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Introduction to Networking Essentials

GECIS IT SERVICES Jan 2004

Purpose of the Module

What is a Network, Networking To Identify Scopes Of Networks List the Types of Network Models Understand the Basic Connectivity Model Understand different Network Technologies Learn about Expanding the Network Learn about various Protocols What is Name Resolution What is a Network Operating System

GECIS IT SERVICES JAN 2004

What is a Network
A Group of Computers and other Devices connected together is called a Network

For E.g.. The GE Network All the machines here are connected to together in a certain structure, thereby we can call this as a Network.

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What is Networking
The Concept of Connected Computers sharing resources is called Networking

Networking Benefits

Centralized Administration, Information Sharing, Hardware and Software Sharing etc


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Scopes of Networks
LAN WAN ---- Local Area Network ---- Wide Area Network

A Network Within a Limited Area

A Network over a Large Geographical Scope between Cities, States, Countries

MAN

---- Metropolitan Area Network

A Network Within a City or Between two Small Cities Close to 100 KM

CAN

---- Campus Area Network

A Network Within a University Campus or Company Campus


From a wider perspective, its all about Distance.
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Types of Network Models


Peer-to-Peer

Client-Server

These terms are common Network terminologies, however Microsoft replaces them with the following Terms Peer to Peer Workgroup Model Client Server Domain Model.
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Basic Connectivity Components

Network Adapters Network Cables Wireless Communication Devices

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Network Adapters

Receive Receive

data and convert it into electrical signals electrical signals and convert them into data if the data received is for a particular computer

Determine Control

the flow of data through the cable

A network adapter interfaces a computer to a network. The term "adapter" was popularized originally by Ethernet add-in cards for PCs.

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Network Cables
Types of Cables Types of Cables Twisted-Pair 10BaseT Coaxial 10Base2,
Unshielded (UTP) Shielded (STP) ThinNet ThickNet 10Base5

Fiber-Optic
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Wireless Communication Devices


Wireless Communication Devices Wireless Communication Devices Infrared Transmission

Narrowband Radio Transmission

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Network Topologies

Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Mesh Topology Hybrid Topologies

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Bus Topology

Segment
Termina tor

Termina tor

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Star Topology

Hub

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Ring Topology

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Mesh Topology

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Hybrid Topologies
Star-Bus
Bus

Star-Ring

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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model

Application Layer Application Layer Presentation Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Physical Layer
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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model


The OSI model has seven layers. The principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers are as follows: 1. A layer should be created where a different level of abstraction is needed. 2. Each layer should perform a well defined function. 3. The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye toward defining internationally standardized protocols. 4. The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information flow across the interfaces. 5. The number of layers should be large enough that distinct functions need not be thrown together in the same layer out of necessity, and small enough that the architecture does not become unwieldy.
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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model


Application Layer - Provides different services to the applications Presentation Layer - Converts the information Session Layer - Handles problems which are not communication issues Transport Layer - Provides end to end communication control Network Layer - Routes the information in the network Data Link - Provides error control between adjacent nodes Physical Layer - Connects the entity to the transmission media

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Network Technologies
Ethernet Token Ring

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Ethernet

Carrier Sense Multiple Access

Collision Detection

Characteristics Characteristics

Description Description

Access Method CSMA/CD CSMA/CD Access Method Standard Ethernet 10 Standard Ethernet 10 Mbps Mbps Transfer Speed Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps Transfer Speed Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet 1 Gbps Gigabit Ethernet 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps) (1000 Mbps)
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Token Ring

Token Ring

Physical Ring

MSAU

Logical Ring

Characteristics Characteristics
Access Method Access Method Transfer Speed Transfer Speed

Description Description
Token passing Token passing 4 to 16 Mbps for all 4 to 16 Mbps for all cable types cable types

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Frame Relay Expanding the Network

Repeaters and Hubs Switches Routers Remote Access Connectivity Types

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Repeaters and Hubs


Repeater
Transmits data to all connected computers

Repeater

Hub
Transmits data to all connected computers in a star topology

Hub

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Switches

Switch

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Routers

Routers

Router

Router

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Remote Access Connectivity Connectivity Remote Access Types


