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Automation

Technology that is concerned with the use of mechanical, electronic and computer based systems in the operation and control of production Eg : transfer lines, CNC machines, ROBOT etc., Classes of automation 1. Fixed automation 2. Programmable automation. 3. Flexible automation
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Automation

Robotics and Automation


An industrial robot is a general purpose, programmable machine which posesses certain anthropomorphic, or human like characteristics.

Robotics is a type of programmable automation.

Fundamentals
What is a Robot? Classification of Robots - JIRA (Japanese Industrial Robot Association)
Class1: Manual-Handling Device Class2: Fixed Sequence Robot Class3: Variable Sequence Robot Class4: Playback Robot Class5: Numerical Control Robot Class6: Intelligent Robot

Fundamentals
What is a Robot? Classification of Robots - RIA (Robotics Institute of America)
Variable Sequence Robot(Class3) Playback Robot(Class4) Numerical Control Robot(Class5) Intelligent Robot(Class6)

Fundamentals
What is a Robot? Classification of Robots
- AFR (Association Franaise de Robotique) Type A: Manual Handling Devices/ telerobotics Type B: Automatic Handling Devices/ predetermined cycles Type C: Programmable, Servo controlled robot, continuous point-to-point trajectories Type D: Same type with C, but it can acquire information.

Fundamentals
History of Robotics
1922: Karel apeks novel, Rossums Universal Robots, word Robota (worker) 1952: NC machine (MIT) 1955: Denavit-Hartenberg Homogeneous Transformation 1967: Mark II (Unimation Inc.) 1968: Shakey (SRI) - intelligent robot 1973: T3 (Cincinnati Milacron Inc.) 1978: PUMA (Unimation Inc.) 1983: Robotics Courses 21C: Walking Robots, Mobile Robots, Humanoid Robots

Robots increase productivity, safety, efficiency, quality, and consistency of products. Robots can work in hazardous environments without the need. Robots need no environmental comfort. Robots work continuously without experiencing fatigue of problem. Robots have repeatable precision at all times. Robots can be much more accurate than human. Robots replace human workers creating economic problems. Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously.
Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies. Robots, although superior in certain senses, have limited capabilities in Degree of freedom, Dexterity, Sensors, Vision system, real time response. Robots are costly, due to Initial cost of equipment, Installation costs, Need for Peripherals, Need for training, Need for 8 programming.

Advantages VS. Disadvantages of Robots

By general agreement a robot is:


A programmable machine that imitates the actions or appearance of an intelligent creatureusually a human.

To qualify as a robot, a machine must be able to:


Sensing and perception: # get information from its surroundings Carry out different tasks:

Locomotion

or manipulation,
physicalsuch as move or manipulate

# do something objects Re-programmable:

can do different things


interact with human beings

Function autonomously and/or

Why use robots?


Perform 4A tasks in 4D environments
4A:
Automation, Augmentation, Assistance, Autonomous

4D:

Dangerous, Dirty, Dull, Difficult

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Definition
According to WEBSTER Robot is an automatic apparatus or device that performs functions, ordinarily ascribed to human beings or operate with what appears to be almost human intelligence
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Definition

According to Robotic Institute of America

A robot is a reprogrammable, multi functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of the variety of the tasks
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Manipulators
Robot arms, industrial robot
Rigid bodies (links) connected by joints Joints: revolute or prismatic
Drive: electric or hydraulic

End-effector (tool) mounted on a flange or plate secured to the wrist joint of robot
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Robotic like devices


Are not actual robots but utilize certain facets of robotic technology 1. Prostheses 1. Exo - skeletons 1. Telecherics 1. Locomotive mechanisms
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Laws of robotics
1st law: A robot may not injure a human being, or through in action, allow one to come to harm. 2nd law A robot must obey the orders given to it by the human beings except where such orders would conflict with the 1st law. 3rd law A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict the 1st and 2nd laws Zeroth law: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm
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CLASSIFICATION:
CLASSIFIED INTO SIX CATEGORIES

Arm Geometry: Rectangular; Cylindrical; Spherical; Jointed-arm (vertical); Joined-arm (horizontal). Degrees Of Freedom: Robot Arm; Robot Wrist. Power Sources: Electrical; Pneumatic; Hydraulic; Any Combination.

Type Of Motion: Slew Motion; Joint-interpolation; Straight-line Interpolation; Circular Interpolation. Path Control: Limited Sequence; Point-to-point; Continuous Path; Controlled Path.

