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What you eat makes a difference in your health.


NUTRITION DEFINED AS food at work in the body science of how the body uses food. science that studies the interactions between living organisms and food.


food we eat, air we breathe, water we drink, supplements we ingest, and all that we do that literally feeds or nourishes the body for its own health benefit. This includes exercise, positive thought and deepened spirituality.

Scope of nutrition

Human nutrition includes:

The study of nutrients and other substances found in foods; how the human body uses nutrients for growth and maintenance; and the relationship between foods, food components, dietary patterns, and health.

The study of nutrition encompasses all aspects of the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, interaction, storage, and excretion of nutrients by the body.


a broader sense, the study of nutrition also includes the various psychological, sociological, cultural, technological, and economic factors that affect the foods and dietary patterns chosen by an individual.

Diet and Health

Diet - the foods one consumes

The quality of your daily diet

affects the risk of chronic diseases

Meaning..The food choices you

make daily have a cumulative impact on your health

How, Exactly, Can I Recognize a Nutritious Diet? All of these factors help to build a nutritious diet.

Elements of a Healthy Diet ABCMV


- get enough of essential nutrients. Balance - contains a good proportion of nutrients. No overemphasis of a food group.


control - choose foods

to maintain ideal body weight.


- eat any food in

reasonable-size portions.

- eat different types of

food to prevent boredom.


energy(calories), nutrients, and other substances needed for growth and health



of measure of the amount of energy in foodand of how much energy will be transferred to the person who eats it.

Constituents of food which helps to maintain body functions, to grow and to protect the organs

Your body needs nutrients found in foods.


is s basic need of humans Foods provide energy, nutrients and other substances needed for growth and health Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells


nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing fluctuations in nutrient intake Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states, genetic factors, or combination of these causes


groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others Poor nutrition can influence the development of certain chronic diseases Adequacy, variety and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet There are no good or bad foods

Classifying Nutrients
There are 6 Classes of Nutrients
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water


The Human Body and Its Food

Nutrient Density

density is a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to the calories it provides. Foods low in calories and high in nutrients are nutrient dense, while foods high in calories and low in nutrients are nutrient poor. Nutrient-dense foods should be eaten often, whereas nutrient-poor foods should only be eaten occasionally.


Age Lifestyle Ethnicity, Culture, and Religious Practices Other Factors

Food preferences, Gender, Peer

pressures, Stress, depression, and alcohol abuse, Medications, GI disorders

Describing the Nutrients


are several ways to classify the classes of nutrients.

Organic or inorganic
Essential or nonessential

Macronutrient or micronutrient
Energy yielding or not

Classifying Nutrients

Essential nutrients nutrients the body either cannot make or cannot make enough to meet its needs.
These nutrients must be obtained from

foods (ingested in some manner) Examples:

Vitamins Calcium, iron, and other minerals

Some of the amino acids

Classifying Nutrients

nutrients body can make from other nutrients ingested

Examples: Cholesterol Some amino acids

Classifying Nutrients by Composition

Organic nutrients - contain carbon

Lipids Proteins Vitamins

Inorganic nutrients - do not contain carbon

Minerals Water

Quantity Needed

Macronutrients: need in relatively large amounts

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins

Micronutrients: need in relatively small amounts

All other nutrients

Classifying Nutrients

Energy-yielding nutrients (3):

Fats (lipids)


A little more on energy

Measure energy in kilocalories in U.S.

What most think of as a calorie is really a

kilocalorie Kcal = amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 10C

Measure energy in kilojoules (kJ) in most other countries

Energy in the Body

The body uses the energy yielding nutrients to fuel all activities
All energy yielding nutrients are caloric.

If more energy is ingested than is needed to fuel body activities the extra energy is stored

Energy-Yielding Nutrients

Energy-Yielding Nutrients

Carbohydrates: C, H, O
4 kcal/gram Bodys primary source of energy

Use as glucose
Brains only source of energy Stores are limited ~12-24 hours (in liver and


Carbohydrate rich foods..