Dial-up Remote Access

Types

Remote Access Client

Remote Access Server

Virtual Private Network


Internet Tunnel Remote Access Client
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Windows 2000 VPN Server

Corporate Intranet

Types of Protocols Types of Protocols

TCP/IP

Open Protocols

Internet

Vendor-Specific Protocols

IPX/SPX

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Protocols and Data Transmissions

Protocols and Data Transmissions

Routable/Non-Routable Protocols

Types of Data Transmission

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Routable/Non-Routable Protocols Routable/Non-Routable Protocols


Non-Routable Protocols Routable Protocols

TCP/IP NetBEUI Router

TCP/IP NetBEUI
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Types of Data Transmissions Types of Data Transmissions


Unicast Broadcast

Multicast

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Common Protocols

Common Protocols

Net BIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI) Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) AppleTalk

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NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI) (NetBEUI)
Windows Client

Routed Network Environment


Segme nt 1 NetBEUI Router Segme nt 2 NetBEUI

Windows Client

Self Configured Broadcast Protocol Uses Computer Names as Addressing Medium

NetBEUI
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Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)


NetWare Client Segmen t1 IPX/SPX Router

Exchange/Sequenced Packet Routed Network Environment Exchange (IPX/SPX) Windows 2000


Segme nt 2 IPX/SPX

Server

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AppleTalk

AppleTalk
Server Segme nt 2 AppleTalk Router

Routed Network Environment Windows 2000


Macintosh Client Segmen t1 AppleTalk

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Introduction to TCP/IPP

What we will learn about Examining IP Addressing TCP/IP Utilities

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Examining IP Addressing

IP Address Classes Subnet Mask Addressing Guidelines Assigning Network IDs Assigning Host IDs

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IP Address Classes

Class A Class B Class C

Network ID Network ID

Host ID Host ID

Network ID Network ID

Host ID Host ID

Network ID Network ID

Host ID Host ID

w
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Subnet Masks
distinguishes the Network ID from the Host ID Used to Specify Whether the Destination Host is Local or Remote

Class A

255.0.0.0 255.0.0.0

Class B 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 Class C 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0


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Addressing Guidelines

The First Number in the Network ID Cannot Be 127 The First Number in the Network ID Cannot Be 127

The Host ID Cannot Be All 255s The Host ID Cannot Be All 255s

The Host ID Cannot Be All Zeros The Host ID Cannot Be All Zeros

The Host ID Must Be Unique to the Local Network ID The Host ID Must Be Unique to the Local Network ID
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Assigning Host IDs


1
10.0.0.1 10.0.0.1
Router

172.16. 0.1 172.16. 0.1

10.0.0.10 10.0.0.10

192.168.2.1 192.168.2.1 192.168.2.10 192.168.2.10

172.16. 0.10 172.16. 0.10

10.0.0.11 10.0.0.11

172.16. 0.11 172.16. 0.11

10.0.0.12 10.0.0.12

192.168.2.11 192.168.2.11

10.0.0. 0
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3 192.168 .2.0

172.16. 0.12 172.16. 0.12

172.16. 0.0

TCP/IP Utilities

Scenarios on the Following Utilities

Arp Arp Hostname Hostname Ipconfig Ipconfig Nbtstat Nbtstat Netstat Netstat Ping Ping Tracert Tracert

Diagnostic Utilities

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Assigning TCP/IP Addresses

Static IP Addressing Automatic IP Addressing Viewing TCP/IP Configuration Viewing TCP/IP Configuration Using Ipconfig

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Static IP Addressing
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties General You can get IP settings assigned automatically if your network supports this capability. Otherwise, you need to ask your network administrator for the appropriate IP settings. Obtain an IP address automatically Use the following IP address: IP address: Subnet mask : Default gateway: 192 . 168 . 1 . 200 255 . 255 . 255. 0 192. 168 . 1 . 1

Obtain DNS server address automatically Use the following DNS server addresses: Preferred DNS server: Alternate DNS server: Advanced... OK
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Cancel

Automatic IP Addressing / DHCP


Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties General You can get IP settings assigned automatically if your network supports this capability. Otherwise, you need to ask your network administrator for the appropriate IP settings. Obtain an IP address automatically Use the following IP address: IP address: Subnet mask : Default gateway: Obtain DNS server address automatically Use the following DNS server addresses: Preferred DNS server: Alternate DNS server: Advanced... OK
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Cancel