Intelligence Level: Low-

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Classification of robotic devices


I. Based on Co ordinate system utilized in designing mechanical structure.
1. Cartesian co ordinate robot. 2. Cylindrical co ordinate robot.

3. Spherical co ordinate robot


4. Jointed arm robot
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1. Cartesian co ordinate robot.


Cubical work volume Simplest type. Links are constrained to move in linear manner

Provides 3 linear axes of movement at right angles to each other, providing movement in X, Y, and Z axes (similar to milling machine) sub classification
cantilevered cartesian co ordinate robot. good repeatability and accuracy.
gantry type cartesian co ordinate robot.

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1. Cartesian co ordinate robot.

PPP

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Advantages
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.
7. 8. 9. 10.

Easily controlled/programmed movements High accuracy Constant accuracy/speed/payload capacity over entire range Control system simplicity Familiar X, Y, Z coordinates easily understood Inherently stiff structure Large area coverage Large payload capacity Structural simplicity, offering good reliability Easy to expand, modular fashion Where linear movement / high accuracy is needed

Applications
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2. Cylindrical co ordinate robot.


Combines both vertical & linear movements with rotary movement in the horizontal plane about the vertical axis Its motion sweep out a partially cylindrical working volume

Advantages

Easily controlled/programmed movements Control system simplicity Good accuracy Fast operation Good access to fronts and sides Structural simplicity In radial workplace layouts, where: the work is approached primarily in the horizontal plane no obstructions are present

Applications

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2. Cylindrical co ordinate robot.

RPP

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3. Spherical co ordinate robot


Combines rotational movement (both horizontal & vertical planes) with a single linear (in/out) movement of the arm. Occasionally referred to as gun turret configuration. Occupies and sweeps out a relatively large volume, but the access of the arm within this total volume is limited. Advantages Easily controlled/programmed movements Familiar polar coordinates easily understood Large payload capacity Fast Operation Accuracy and repeatability at long reaches
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3. Spherical co ordinate robot

RRP

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Applications
Suitable for lifting and shifting applications which do not require sophisticated path movements to be traced. Extremely suitable for applications where reaching into horizontal or inclined tunnels may be required. Combines both vertical & linear movements with rotary movement in the horizontal plane about the vertical axis. Its motion sweep out a partially cylindrical working volume
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4. Jointed arm robot


Pure spherical
all are pivoted links possible to reach close to the base

Parallelogram jointed robot


single link replaced with multiple links

Jointed cylindrical robot


the arm of cylindrical co ordinate robot is replaced with multiple links

Eg:

SCARA
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(Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm )

Articulated: RRR

SCARA: RRP
(Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm)

Hand coordinate:
n: normal vector; s: sliding vector; a: approach vector, normal to the tool mounting plate
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Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm


Combination of cylindrical and revolute configurations operating in the horizontal plane Three linked arms with two rotary joints provide movements in the horizontal plane Vertical movement is provided at the end of the arm

Advantages

Extremely good maneuverability and access within its programmable area Fast operation High accuracy Relatively high payload capacity (due to stiff structure in the vertical direction) Assembly type operations (assembly tasks predominantly require movement in the horizontal plane coupled with simple vertical movement for picking, placing and 28 insertion operations)

Applications

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Robot Coordinates
Fig. 1.4

Cartesian/rectangular/gantry (3P) : 3 cylinders joint Cylindrical (R2P) : 2 Prismatic joint and 1 revolute joint Spherical (2RP) : 1 Prismatic joint and 2 revolute joint Articulated/anthropomorphic (3R) : All revolute(Human arm) Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA): 2 paralleled revolute joint and 1 additional prismatic joint
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Robot Workspace

Fig. 1.7 Typical workspaces for common robot configurations


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Classification of robotic devices


II. Based on method of control.
NON SERVO controlled
Low cost
Eg. Cartesian & Cylindrical co ordinate robots like end point robot pick & place robot bang bang robot
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Easy to operate
More reliable High repeatability Low flexibility

Classification of robotic devices


II. Based on method of control.
2. SERVO controlled
Expensive

Eg:
1. Point to point robot

Closed loop control


More flexibility

2. Continuous path robot Teach mode programming Spray painting robot


Arc welding robot etc.,

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ROBOTICS & CAD/CAM

Off-line programming system of robotics Graphical Simulation of robotic work cell. Analysis of the robot configuration

Kinematic analysis Dynamic analysis

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Manufacturing Applications
1.

