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EGYPTIAN CIVILISATION

Egypt was one of the most stable and long-lasting civilizations of the ancient world

The first civilization that was discovered on the banks of river Nile, in Egypt was the Egyptian civilization. It is one of the most oldest civilization in the world. It was flourished over more than 3,000 years ago. Egypt was the first to give the female rulers.

Nile is the longest river of the African continent. The Stone age people lived on the Nile valley.

It has provided transport facilities by boats and ships.


Without Nile, Egypt would have been a desert.

Geography and Early Egypt


The Nile Most important physical feature in Egypt

4,000 miles long; flows through the Sahara Desert


Without the Niles waters, no one could live there.

Geography of Egypt
The Nile flooded every year Predictable floodwaters with spring rains Left rich, black silt Narrow band of fertile soil Became home of Egyptian civilization

Geographical Features
Delta
Egypts most fertile soil in Nile Delta Silt deposits at mouth of river

Cataracts
Nile afforded protection itself Flowed through cataracts to the south

Black Land of rich arable soil


Red Land unlivable but afforded protection

Currents and waterfalls made sailing impossible


Not an easy invasion route

geography affect

They lived in a narrow strip of fertile land where they could raise crops. It was surrounded by inhospitable desert, which would not easily support life.

The necklace

They manufactured many items from copper. They were experts in making jewellery. They produced attractive crowns and jewellery with ease.

The head ornament

Gold coins

SUN GOD - RA

OSIRIS

ISIS

HORUS

Sun god- Known as Ra or the chief god.

Osiris- God of death.

Isis- The wife of Osiris.


Horus was their son. Each God had its own temples and priests.

Papyrus plant

A reed (the pen)

Paper

Writing On the leaves of this Papyrus plant.

A reed was the pen which was used to write.


This Papyrus gave us the modern word

Two Kingdoms
First farming villages as early as 5000 BC

Northern Kingdom, Lower Egypt


Mild climate; cobra goddess worshipped Southern Kingdom, Upper Egypt Warmer climate; prayed to a vulture goddess

Unification
Two kingdoms unified around 3100 BC Upper Egypt ruler Menes conquered north Founded capital city of Memphis

Adopted both symbols, the snake and the vulture


First of 31 dynasties

The Old Kingdom

The Pyramids

Building Pyramids

Most famous symbols of Egypt Largest located near Giza

Took great planning and skill Ordered when kings took the throne Built from the inside out Not built by slaves Peasants required to work

Built as tombs for rulers


Hollow chamber for burial Treasures buried with them Deadly traps within

Design changed to smooth-sided over time

one month per year


Professional craftspeople like architects, artists

PHARAOH KHUFU

Pyramids are gigantic structures.


Built by Pharaoh Khufu. Took 20 years and 1,00,000 men to build.

THE PYRAMIDS

THE SPHINX

EMPEROR KHAPHRE

Structure Head of a man & body of a lion.

It was ordered to be made by Emperor Khaphre.


Carving Only out of a single stone.

After the death of a pharaoh the Egyptians mummified a body .

They wrapped the body with linen bandages. They looked after them very carefully. Provided all items of daily use.

Pharaoh Menes

The Egyptian kings were called as Pharaohs.

Pharaoh Akhenaten

Pharaoh Tutankhamen

Pharaoh Menes was the one who united Egypt and brought it under a single rule.

Pharaoh Akhenaten was an intelligent ruler and had great love for arts.
Tutankhamen was the third who succeeded the

The Pharaohs
The head of the government was the king Became known as pharaoh (great house) Had great power because he was believed to be a god Egypt a theocracy, a state ruled by religious figures

Egyptian Bureaucracy
Pharaoh could not rule Egypt alone Aided by bureaucracy, many of whom were pharaohs relatives Most powerful official was the vizier Hundreds of lesser officials kept Egypt running smoothly a government headed by the pharaoh, highly structured bureaucracy

The Middle Kingdom


Old Kingdom collapsed around 2100 BC

Warfare, economic strife for almost 200 years


New dynasty began Middle Kingdom 2055 BC
Strong leadership brought stability Trade with surrounding lands encouraged

Trade routes not always safe


Fortresses built along the Nile The Hyksos invaded, conquered around 1650 BC

the Middle Kingdom rise and fall

new dynasty came to power after almost 200 years of chaos; brought stability and economic prosperity; Middle Kingdom fell when Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos, who conquered Lower Egypt