Energy-Yielding Nutrients

Fats: C, H, O
9 kcal/gram
Bodys alternate source of energy Use fat along with glucose as an energy source most of the time Stores are unlimited

Energy-Yielding Nutrients

Proteins: C, H, O, N, S
4 kcal/gram (same as _______)
Bodys least desirable source of energy

WHY? .
Protein is used for energy only when there

isnt any carbohydrate available as an energy source.

Energy-Yielding Nonnutrient

Alcohol 7 kcal/gram Non-nutrient because it interferes with growth, maintenance and repair of the body
Alcohols metabolites are harmful

Energy Density
Measure of the kcal per gram of food _______ has the highest energy density of the 3 energy-yielding nutrients.

Foods with a high energy density provide more kcal per gram than low density foods.

Energy Density


YES I have an illness or condition that made me change the kind and/or amount of food I eat. I eat fewer than 2 meals per day I eat few fruits or vegetables, or milk products I have three or more drinks of beer, liquor or wine almost everyday. I have tooth or mouth problems that make it hard for me to eat I dont always have enough money to buy the food I need I eat alone most of the time I take three or more different prescribed or OTC drugs a day Without wanting to, I have lost 0r gained 10 pounds in the last 6 months I am not always able to shop, cook and or feed myself TOTAL 2 3 2 2 2 4 1 1 2 2


GOOD(recheck in 6 months) 3-5 moderate nutritional risk 6 up high nutritional risk



Meet the Nutrients

Essential nutrients
must be obtained in the diet because the body does not make them Found in all 6 classes

Nutrient Class
Carbohydrate Fat Protein Vitamins Minerals Water

Essential nutrient
Glucose Linoleic acid linolenic acid 9 amino acids of 20 All 13 25 Yes


carbohydrates: compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most, but not all, carbohydrates have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule: (CH2O)n. carbo _ carbon (C) hydrate _ with water (H2O)

Energy From CHO

1 gram of CHO supplies 4 kcal. CHO should supply 55-60% of your total daily kcals.

Classification of carbohydrates
simple carbohydrates (sugars): monosaccharides and disaccharides. complex carbohydrates (starches and fibers): polysaccharides composed of straight or branched chains of monosaccharides. Carbohydrates are sugar compounds made by plants when the plants are exposed to light. This process is called photosynthesis.

Types of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharidessingle sugars. Disaccharidessugars composed of pairs of monosaccharides. The complex carbohydrates are: Polysaccharideslarge molecules composed of chains of monosaccharides.

Sources of carbohydrates :

Fruits, vegetables, and grains. Milk and its products contain carbohydrates. Meat, fish, poultry - no carbohydrates

Uses of Carbohydrates
It protects your muscles. It regulates the amount of sugar circulating in your body. It provides nutrients for friendly bacteria in intestinal tract that helps in digestion. It helps in lowering cholesterol level and regulate blood pressure.


Dietary fibres are structural components of plants. The type and amount of fibre in plants vary from species to species. cellulose hemicellulose lignin pectin's mucilage's gums

Kinds of dietary fibre

Soluble fibre :
It forms gel in the presence of H2O

Insoluble fibre :
It is a natural laxative. It absorbs H2O,helps in feel full after eating It stimulates intestinal walls to contract and relax. This contraction is called peristalsis . It helps to prevent digestive disorders It bulks up stools and makes it softer, reducing risk of developing hemorrhoids.

Functions of dietary fibre

In the mouth, fiber stimulates the flow of saliva. In the stomach and small intestine, fiber dilutes the contents and delays the emptying of food and the absorption of nutrients; this promotes a feeling of fullness. In the large intestine, fiber dilutes the contents and provides a place for bacterial growth and digestion. The water-holding capacity of insoluble fiber in the lower intestine softens the stool and increases stool size, so that the process of elimination is easier and faster. In the large intestine, fibre also acts to bind certain chemicals. when fiber binds cholesterol-like compounds, it lowers cholesterol, a healthy result; when fiber binds minerals, it decreases their absorption, a less desirable result.