Applications

Material handling, machine loading & unloading applications Pick & place applications
Palletizing & de-palletizing

Fig. 1.8 A Staubli robot loading and unloading

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Pick & place application

Fig. 1.9 Staubli robot placing dishwasher tubs

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Manufacturing Applications
2. Processing applications
Spot welding, arc welding, spray painting, forging

Painting Robot in Motor Company

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Spray Painting application

Fig. 1.11 A P200 Fanuc painting automobile bodies

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Welding

Fig. 1.10 An AM120 Fanuc robot

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Manufacturing Applications
3. Assembly and inspection

Assembly Robot in Electronic Company

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Manufacturing Applications

Wearable Robotic Arm and Tele-Operated Robot (KIST)


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Manufacturing Applications

HONDA (ASIMO) Biped Robot

Fujitsu Biped Robot (Laptop Size)


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Other than Manufacturing applications


Medical applications

Construction field
Mining applications

Military applications
Fire fighting applications

Under- water applications


Space applications
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Medical applications

Medical Robot of German

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Teaching robots Agriculture robot House hold robot As security guards Bank tellers Retail robots As garbage collectors
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Components of a Robot system

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Robot Components
Manipulator End Effector Actuators Sensors Controller Processor : Main body of robot (Links, Joints, other structural element of the robot) : The part that is connected to the last joint(hand) of a manipulator : Muscles of the manipulators (servomotor, stepper motor, pneumatic and hydraulic cylinder) : To collect information about the internal state of the robot ( or ) To communicate with the outside environment : Similar to cerebellum. It controls and coordinates the motion of the actuators. : The brain of the robot. It calculates the motions and the velocity of the robots joints, etc.

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Manipulator
Major linkages:
used to position the manipulator in space

Minor linkages:
used to position the end effector

End effector:
used to perform particular task
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Robot Degree of Freedom

1 D.O.F.

2 D.O.F.

3 D.O.F.

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Robot Joints
Prismatic Joint: Linear, No rotation involved.
(Hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder)

Revolute Joint: Rotary,

(electrically driven with stepper motor, servo motor)

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Controller
Memory:
store the data / program

Sequencer:
Interprets the data stored in the memory

Computational unit:
Provides the necessary computations to aid the sequencer

Interfaces:
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Power Conversion Unit

Converts the signals from sequencer into corresponding power signals


Actuates the actuators at the joints

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Sensory Devices

Attached to the shaft of the actuator Monitor the state of each joint
i.e., position, velocity, acceleration etc.,

Eg:

LVDT, encoder, camera etc.,

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Functions of robot system


1. Ability to define points/locations in space to which the robot is to go. 2. Ability to move between points 3. Program control. 4. Control for the end effectors 5. External robot control and communications. 6. House keeping features. 7. Program debugging and simulation 8. Serviceability.

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Specifications of robot system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Load carrying capacity (or) pay load Repeatability. Maximum tip speed Co ordinate system used. Maximum movement (or) reach. Type of drives. Type of control. Memory devices used. Memory capacity. Programming method

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End Effectors
An End effector is a device that attached to the wrist of the robot arm, to perform specific task.
It is also called robots hand. End effector may be gripper (or) tool.
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End Effector

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Grippers
An end effector to grasp or hold the objects. Classification:

Depending on the method of gripping

Mechanical

Other than mechanical

Depending on the number of grasping devices

Single

Double

Multiple

Depending on grasping surface Internal external


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Mechanical Grippers
Cam actuation type

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Mechanical Grippers
Gear & Rack Actuation type

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Mechanical Grippers
Linkage Actuation type

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Other than Mechanical Grippers Vacuum cup

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Vacuum cup
1. Made of elastic material such as rubber or soft plastic
2. Provision for vacuum creation is required

3. Objects to be flat, smooth and clean.


Simple

Highly reliable
Low cost
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Magnetic gripper

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Magnetic gripper
Used

for ferrous materials to handle metal parts with holes.

Ability

Residual
A

magnetism remains in work piece.

device called fanner is used to lift more than one sheet.


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Other than Mechanical Grippers


Adhesive Gripper
Adhesive substance performs the grasping action

Hooks
To handle container parts

Scoops and ladles


To handle liquids, powders, chemicals etc.,
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Tools as end effectors

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