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Vacuum techniques

Pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Vacuum theory and
pumping laws

How the
vacuum is
created?

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Production of vacuum
• to reduce gas density in given volume to below
atmospheric pressure with pump
• enclosed vessel has continuous sources which launch
gas into volume and present pump with continuous gas
load
• vacuum achievable at steady state is result of dynamic
balance between gas load and ability of pump to remove
gas form volume

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Vacuum pumps and their
characteristics

• Gas transfer pumps:


(a) Positive displacement pumps that transfer
repeated volumes of gas from inlet to outlet
by compression ( e.g. rotary pump).
(b) Kinetic pumps that continuously transfer gas
from inlet to outlet by imparting momentum to
gas molecules (e.g. Diffusion pump,
turbomolecular pump).
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
• Entrapment/capture pumps,

retain molecules by sorption or


condensation on internal surfaces
(e.g. sorption pump, sublimation
pump, sputter ion pump,
cryogenic pump).
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Low vacuum pumps
(1atm-10-3)

mbar
Roughing Pumps

1
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Vacuum (units) Typical High
Pressure

1.3x10-9 1.3x10-6 1.3x10-3 1 atm.

1 Torr =
1 mm-Hg
1x10-6 Torr 1 mTorr 1 Torr 760 Torr

1 Pascal =
1 N/m2
0.133x10-3 Pa 0.133 Pa 133 Pa 101,333 Pa

Typical Low Pressure

Ultrahigh Vacuum High Vacuum Rough Vacuum

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


VACUUM PUMPING METHODS
VACUUM PUMPS
(METHODS)

Gas Transfer Entrapment


Vacuum Pump Vacuum Pump

Positive Displacement Kinetic Adsorption


Vacuum Pump Vacuum Pump Pump

Reciprocating Rotary Drag Fluid Entrainment Ion Transfer Cold Trap


Displacement Pump Pump Pump Pump Pump

Diaphragm Liquid Ring Gaseous Ejector Bulk Getter Getter


Pump Pump Ring Pump Pump Pump Pump

Piston Rotary Turbine Liquid Jet Diffusion Getter Ion Sublimation


Pump Piston Pump Pump Pump Pump Pump Pump

Multiple Vane Sliding Vane Axial Flow Gas Jet Diffusion Self Purifying Evaporation
Rotary Pump Rotary Pump Pump Pump Ejector Pump Diffusion Pump Ion Pump

Rotary Radial Flow Vapor Jet Fractionating Sputter Ion


Plunger Pump Pump Pump Diffusion Pump Pump
Molecular
Drag Pump
Dry Roots
Cryopump
Pump Pump
Turbomolecular
Pump
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University Condenser
Name of Pump Mechanism of Pumping
Mechanical (roughing)* Compression of gas
Sorption Physical or chemical absorption
Diffusion* Intermolecular collisions
Turbo Molecular collisions with surfaces
Ion Ionization and implantation of gas
Cryo(genic) Solidification of gas by liquid He
*used in lab

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


PUMP OPERATING RANGES
Ultra High
High Vacuum Rough Vacuum
Vacuum
Rotary Vane Mechanical Pump
Rotary Piston Mechanical Pump
Dry Mechanical Pump
Sorption Pump
Blower/Booster Pump
Venturi Pump
High Vac. Pumps
Ultra-High Vac. Pumps

10-12 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 1 10+2


Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University P (mbar)
VACUUM SYSTEM USE
9 1 Chamber
8
2 High Vac. Pump
1 3 Roughing Pump
7
8 3a Foreline Pump
4 Hi-Vac. Valve
5 5 Roughing Valve
4
6 Foreline Valve
7
7 Vent Valve
2 8 Roughing Gauge
6 9 High Vac. Gauge

3a 3
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Mechanical pumps
• Mechanical pumps (displacement pumps) remove gas atoms
from the vacuum system and expel them to atmosphere, either
directly or indirectly
• In effect, they are compressors and one can define a
compression ratio, K, given by
Pout
K
Pin
• K is a fixed value for any given pump for a particular gas species
when measured under conditions of zero gas flow.