Static vs. Automatic TCP/IP Configuration

Manual TCP/IP Configuration Automatic TCP/IP Configuration Manual TCP/IP Configuration Automatic TCP/IP Configuration
IP addresses entered manually on each client computer Possibility of entering incorrect or invalid IP address Incorrect configuration can lead to communication and Administrative network problems overload on networks where computers are frequently moved
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Disadvantages

IP addresses are supplied automatically to client computers Ensures that clients always use correct configuration information Elimination of common source of network problems Client configuration updated automatically to reflect changes in network structure

Advantages

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The DHCP Lease Generation Process


DHCP Client DHCP Servers Scenario on DHCP Problems

1IP Lease Request IP Lease Request


IP Lease Offer 2 IP Lease Offer IP Lease Selection 3IP Lease Selection IP Lease IP Lease 4 Acknowledgement Acknowledgement

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Viewing TCP/IP Configuration


Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties General You can get IP settings assigned automatically if your network supports this capability. Otherwise, you need to ask your network administrator for the appropriate IP settings. Obtain an IP address automatically Use the following IP address: 192 . 168 . 1 . 200 IP address: Subnet mask : Default gateway: 255 . 255 . 255. 0 192. 168 . 1 . 1

Obtain DNS server address automatically Use the following DNS server addresses: Preferred DNS server: Alternate DNS server: Advanced... OK
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Cancel

Viewing TCP/IP Configuration Using Ipconfig


Command Prompt

Microsoft Windows 2000 [version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-1999 Microsoft Corp. C:\>ipconfig Windows 2000 IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific IP Address. . . . . Subnet Mask . . . . Default Gateway . . DNS . . . . . . Suffix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : : 192.168.1.200 : 255.255.255.0 : 192.168.1.1

C:\>_

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Name Resolution

Types of Names Static IP Mapping Dynamic IP Mapping Name Resolution in Windows 2000

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Types of Names
Assigned to a computers IP Assigned to a computers IP

Host Host Names Names

NetBIOS NetBIOS Names Names


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address address 255 characters in length 255 characters in length Can contain alphabetic and Can contain alphabetic and numeric characters, hyphens, numeric characters, hyphens, and periods and periods Can take various forms Can take various forms Alias Alias 16-byte address 16-byte address Domain name Domain name Used to represent a single Used to represent a single computer or group of computer or group of computers computers 15 of the characters may be 15 of the characters may be used for the name used for the name 16th character is used by the 16th character is used by the services that a computer offers services that a computer offers to the network to the network

Static IP Mapping
Provides name resolution for Provides name resolution for

Hosts File Hosts File

host names to IP addresses host names to IP addresses Multiple host names can be Multiple host names can be assigned to the same IP assigned to the same IP address address Entries are case sensitive Entries are case sensitive

Provides name resolution for Provides name resolution for

Lmhosts Lmhosts File File

NetBIOS names to IP NetBIOS names to IP addresses addresses A part of the Lmhosts file is A part of the Lmhosts file is pre-loaded into memory pre-loaded into memory

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Dynamic IP Mapping

DNS is a system for naming DNS is a system for naming

DNS Server DNS Server

WINS WINS Server Server


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computers and network computers and network services services DNS naming system is DNS naming system is organized in a hierarchical organized in a hierarchical fashion fashion Maps domain names to IP Maps domain names to IP address address Mapping records are stored Mapping records are stored on a DNS server on a DNS Provides aserver Provides a distributed distributed database for registering database for registering dynamic mappings of dynamic mappings of NetBIOS names NetBIOS names WINS maps NetBIOS names WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses to IP addresses

Network Operating Systems


A Network Operating System: A Network Operating System:
Enables Computers to Operate in a Provides Basic Services to Computers

Network in a Network Coordinates the activities of the various devices Provides clients with access to network resources Ensures data and Supports the security of that Enable Mechanisms devices Applications to Communicate with One Another Integrates with Other Popular Operating Systems
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Some Popular Operating Systems


Windows NT 3.51 Windows NT 4.0 Windows 2000 Novell Netware Solaris Linux Macintosh

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