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PRESENTED BY: DEBASISH MISHRA ROLL.NO:- 09-LE-63 REGD.

NO:- 0921221007

GUIDED BY:

PROF:SARAT CHANDRA TRIPATHY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGG.


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INTRODUCTION
STABILITY PROBLEM CLASSIFICATION OF POWER SYSTEM STABILITY ROTOR DYNAMICS & SWING EQUATION POWER ANGLE EQUATION METHODS OF IMPROVING STABILITY FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSIENT STABILITY

CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
The tendency of a power system to develop restoring forces equal to or greater than the disturbing forces to maintain the state of equilibrium is known as stability. Power system stability is the ability of an electric power system , for a given operating condition , to regain a state of operating equilibrium after being subjected to a Physical disturbance. Power systems are subjected to a wide range of small & large disturbances .
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Stability problem is concerned with the behavior of the synchronous machines after a disturbances . These are generally divided into two major categories . 1-Steady-state stability 2-Transient stability
STEADY-STATE STABILITY

It refers to the ability of the power system to regain synchronism after small & slow disturbances . An extension of steady state stability is known as dynamic stability.
TRANSIENT STABILITY

It deals with the effects of large ,sudden disturbances such as the occurrence of a Fault ,the sudden outage of a line or the sudden application or removal of loads.
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There are three broad categories of power system stability.


ROTOR ANGLE STBILITY

It refers to the ability of synchronous machines in an interconnected power system to remain in synchronism after being subjected to a disturbance.
VOLTAGE STABILITY

It refers to the ability of power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system following a disturbance.
FREQUENCY STBILITY

It refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady frequency following a significant imbalance between generation & load.
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Under normal operating condition, the relative position of the rotor axis & the resultant magnetic field is fixed. During any disturbance, rotor will decelerate or accelerate w.r.t. To the synchronously rotating air gap mmf and a relative motion begins. This eqn describing this relative motion is known as the swing eqn . Consider a synchronous generator developing an electromagnetic torque Te & running of the synchronous speed Wsm & Tm is driving mechanical torque. In MKS system of units the eqn can be written as, Jd2m /dt2 =Ta =Tm Te Nm ............(1) where, J = moment of inertia in kg-m2 m =angular displacement in radian t =time, in second Ta =net accelerating torque Nm`

We define m =smt + m .............................................................(2) dm/dt =sm + dm/ dt ...................................................(3) and d2m/dt2 =d2m/ dt2 .......................................................(4) Putting eqn (4) in eqn (1),we have, Jd2m/dt2 = Tm Te Nm ..............................................(5) => Jm d2m/dt2 = m (Tm - Te)............................................(6) since P = t so Jm d2m/dt2 = Pm Pe ..................................................(7) where Pm = shaft power i/p to machine Pe = electric power crossing its air gap Jm is inertia constant & is denoted as M . Md2m/dt2 = Pm Pe .......................................................(8) Electric power angle, = (P/2) m , also, = (P/2) m ..........(9) Wk = (1/2) J2m = (1/2) Mm => M = 2Wk /m ..................................................................(10)

(2/P) M (d2/dt2) = Pm Pe ...................................................(11) Dividing eqn (11) by base power B , (2//P) 2Wk /sm B (d2/dt2) = Pm/B Pe/B ..........................(12) H = stored kinetic energy in MJ at rated speed/machine rating in MVA H = (1/2)J2sm M/B MJ/MVA = Wk/B ....................................................................................(13) =>(2/P) 2H/sm (d2/dt2) = Pm(pu) Pe(pu) ..............................(14) s = (P/2)sm sm = (2/P) s So 2H/s (d2/dt2) = Pm(pu) Pe(pu) ...........................................(15) For simplification the above eqn in terms of frequency f0 (H/f0) (d2/dt2) = Pm Pe ........................................................(16) In electrical degrees, the swing eqn becomes (H/180f0) (d2/dt2) = Pm Pe ....................................................(17)

Each synchronous machine is represent for transient stability studies by its transient internal voltage Ei in series with the transient reactance Xd

The power o/p of machine is represented by Pe . Pe = Pmax sin where Pmax = E1 E2 / X & X is the transfer reactance betn E1 & E2 The curve Pe vs is known as the power angle curve.

Reducing the impedance between the stations made possible by adding machines or lines in parallel or by using machines of lower inherent impedance. Higher excitation voltages. Quick response excitation system.

Transient stability :
Effect of reducing the fault clearance time:

To improve transient stability, the fault should be cleaned as fast as possible. Thus by reducing the clearance time, the maximum power that could be delivered under a particular disturbance, can be increased.

The circuit breaker poles are normally closed & the resistances R are thus shorted under the normal working condition. They are opened under fault condition & absorb the accelerating energy during fault. Thus stability is improved.

Effect of voltage regulators:

The maximum power which generator can deliver is governed by field excitation of the generator. The excitation again depends upon the system operating conditions. With the help of an automatic voltage regulator the terminal voltage can be held practically constant.

Other measures:

It can also be improved by inserting a permanent or switched series capacitor. To increase the no. of interconnecting EHV lines. Lowering of Xs of alternator & use of HVDC links in between regional grids.

FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSIENT STABILITY


There are two factors which can act as guide line criteria for the relative stability of a generating unit within a power system. These are the angular swing of the machine during and following fault conditions & the critical clearing time.

TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES:
1. Effect of generator design.
2. Increase of voltage. 3. Reduction in transfer reactance. 4. Automatic reclosing . 5. Rapid fault clearing. 6. Quick value opening action.

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This topic presents the basics of power system stability analysis. The swing eqn is shown to be nonlinear because the electrical power o/p from the generating is a nonlinear function of the rotor angle. Transient stability of the power system is affected by many other factors related to the design of the system network, its protection system & the control schemes associated with each of the generating units.

John J. Grainger, William D. Stevenson, Power System Analysis, TMH, New Delhi, 2003. Hadi Saadat , Power System Analysis, TMH, New Delhi, 2002. A. Chakrabarti , M.L. Soni , P.V. Gupta, U.S. Bhatnagar , A Text Book On Power System Engineering, Dhanpat Rai & Co., 1998. V.K. Mehta, Principles Of Electrical Machines, S. Chand & Co., 2009.

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