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Enzyme Structure & Function

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Chemical Reactions
A chemical reaction is a process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another. The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction are called the reactants. The elements or compounds that are produced by a chemical reaction are called the products.
Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Chemical Reactions
C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O

reactants

products

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Chemical Reactions
Chemical reactions always involve changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds.
Energy is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds are formed or are broken. Because chemical reactions involve breaking and forming bonds, they involve changes in energy.

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Enzymes
Some chemical reactions that make life possible occur too slowly to make them useful for organisms.
Catalysts are chemicals that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction. Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.
Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Enzyme-Substrate Complex
Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react. The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions are called substrates. Enzymes are very specific usually catalyzing ONE type of reaction only.

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Lock & Key Model


Enzymes function based on the lock and key idea. Like a lock is specific to the key it is opened with, the enzyme is specific to the substrate(s) it reacts with.

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Lock & Key Model

Only this key will fit into this lock.

Only this substrate will fit into this enzyme

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Enzyme Function
1. A substrate finds its enzyme.

substrates

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Enzyme Function
2. The substrate fits into the active site of the enzyme.
active site substrates

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Enzyme Function
3. The substrate is changed into the product and the enzyme is unchanged.
active site substrates

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Enzyme Function
The proper functioning of enzymes depends on the proper shape of the enzyme. When a protein loses its shape, it is said to be denatured, and the enzyme stops working. Enzymes require a certain level of pH, temperature, and concentration to function at their optimum
Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School

Enzyme Function

Biology

Science Department Deerfield High School