original sampling rate, T
L
=T/L
f
sL
=Lf
s
( Folding frequency will increase by a factor L)

## After up-sampling, the spectral replicas originally centered

at f
s
, 2f
s
,. are included in the frequency range 0Hz to the
new Nyquist limit Lf
s
/2 Hz.
Equivalent z-domain equations
1
1
1
N
Z
z

_

+
,
1
1
1
N
Z
z

,
Time Domain figure
Is inserting zero equivalent to inserting some other value
Up-Sampler
Up-Sampler
Frequency-Domain Characterization Frequency-Domain Characterization

## Consider first a factor-of-2 up-sampler whose input-output

relation in the time-domain is given by

## In terms of the z-transform, the input-output relation is then

given by

even
] / [ ] [ ) (
n
n
n
n
n
u u
z n x z n x z X 2

'

t t

otherwise ,
, , , ], / [
] [
0
4 2 0 2 n n x
n x
u
2 2
[ ] ( )
m
m
x m z X z

Up-Sampler
Up-Sampler

In a similar manner, we can show that for a factor-of- factor-of-L L up- up-
sampler sampler

given by

## In the case of a factor-of-L sampling rate expansion, there

will be L-1 additional images of the input spectrum in
the baseband

## Lowpass filtering of removes the L-1 images and in

effect fills in the zero-valued samples in with
interpolated sample values
] [n x
u
) ( ) (
L
u
z X z X
j
e z
) ( ) (
L j j
u
e X e X

] [n x
u
Up-Sampling is responsible for spectrum compression and
presence of more than one image spectrum below folding
frequency.
Imaging( Removal requires
Interpolation/ anti-image filter)

## As can be seen, a factor-of-2 sampling rate expansion leads

to a compression of by a factor of 2 and a 2-fold repetition in
the baseband [0, 2].

## This process is called imaging imaging as we get an additional

image of the input spectrum

## To remove those extra spectral replicas, an interpolation filter

with a stop frequency edge f
s

## Normalized stop frequency edge is:

2
2
s
stop
f T
L L

4000 2500
3250
2
1
2 3250 0.2708
24000
cut off
c
f

2 1000 2 2500
( ) 5sin cos
8000 8000
n n
x n

_ _
+

, ,
Down-Sampler
Down-Sampler
Time-Domain Characterization
Time-Domain Characterization

## An down-sampler with a down-sampling factor down-sampling factor M,

where M is a positive integer, develops an output
sequence y[n] with a sampling rate that is (1/M)-th of
that of the input sequence x[n]

## Down-sampling operation is implemented by keeping

every M-th sample of x[n] and removing M-1
samples in-between samples to generate y[n]

Input-output relation
y[n] = x[nM]

Block-diagram representation
M x[n]
y[n]
0 10 20 30 40 50
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Input Sequence
Timeindexn
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 10 20 30 40 50
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Outputsequencedown-sampledby3
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Timeindexn
M
) ( ] [ nMT x n y
a

) ( ] [ nT x n x
a

T
F
T
1

## Output sampling frequency

'
1
'
T M
F
F
T
T

x[n]=8 7 4 8 9 6 4 2 -2 -5 -7 -7 -6 -4 with T=0.1 , f
s
=10
y[n]=8 8 4 -5 -6 T=3 x 0.1=0.3 , f
sM
=3.3
Precaution has to be taken to avoid aliasing due to reduced
sampling rate.

## After down-sampling new folding frequency

reduces by factor M.

## If the original signal has frequency components

larger than the new folding frequency aliasing
noise will be introduced into down-sampled data.

## To overcome this the original signal has to be

processed by a LPF before down-sampling,
which to stop frequency components above f
s
/
(2M) Hz.

## Normalized cut-off frequency is

2
2
s
stop
f T
M M

max
2
s
f
f
M
<
Anti-Aliasing filter
2 1000 2 2500
( ) 5sin cos
8000 8000
n n
x n

_ _
+

, ,
8000
s
f Hz
Down sample by a factor of 2. New folding frequency is 2000Hz.
Aliasing frequency introduced will be 4000-2500=1500Hz
Required Normalized Cut-off frequency of the filter is
Folding frequency is 4000
( )
2 1500 1/ 8000 0.375
c

Down-Sampler
Down-Sampler

## Aliasing is absent if and only if

as shown below for M = 2
2 / for 0 ) (
j
e X
M for e X
j
/ 0 ) (

Down-Sampler
Down-Sampler
Frequency-Domain Characterization
Frequency-Domain Characterization

## Applying the z-transform to the input-output

relation of a factor-of-M down-sampler
we get

## The expression on the right-hand side cannot

be directly expressed in terms of X(z)

n
n
z Mn x z Y ] [ ) (
] [ ] [ Mn x n y
Down-Sampler
Down-Sampler

## To get around this problem, define a

new sequence :