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Rotary Vane, Oil-Sealed
Mechanical Pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Pump Mechanism

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Gas ballastting

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Pump Down Curves

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


The Molecular Sieve/Zeolite
Trap

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Trap Rotary pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Single &Dual Stage

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


How 2-stage rotary pump Works

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


OIL BACKSTREAMING

PRESSURE LEVELS: LESS THAN 0.2 mbar


Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Other types of Mechanical pumps

Rotary Vane

Rotary Piston

Roots

Dry pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Dry Vacuum Pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Root pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


How Root Pump works

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


One Stage Roots Blower
Pump Assembly

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Vacuum system use for Root
pumps
12 1 Chamber
11
2 Foreline
3 Roughing Valve
1 3 4 4 Roughing Gauge
5 Roughing Pump
9 2 6 Foreline
7 Foreline Valve
8 Foreline Gauge
9 High Vacuum Valve
10 10 Booster/Blower
11 Vent Valve
7 6 12 High Vacuum Gauge
8
5
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Diaphragm pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Diaphragm pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Diaphragm Pump
• Eccentric shaft produces
alternate expansion /
compression process
• Inlet / outlet via reed
valves
• Ultimate vacuum 100 - 0.1
torr - limited by external
leakage past valves,
internal back-streaming,
dead volume
• Compression ratio
typically 10 - 30
• Pumping speed: single
unit 0.1-0.7 l/s, parallel
units up to 5.3 l/s
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Diaphragm Pump

• High resistance to
chemical attack
• Oil free - used with
roots blower or
cryopump for
completely oil-free
system
• Lifetime ~ 5000
hours
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Diaphragm pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Piston Type Pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Piston design

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Sorption Pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Sorption Pump Components

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Sorption pumps

The sorption pump has no moving parts and therefore


no oils or other lubricants. (5 liters of liquid nitrogen)
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
HIGH VACUUM PUMPS

2
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
VACUUM PUMPING METHODS
VACUUM PUMPS
(METHODS)

Gas Transfer Entrapment


Vacuum Pump Vacuum Pump

Positive Displacement Kinetic Adsorption


Vacuum Pump Vacuum Pump Pump

Reciprocating Rotary Drag Fluid Entrainment Ion Transfer Cold Trap


Displacement Pump Pump Pump Pump Pump

Diaphragm Liquid Ring Gaseous Ejector Bulk Getter Getter


Pump Pump Ring Pump Pump Pump Pump

Piston Rotary Turbine Liquid Jet Diffusion Getter Ion Sublimation


Pump Piston Pump Pump Pump Pump Pump Pump

Multiple Vane Sliding Vane Axial Flow Gas Jet Diffusion Self Purifying Evaporation
Rotary Pump Rotary Pump Pump Pump Ejector Pump Diffusion Pump Ion Pump

Rotary Radial Flow Vapor Jet Fractionating Sputter Ion


Plunger Pump Pump Pump Diffusion Pump Pump
Molecular
Drag Pump
Dry Roots
Cryopump
Pump Pump
Turbomolecular
Pump
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University Condenser
PUMP OPERATING RANGES
Ultra High
High Vacuum Rough Vacuum
Vacuum
Roughing Pumps
Liquid Nitrogen Trap
Diffusion Pump
Turbo Pump
Cryo Pump
Ion Pump
Tit. Subl. Pump

10-12 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 1 10+2


Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
P (Torr)
VACUUM SYSTEM USE (high vacuum)
9
8
1 Chamber
1 2 High Vac. Pump
7
8 3 Roughing Pump
3a Fore Pump
5 4 Hi-Vac. Valve
4
5 Roughing Valve
8
6 Foreline Valve
22 7 Vent Valve
8 Roughing Gauge
6
9 High Vac. Gauge
3
3a
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Diffusion pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Diffusion pumps

