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ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING & MANAGEMENT

TOPIC: FRAMEWORK OF EIA

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad.

SUBMITTED BY: S.PRATHYUSHA 09011BA019 B.TECH (PLG) SEM- V

INTRODUCTION

Environmental considerations in energy development and utilization have generally been ignored or neglected in the past in most of the developing countries. In certain cases , this has resulted in adverse impacts on the natural environment by affecting the quality of air and water or by damaging the natural resources

In order to make the development process sustainable , environmental aspects have to be taken into consideration EIA is needed to avoid undesirable and deteriorating changes in the environment EIA is a valuable tool that enables elimination or mitigation of undesirable repercussions on the environment, that arise as a result of contemplated actions

DEFINITION OF EIA

EIA can be defined as a process designed to ensure that all potentially significant impacts are satisfactory assessed and taken into account in planning , designing , authorization and implementation of all relevant type of actions of a development project

In district Energy Planning, a comprehensive EIA allow selection of environmentally sound projects and the incorporation of modifications into the designs of others, so as to reduce or eliminate features that can produce severely detrimental effects on the surrounding environment

FACTORS OF EIA

APPROACH TO EIA
PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES
Describe the proposed action & review the existing legislation

BASELINE STUDY
Description of present conditions,record of what existed in the area prior to an action of a project & review of the existing legislation

IMPACT IDENTIFICATION
Preparation of list of all impacts ,carefully examined & important impacts are selected for detailed study

ASSESSMENT
Comparison of alternatives by assessing environmental gains & losses

MITIGATION MEASURES
Techniques of eliminating all, other than adverse environmental impact

IMPACT EVALUATION
Quantification of impacts & value judgement may have to be used

SELECTION OF PREFERRED ALTERNATIVES


Decission maker one project alternative/request further study/reject project actions altogether

POST AUDITS
EIAs are based on predictions. Post audits are conducted to determine how close the predictions were to reality

PARTICIPANTS OF EIA PROCESS

PROPONENT : Government or private agency which initiates the project DECISION MAKER : Designated individual or group or body ASSESSOR : Individual or Agency responsible for the preparation of EIS (Environmental Impact Statement ) REVIEWER : Individual/Agency/Board entrusted with the responsibility for reviewing the EIS and assuring compliance with the relevant guidelines/regulations

PARTICIPANTS OF EIA PROCESS

Other Government Agencies having special interest in the project Expert advisers Media and Public at large Pecial interest groups : Environmental Organisations , Professional societies,Labour Union , Local Associations

STEPS INVOLVED IN EIA PPROCESS

EIA PROCESS INVOLVES

EIA is one of the several kinds of inputs to the decision making process. All

potentially important impacts that are to be assessed for the process are
financial , economic , environmental , social and strategic.

It is a decision making process. It must therefore be carried out before the

final decision is taken about a project

Whoever carries out the eia study of a project , he has to assist the decision maker to take the right decision.The final decision maker is not expected to

be a technical expert. He may be an industrialist , bureaucrat , a political


leader or a group of these persons

PROJECT PLANNING AND DESIGN

The EIA process should look into the following at the design and planning stages:
Review the alternative ways of meeting the overall objective of the project

including the zero option, i.e., not taking up the project at all

Examine the alternative locations for the proposed project,if the same is not location specific (e.g., mining project )

Study the alternative process design,site layouts and other facilities of the proposed project

PROJECT PLANNING AND DESIGN

At the earlier stages various alternatives are available , which requires

detailed study

A Rapid Environmental Screening (RES) can eliminate most of the alternatives

The remaining few no. of alternatives can be eliminated through Rapid EIA process which require 3 months seasonal study and a comprehensive EIA requires full one year study

At the project stage the developer has to consult the general public

Steps in EIA framework as outlined in the manual for large-scale projects


The

important environmental components on which impacts will be assessed are as follows: Water resources: Surface water; Ground water; Water quality; Water transportation
Land

resources: Land types; Land use; Soils; Agriculture


Biological

resources: Capture fisheries; Culture fisheries; Forest and Homestead vegetation; Wetlands; Wildlife
Human

resources: Socio-economic; Public health; Hazard and risk assessment


These

steps are undertaken for FAP (Financial Assistance Policy) projects

CONCLUSION
Once the magnitude and the significance of the impacts have been

determined , the EIA may be considered to be essentially complete

Then follows the political decision as to whether the project be accepted,accepted with alteration or rejected

The EIA is a potentially useful component of good environmental management

REFERENCE:
A text book of environmental science by Arvind Kumar

Environmental Science Principles and Practice by R.C.Das & nD.K.Behera

Environmental Impact Assessment ( Reading Material )