The New Kingdom


Hyksos ruled almost 100 years
Not harsh, but resented
Defeated by nobles from Thebes who became new rulers of Egypt

Securing Egypt
Egypt could not rely on geography for protection Desert and sea not enough Had to build powerful military

First permanent army


Traditional foot soldiers Archers and charioteers

Created an empire
Egypt to rule beyond Nile Valley Headed south into Nubia

Adopted weapons from Hyksos

Also campaigns east into Asia

The Reign of Hatshepsut


Hatshepsut best known for encouraging trade Only woman pharaoh Wanted to be treated like any other pharaoh Dressed like a man, statues of her as a man

Monotheism in Egypt
Amenhotep IV, 1353 Worshipped only one god, Aten Banned worship of all other gods Built temple to Aten at Akhetaten

The next pharaoh restored worship of traditional gods

Ramses the Great


Egypt expanded empire
Fought campaigns in Nubia and Syria A new foe around 1250 BC Hittites invaded from Mesopotamia

Confrontation with Hittites


Ramses the Great led army Accounts of battle vary, but two armies signed truce Ramses married Hittite princess and conflict ended

Ramses rule
Reign marked with extravagant splendor Built more temples and monuments than other pharaohs Many political and artistic achievements

Egypts Decline
Ramses successors faced challenges to authority

Major invasions of Egypt


Sea Peoples devastated empires Ended Hittite Empire, weakened Egypts control of Syria

Egypt broke into small states


Many foreign rulers over next 700 years Libyans, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks Finally fell to Rome

Temples of Egypt

Over a long period of time, the Egyptians built numerous Temples along the Nile These impressive structures, with their huge columned halls and Pylon Gateways, were bu to honour the dead and worship local and national gods.

Temples were places where The GODS and their divine(great) energy could live in, separated from everything else in the world. According to the Egyptian creation legend, the first temple came into existence on a Mound of Land that rose up from the ancient sea, called Nun (priest). The first form of life to appear on that mound was a plant on which the falcon, Horus,(Horus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in the Ancient Egyptian religion, who was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times. ) first balanced. Another version of this story describes the Lotus flower as the first plant on which the sun emerged. Following this, human beings were created. This moment was called the First Occasion. As conscious beings, the Egyptians reciprocated by building temples to admire and nourish the gods. The design of the first temple was laid down by the gods, and each successive temple was a copy of the first one. The design encouraged the gods to bring divine energy into the earths plane. Priests worked at the temples, conducting the daily rituals in honour of the deities and pharaohs to whom the temples were dedicated.

Temples of Egypt
CULT TEMPLES For the popular worship of the Ancient and mysterious Gods Worship of local deities Rectangular palisade
(A palisade is a steel or wooden

MORTUARY TEMPLES For ministrations to deified Pharoahs Developed from the offering chapels of the Royal Mastabas and the Pyramids

fence or wall of variable height, usually used as a defensive In the MIDDLE KINGDOM royal burials were made in the hillside hence temples gained importancestructure. )court

In the NEW KINGDOM they were detached from the Entrance through the narrow end Then customary corridor tombs Pennon poles flanked the entrance Soon they resembled the Cult Temples

Emblem of the deity in the center


Pavilion, vestibule and sanctuary in the further end of the court Stages of development difficult to trace due to successive rebuilding Processions were a feature

Temples of Egypt
Components : Walled open courts with colonnades along the main axis Led to a covered shelter comprising of transverse columned vestibule(Hypostyle Hall) sanctuary beyond Axial gateway to court The Gateway extended to the entire width of the court Forming towering sloping sided pair of Pylons with a tall Portal -Pennon pole, gorge cornice roll moulded outer angles Temple within enclosure and about it were houses of priests, Official buildings, stores, granaries and a sacred pool or lake
EXAMPLES TEMPLE OF KHONS KARNAK 1198 BC

TEMPLE OF MENTUHETEP DER EL BAHARI THEBES -21301580 BC M .KINGDOM


TEMPLE OF HATSHEPSUT THEBES 1520 BC NEW KINGDOM GREAT TEMPLE OF AMON KARNAK 1530 323 BC NEW KINGDOM TEMPLE OF LUXOR THEBES 1408 1300 BC NEW KINGDOM TEMPLE OF HORUS, MAMMISI TEMPLE EDFU 237- 57 BC, HATHOR DENDERA 110BC-68AD