• diffusion pump is one form of a fluid entrapment pump


– a fluid (usually oil) is heated and vaporized
– the vapor is A sent through a nozzle with supersonic speed
– the pump fluid vapor is condensed on a cooled surface
• Gas molecules are transported to the bottom of the pump by the pump
fluid, where it is evacuated by a backing pump (usually a rotary vane
pump) through the pump exhaust (the foreline)
• In order to work, the pump cannot be started until the foreline pressure

is sufficiently low (~millitorr)

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Water ejector pump (Liquid Jet pump)

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Pump Construction

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


How the Pump Works

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


How the Pump Works

-A coil heater (1) raises the temperature of


the oil pool (2) inside the pump body (3)
with external cooling coils (4)

-The pump body is bolted to the vacuum


system by a flange (5)

-The oil vapor rises through the housing that


has 4 exit nozzles (A – D).

- The oil vapor exits the nozzles at high


velocity (7) and collides with gas molecules
(6), imparting a downward momentum to
them.

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Release of Vapors

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


First stage vapors are
separated from others

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Pumping Speed
1 2 3 4
Pumping Speed (Air)

Critical Point

1. Compression Ratio Limit


2. Constant Speed
3. Constant Q (Overload)
4. Mechanical Pump Effect

10-10 10--3 10--1


Inlet Pressure (Torr)
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Maximum Tolerable Foreline Pressure
(critical pressure)

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


LN2 reservoir with baffles

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


How the LN2 Trap Works
Approximate Vapor
Gas Pressure (mbar)

Water (H2O) 10-22


Argon (A) 500
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 10 -7
Carbon Monoxide (CO) >760
Helium (He) >760
Hydrogen (H2) >760
Oxygen (O2) 350
>760
Neon (Ne)
760
Nitrogen (N2)
<10 -10
Solvents
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Diffusion pump characters

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Diffusion pump Fluids

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Diffusion pumps -- additional information
• “The only justification for calling them diffusion pumps is due to
the observation that the molecules of the pumped gas penetrate
some distance into the vapor jet in a manner resembling
diffusion of one gas into another.” (Hablanian, High Vacuum
Technology)
• Original pumping fluid (before 1928) was mercury, since it did
not break down and early oils did -- over 99% today use oil
• The boiler pressure inside a nozzle is 1 to 2 torr, while at the
center of the vapor stream it is about 0.1 torr
• A cold trap is often used in the high vacuum side to reduce oil
backstreaming

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Diffusion pumps -- additional information

• Low cost per unit pumping speed, very high pumping speeds
• Very well understood
• Hard to destroy
• Continuous operating expense (LN2)
• Potential for serious vacuum accidents
• “Open system”:Forbidden in certain applications

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Vacuum system use for diffusion
pumps

Chamber

LN2 cold trap

Diffusion pump
Rotary
pump
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
• Turbomolecular
pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Turbomolecular pumps (high
vacuum and UHV)
• Medium to high cost per unit pumping speed
• Very clean, pumps rare gases
• Requires periodic maintenance which can be
expensive
• Difficult to reach very low UHV base pressures
• “Open system”:Forbidden in certain
applications

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Pump Operation
Molecule V

Moving Wall with Speed V

Principle of the Turbomolecular Pump


Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Turbomolecular pumps
• Operation can be extended to higher pressure
by adding a drag stage

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Principal of Turbomolecular pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Rotor - stator assembly

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Turbomolecular pump principle
• To maximise the compression ratio, blade tip velocities
need to be comparable to molecular thermal velocities.
• For a single blade, at zero flow
Pout 12
K 
Pin  21
• where α12 is the forward transmission probability
• and α21 is the reverse transmission probability
• It can be shown that
 Vb M 
K  exp  
 2kN 0 T 