Fats and Oils

Fats and its compounds are known as lipids. Liquids are called oils and solids are fats. A gram of fat contains 9 calories.

Types of fats
Saturated Fats are solid at room temperature and are found primarily in animal foods (red meats, lard, butter, poultry with skin, and whole milk dairy products); Monounsaturated Fats are liquid at room temperature and are found in olive oil, canola oil and peanuts. Polyunsaturated Fats are liquid at room temperature and are found in fish, corn, wheat, nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.

Types of fats

Trans Fats are created when foods are manufactured. Currently, food labels do not list the trans fat content of a food but if hydrogenated oils are listed under ingredients it indicates the presence of trans fats. The more processed foods you eat, the greater your trans fat intake. Trans fats may increase blood cholesterol.

Uses of Fat

visible fats:
provides a source of stored energy
gives shapes to body cushions the skin

acts as an insulation blanket that reduces

heat loss

Uses of Fat

invisible fat: This hidden fat,

is part of every cell membrane
is a component of myelin , is a shock absorber that protects the organs

is a constituent of hormones and other



Proteins are organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms; some proteins also contain sulfur.

Energy from Proteins

1 gram of protein supplies 4 kcal (the same as CHO). Proteins should supply 10-15% of your total daily kcals.

Classification of Proteins
Complete proteins (High-biologicalvalue proteins) contain all of the essential amino acids. Complete proteins are primarily animal proteins, such as those in meats, poultry, fish, dairy products, and eggs. Incomplete proteins (Low-biologicalvalue proteins) lack one or more of the essential amino acids, usually lysine, methionine, and tryptophan. Most vegetables are incomplete proteins.

Functions of Proteins

Growth and replacement: clotting factor production, collagen synthesis, epithelial cell proliferation, fibroblast proliferation Immunity: antibodies, white blood cell production and migration, cell-mediated phagocytosis Fluid balance: intracellular osmotic pressure, albumin, maintenance of blood volume Sodium and potassium balance Energy source


Vitamins are organic substances present in small amounts in many foods. They are required for carrying out vital functions of the body and many of them are involved in the utilization of major nutrients like proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Although they are needed in small amounts, they are essential for the health and well being of the body.

Classification of vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K) require the presence of fats for their absorption from the GI tract and for cellular metabolism and can be stored for longer periods of time in the bodys fatty tissue and the liver. Watersoluble vitamins (vitamin C and Bcomplex vitamins) require daily ingestion in normal quantities because these vitamins are not stored in the body.


Certain vitamins, mineral, and enzymes are classified as antioxidants, a substance that blocks or inhibits destructive oxidation reactions, such as vitamins C and E, the minerals selenium and germanium, and the enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, coenzyme Q10, and some amino acids. Antioxidants help to protect the body from the formation of free radicals, atoms or groups of atoms that can cause damage to cells. Free radicals can impair the immune system and lead to infections and certain degenerative diseases such as heart disease and cancer.


A large number of minerals are present in the body. Some of these form part of body structural components and some others act as catalytic agents in many body reactions.

Classification of Minerals
Minerals are classified according to their daily requirement: Macrominerals (quantities of 100 mg or greater), The major macrominerals required by the body are calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium; Microminerals (trace elements, quantities less than 100 mg). Microminerals such as copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc play an essential role in metabolism.


Water is a universal solvent and is a part of every cell and tissue in the body. Our body contains 50 to 70 % of water. Water content depends on how old you are and how much muscle and fat you have. Muscle tissue has more H2O than fat tissue.

Uses of water
It dissolves with other substance and carries the nutrients and other materials around the body, making it possible for every organs to do its job. It helps in easy digestion of food. carry waste products out of our body. provides a medium in which biochemical reactions occur. sends electrical messages between the cells. regulates body temperature. lubricates your moving parts.

Sources of water
Plain water fruits and vegetables cheese milk products cereals