Then

'

t t

otherwise ,
, , , ], [
] [
int
0
2 0 M M n n x
n x
] [
int
n x

n
n
n
n
z Mn x z Mn x z Y ] [ ] [ ) (
int
) ( ] [
/
int
/
int
M
k
M k
z X z k x
1

Down-Sampler
Down-Sampler

where

where
] [
int
n x
] [ ] [ ] [
int
n x n c n x

'

t t

otherwise ,
, , , ,
] [
0
2 0 1 M M n
n c
M j
M
e W
/ 2

1
0
1
[ ]
M
kn
M
k
c n W
M

Down-Sampler
Down-Sampler

making use of
we arrive at
] [ ] [ ] [
int
n x n c n x
n
n
M
k
kn
M
n
n
z n x W
M
z n x n c z X

,
_

] [
1
] [ ] [ ) (
1
0
int
( )
1 1
0 0
1 1
[ ]
M M
kn n k
M M
k n k
x n W z X zW
M M

_

,

1
0
1
[ ]
M
kn
M
k
c n W
M

( )
1
1
1/
int
0
1
( ) ( )
M
M k
M
D M
k
Y z X z X z W
M

stretching of to

versions

## shifting each copy by successive multiples

of 2 and superimposing (adding) all the
shifted copies

## dividing the result by M

( )
jw
X e
/
( )
jw M
X e
Down-Sampler
Down-Sampler

Now
implying that the second term
in the previous equation is simply
obtained by shifting the first term
to the right by an amount 2 as
shown below
) ( ) (
2 / ) 2 ( 2 /

j j
e X e X
) (
2 /

j
e X
) (
2 / j
e X
Down-Sampler
Down-Sampler

## The plots of the two terms have an

overlap, and hence, in general, the original
shape of is lost when x[n] is
down-sampled as indicated below

## To ensure decimation process we must

first bandlimit the signal to
) (
j
e X
/ w M <
Down-Sampler
Down-Sampler

## frequency-domain properties of the up-

sampler shown below for M = 2 and 3
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Input spectrum
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Output spectrum
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Output spectrum

A complex
multirate system
multirate system is formed
by an interconnection of the up-
sampler, the down-sampler, and the
components of an LTI digital filter

## An interchange of the positions of the

a computationally efficient realization

To implement a
fractional change (L/M)
fractional change (L/M)
in the
sampling rate
sampling rate we need to employ
a cascade of an up-sampler and a
down-sampler

shown below
M L
] [n x
] [
1
n y
M L
] [n x
] [
2
n y

## A cascade of a factor-of-M down-sampler

and a factor-of-L up-sampler is
interchangeable with no change in the
input-output relation:
if and only if
if and only if
M
M
and
and
L
L
are relatively prime
are relatively prime,
i.e., M and L do not have any common
factor that is an integer k > 1
] [ ] [
2 1
n y n y
Changing sampling rate by L/M
Up sampler
Down Sampler
If L>M the system will not introduce aliasing
If M>L ,x[n] must be band limited to the new nyquist rate either intrinsically
or by a filter.
Changing sampling rate by L/M

## Since both operate at same rate, we can

select one of them.

## We choose the one with the lower stop

frequency edge and choose the most
demanding requirement for pass-band
gain and stop-band attenuation for filter
design.

,
_

M L
s

, min
Two other cascade equivalences are shown below
L
] [n x
] [
2
n y
) (
L
z H
L
] [n x
] [
2
n y
) (z H

M
] [n x
] [
1
n y
) (z H
M
] [n x ) (
M
z H
] [
1
n y

1
1 1
1
0
( ) ( ) ( )( )
1
( ) ( )
M
M
k k M
M M
k
Y z X z H z downsampler
X z W H z W
M

1
1
1
( ) ( ) ( )
k
M
Y z X z W H z
M

Linear Phase

## FIR requires less computation

1
0
N
m
m n x m h n v ] [ ] [ ] [

## If the decimation filter H(z) is an FIR filter of length N implemented in a

direct form, then
Now, the down-sampler keeps only every M-th sample of v[n] at its output.
Hence, it is sufficient to compute v[n] only for values of n that are multiples of M
and skip the computations of in-between samples. This leads to a factor of M
savings in the computational complexity
Now assume H(z) to be an IIR filter of order K with a transfer function
n
K
n
n
z p z P

0
) (
n
K
n
n
z d z D

+
1
1 ) (

## Since v[n] is being down-sampled, it is sufficient

to compute v[n] only for values of n that are
integer multiples of M

## However, the intermediate signal w[n] must be

computed for all values of n

## As a result, the savings in the computation in

this case is going to be less than a factor of M
] [ ] [ ] [ 2 1
2 1
n w d n w d n w ] [ ] [ n x K n w d
K
+
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ K n w p n w p n w p n v
K
+ + + 1
1 0
Multistage Decimation

On Board