• where Vb is the blade velocity

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Compression ratio

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


high vacuum
moving rotors impart
downward momentum
to gas molecules
low pressure
stages moving rotors only:
a “molecular drag
pump”

med. pressure
fixed stators
stages decelerate the
molecule for the
next rotor “hit”

without the stators,


high pressure the next rotor could
stages not impart additional
fore velocity to the gas
vacuum molecule
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Turbomolecular Pump
INLET FLANGE ROTOR BODY

STATOR BLADES
HIGH PUMPING SPEED

HIGH COMPRESSION

BEARING

EXHAUST

HIGH FREQ. MOTOR

BEARING

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


A typical turbomolecular pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Turbomolecular Pumps
• Similar in design to a
jet engine.
Alternating rotor and
stator blade
assemblies turn at
20,000-90,000 rpm to
force out molecules.
Requires a region of
low or medium
vacuum behind and in
front of pump.
Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Turbomolecular pump.

• Turbo pumps cannot pump from atmosphere


and cannot eject to atmosphere, so they require:
1-roughing (fore vacuum) pumps to reduce the
pressure in the vacuum system before they can
be started and
2-backing pumps to handle the exhaust.
• There are many types of roughing and backing
pumps. Most accelerators now use clean (dry)
pumps to avoid oil contamination in the system.

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Turbopump (con’t)
• contains no oil and is capable of reducing the pressure into the ultrahigh
vacuum range
• operates as a “molecular bat”
- rotor blades spinning at speeds as high as 6x104 rpm,
- gives a blade velocity at a radius of 10 cm of 3.8x106 cm/s.
- the mean velocity of a molecule of N2 at 300 K is 4.8x104 cm/s
• Because the rotor blades are slanted downward, the gas
molecules are driven towards the pump outlet
• Blade sizes increase towards the high pressure exit port
∀• Stator (stationary) blade sets are placed between rotor blade sets

• Pumping efficiency is greatest when the spacing between blades is less


than the mean free path of the molecules. (~5 cm at 10-3 Torr)

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Turbo pumps speed

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Vacuum system use for Turbo
pumps
6
7 1 Chamber
1 2 Turbo Pump
4 3 Roughing Pump
4 Vent Valve
5 5 Roughing Gauge
22 6 High Vac. Gauge

Rotary pump
3
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Turbo pump &Rotary pump
Turbomolecular Pump
Process chamber High rotation speed turbine
imparts momentum to gas atoms
Inlet pressures: <10 mTorr
Foreline pressure: < 1 Torr
Requires a rough pump
Good choice for toxic and
explosive gases –
-gases are not trapped in pump
foreline
All gases are pumped at approx.
the same rate
Pumping Speeds:
20 – 2000 liters per sec
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
adapted from Lesker.com
Ion Pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Ion Getter Pump

A getter
Is a material
that reacts
with a gas
molecule to
form a solid
nonvaporizable
material

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Ion pump
• The ion pump works by ionizing
gas molecules and accelerating
them into walls coated with freshly-
evaporated titanium
– the gas ions strike a titanium
cathode and cause sputtering
– the sputtered Ti is reactive and
will getter reactive gases (N2,
O2)
– the gas ions can be buried by
self-ion implantation
• A strong magnetic field is applied
to cause the electrons to move in
helical paths and increase the
ionization efficiency
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Ion pump (sputter- Ion pump, getter Ion
pump)

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Ion pumps
• Main components
– Array of parallel
stainless tubes
– Various charged
surfaces
– Titanium or tantalum
coated surfaces
• Trap molecules with
varying speeds via
chemical reactions
Varian Scientific Instrumentation, Inc.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Ion pumps
• Ion pumps have several serious disadvantages
– low pumping speeds (inert gases are pumped
especially poorly)
– can only be started at low pressures (~ 10-4 torr)
– can “arc-over” if pressure increases suddenly
• However, ion pumps are very clean and can produce
very high vacuums (<10-12 torr)

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Ion pump

• Expensive per unit pumping speed


• Low pumping speed
• Generates hydrocarbons
• Has a memory effect
• Very low maintenance
• Moderately difficult to destroy
• Excellent base pressures
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
• Does not pump rare gases well
• Does not pump hydrogen
• Closed system: very safe against
vacuum accidents

A typical
ion-pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Ion Pumps
• Current (per cell) – and hence pumping
speed – depends on voltage, magnetic
field, pressure and history.
1.05 < n < 1.2
I  kP n
Pump life depends on quantity of gas pumped
> 20 years at 10-9 mbar
Prone to generate particulates
Leakage current unpredictable, so pressure
indication below 10-8 mbar unreliable
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Ion Pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Ion Pumps
Diode Differential Starcell Triode
Diode
Voltage +7kV +7kV +2-5kV -5kV
Pumping Speed Highest Good Good Lowest
(Active gases)
Pumping Speed Lowest Good Higher Highest
(Noble gases)
Starting Pressure Lowest Lowest Good Highest
UHV Low Low Good Highest
Cost Lowest Higher Low Highest

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Ion Pumps
Pumping in the basic diode Penning cell

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Ion Pumps
• The Diode pump has poor pumping speed
for noble gases
• Remedies
– Differential Ion; Noble Diode
• “Heavy” cathode
– Triode
– Special Anode shape e.g. Starcell

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


• Cryopumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Cryo-condensation

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Cryopumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Pumping by Cryocondensation

molecules

Cold surface

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Cryopumps
• Similar in principle to
the ion pump but uses
a cryogenically cooled
surface of activated
charcoal or zeolites to
condense and trap
gas molecules.

Kurt J. Lesker Vacuum Technology


Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Cryosorption in charcoal

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Charcoal placement

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Cryopumps
Cryopumps condense gases on cold
surfaces to produce vacuum
Typically there are three cold surfaces:
• Inlet array condenses water and
hydrocarbons (60-100 Kelvin)
• Condensing array pumps argon,
nitrogen and most other gases (10-20
K)
• Adsorption is needed to trap helium,
hydrogen and neon in activated carbon (Campbell)
at 10-12 K. These gases are pumped
very slowly!

Warning: all pumped gases are trapped inside the pump, so explosive, toxic
and corrosive gases are not recommended. No mech. pump is needed until regen.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
adapted from www.helixtechnology.com
Cryopumps

• Expensive per unit pumping speed


• Very high pumping speeds are possible
• Pumping hydrogen (pumps everything)
• Requires periodic recharging
• Vibration can be a serious problem
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Types of Cryogenic Pumps
• There are two major classes of such
pumps
– Liquid Pool
• Liquid helium temperature (~4K)
– Closed cycle
• Refrigerator (~12K)
• Supplemented by cryosorption

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Cyro pump (Liquid Pool)

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Cyro pump (Closed cycle )

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Cryogenic Pump Speed

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Getter Pumps
• When a gas molecule impinges on a clean metal film,
the sticking probability can be quite high.
• For an active gas with the film at room temperature,
values can be between 0.1 and 0.8. These fall with
coverage.
• For noble gases and hydrocarbons sticking coefficients
are very low (essentially zero)
• Evaporated films, most commonly of titanium or barium,
are efficient getters and act as vacuum pumps for active
gases.

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Getter pumps
• In recent times, thin films of getter material have been
formed on the inside of vacuum vessels by magnetron
sputtering
• These have the advantage of
– pumping gas from the vacuum chamber by gettering
– and of stopping gases from diffusing out of the walls
of the vessels

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Getter Pumps
• For vacuum use, the most common getter
pump is the titanium sublimation pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Titanium sublimation pumps (HV and
UHV)

• Very inexpensive and simple


• Requires periodic maintenance,
which is cheap
• Often misused, which limits their
performance
• Selective in what it pumps (good for
oxygen, N2, air, not for rare gases)
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
A typical titanium sublimation pump

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Others Getter Pumps
• An important class of getter pumps are the Non
Evaporable Getters (NEGs)
• These are alloys of elements like Ti, Zr, V, Fe, Al which
after heating in vacuo present an active surface where
active gases may be gettered
• Traditionally, the getters take the form of a sintered
powder either pressed into the surface of a metal ribbon
or formed into a pellet

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Getter Pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Getter Pumps

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


• Vacuum cycle

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Pumpdown Curve
• Conditions:
– Chamber closed and sealed
– Vacuum pump on and all isolation valves open
– No gas flowing into the chamber
• What would an ideal pumpdown curve look
like?
• What effect would the following have on the
ideal curve?
– Real (Gross) Leak
– Virtual Leak
– Permeation Leak
– Outgassing
– Backstreaming
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Pumpdown procedure

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Venting procedure

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
System pumpdown

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Standard Vacuum Cycle
• Step 0: Start at atmospheric pressure at t=o
– load wafer and close chamber
– alternative, start at loadlock pressure (~100mT)
• a loadlock is a separate vacuum chamber that
prevents the chamber from being exposed to
atmosphere

• Step 1: Pump down to base pressure


– remove atmospheric contaminants from the
chamber
– verify system integrity
– continue to next step: when pressure falls below a
trigger point
– abort: if base pressure is not reached within a
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
certain amount of time, indicating a leak or a pump
Standard Vacuum Cycle
• Step 2: Introduce gasses and stabilize
pressure
– pressure increases from base pressure to process
pressure
– most reactive gas is introduced last
– throttle valve controls conductance to achieve
desired process pressure (effects residence time of
gasses)
– continue to next step: when pressure reads within a
specified range
– abort: if process pressure is not reached within a
certain amount of time, indicating a pressure control
problem

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Standard Vacuum Cycle
• Step 3: Process
– equilibrium is maintained through controlled gas flow
and controlled (throttled) pressure
– RF power (if applicable) is introduced
– continue to next step: when pre-set time is reached,
or endpoint is detected (for etch process)
– abort: if pressure drifts outside of desired range

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University


Standard Vacuum Cycle
• Step 4: Pump Out
– gas flows and RF Power (if applicable) are turned off
– throttle valve opens wide
– purpose is to remove the majority of the reactive
gasses from the chamber
– continue to next step: when base pressure is
reached for a minimum length of time
• Step 5: Purge
– inert gas (usually nitrogen - why?) is introduced into
the chamber
– pressure inside the chamber increases to a trigger
point
– presence of nitrogen restores viscous flow allowing
residual reactive gasses to be efficiently pumped
(rinsed) out
– continue toDr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
next step: when a minimum pressure is
Standard Vacuum Cycle
• Step 6: Second Pump Out
– turn off nitrogen
– pump out nitrogen and residual reactive gasses to
base pressure
– continue to next step: when base pressure is
reached for a minimum length of time
– Note: steps 5 and 6 may be repeated
• Step 7: Vent
– close all valves between chamber and pump
– flow nitrogen directly into chamber
– pressure increases from base pressure to
atmospheric (or loadlock) pressure
– continue to next step: when atmospheric pressure is
reached
• Step 8: Open Chamber and Unload Wafer
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Abort Conditions
• Abort = Failure to meet all conditions required
to continue processing.
– Pressure not in range, Gas flow not in range,
Electrical or mechanical malfunction, Timeout,
Interlock tripped.
– Accompanied by an audible and visible alarm.
• Abort Priority:
– 1. System immediately goes to safest possible state.
– 2. Possible recovery of product material.
• Safest Possible State:
– Shut off all gas flows.
– Shut off RF power (if applicable).
– Pump(s) on, all isolation and throttle valve(s) wide
open.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University