Você está na página 1de 21

VACCINES

General Medical Conditions - Pediatrics

What is a Vaccine?
The term vaccine was derived from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cow pox (Latin variola vaccinia, adapted from the Latin vaccn-us, from vaccacow), providing them protection against smallpox. A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine

Why get vaccinated?


Childrens first vaccines protect them from serious diseases, caused by viruses and bacteria. These diseases have injured and killed many children (and adults) over the years. And none of these diseases has completely disappeared. Without vaccination, they will come back.

Vaccination Schedule
Hepatitis B Usually given within 12 hours of birth, between 1 and 4 months, and at 6 to 18 months. Dosage and timing depends on the mother's immunity to Hepatitis B. Rotavirus Given at 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months DTaP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis) Given together at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months, and at 4 to 6 years. Acellular pertussis is the preferred vaccine for pertussis as it is associated with fewer reactions. Hib (Haemophilus influenza Type B) Given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and at 12 to 15 months.

Cont.
PCV (Pneumococcal) Given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and at 12 to 15 months. Inactivated poliovirus Given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 to 18 months, and at 4 to 6 years. Influenza Recommended annually for children 6 months and older. MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) Given together at 12 to 15 months and at 4 to 6 years. Varicella (also known as chicken pox) Given at 12 to 15 months and at 4 to 6 years. Hepatitis A Two doses given between 12 months and 24 months.

Birth- Hepatitis B 1-2 months- hepatitis B 2 months- DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis) vaccine, Hib vaccine, polio vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 4 months- DTaP, Hib vaccine, polio vaccine, PCV. 6 months- DTaP, Hib, polio (6-18 months), PCV, hepatitis B (6-18 months) 12 months- MMR (12-15 months), Hib (12-15 months), chicken pox (12-18 months), PCV (12-15 months) 15 months- DTap (12-18 months)

Who shouldn't get the DTaP vaccine? Children younger than 6 weeks old Children who have had a severe reaction to a previous DTaP shot, including coma, difficulty breathing, hives, fainting, high fever, seizure, or nonstop crying for three or more hours. If this happened to your child, consult your doctor before going for another dose of the vaccine. Talk to your child's doctor about other possible situations in which your child shouldn't get the vaccine. If the pertussis part of the shot causes a reaction, a DT (diptheria tetanus) shot may be appropriate. Are there any precautions should take? Children who have ever had any type of seizure take acetaminophen or ibuprofen at the time the shot is given and for the next 24 hours, to control any possible fever. Check with your doctor to be sure

Children who are moderately to severely ill at the time the vaccine is scheduled should probably wait until they recover before getting the shot. That way, if they do have any side effects, they'll be better able to tolerate them.
What are the possible side effects? Most potential side effects are associated with the pertussis part of the vaccine. Neither the diptheria nor the tetanus vaccine is known to cause any serious side effects. Relatively common side effects usually occurring after the fourth and fifth doses of the vaccine include mild fever, and redness, swelling, and soreness. If you notice these, you can ask the doctor whether it's okay to give your child acetaminophen (for any age) or ibuprofen (for age 6 months and older) to ease discomfort. Fussiness, tiredness, and (more rarely) vomiting can also occur.

Baby vaccinations schedule 1. Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Vaccines (DTaP):Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are serious diseases caused by bacteria. Diphtheria and Pertussis are spread from person to person. Tetanus enters the body through cuts or wounds. Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of the throat and nose. It can lead to breathing problems, paralysis and heart attack. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccine: Tetanus causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all over the body. It can lead to locking of the jaw so the baby cannot open his mouth or swallow. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) vaccine: Pertussis causes coughing spells so bad that is hard for babies to eat, drink, or breathe. These spells can last for weeks. It can lead to pneumonia, seizures and brain damage. Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTaP) can help prevent these diseases. Most babies who are vaccinated with DTaP will be protected throughout childhood. Babies should get 5 doses of DTaP vaccine or immunization, one dose at each of the following ages: 2 months 4 months 6 months 15-18 months 4-6 years ; Side effects of DTaP vaccine Babies may get fever Redness or swelling of the baby where the vaccine was given Soreness or tenderness where the vaccine was given. Some babies may get fussy after the vaccine was given. Tiredness or poor appetite

Hib Vaccine
A conjugate vaccine developed for the prevention of invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. What are the benefits of the Hib vaccine? The Hib vaccine protects your child against a severe bacterial infection that mostly affects babies and children under 5 years old. It can cause epiglottitis (severe swelling in the throat that makes it hard to breathe), a serious form of pneumonia, and a disease called bacterial meningitis. Meningitis is an infection of the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord. Recommended number of doses Three or four doses.

Recommended ages At 2 months At 4 months At 6 months (not needed if the PedvaxHIB or ComVax brand of vaccine was given at 2 and 4 months) Between 12 and 15 months It's especially important for kids to get this vaccine on schedule, because the diseases it protects against tend to strike children between the ages of 2 months and 2 years. Who shouldn't get the Hib vaccine? Children younger than 6 weeks old Any child who has had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose Are there any precautions should take? Children who are moderately to severely ill should probably wait until they recover before getting the Hib vaccine. That way, if they do have any side effects, they'll be better able to tolerate them. What are the possible side effects? Up to 25 percent of children have some redness, warmth, or swelling at the site of the injection. Fever and irritability happen infrequently. These symptoms would show up within a day of vaccination and last two to three days.

Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib)


Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) disease is a serious disease caused by a bacteria. It usually strikes children under 5 years of age. Hib disease can cause pneumonia, severe swelling in the throat, making it hard for babies to breathe, infections of the blood, joints, bones, and covering of the heart. Babies should get 4 doses of Hib vaccine, one dose at each of the following ages: 2 months 4 months 6 months 12-15 months

Side effects of Hib vaccination 1. Babies may get fever 2. Redness or swelling of the baby where the vaccine was given

IPV Vaccine

What are the benefits of the polio vaccine? The polio vaccine protects against poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the nervous system. Recommended number of doses Four doses. Recommended ages

At 2 months At 4 months Between 6 and 18 months

Between 4 and 6 years old


Who shouldn't get the polio vaccine? A child who has ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to the antibiotics neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B, or had a severe reaction to a previous dose of vaccine, should not get the polio shot. Are there any precautions should take? Children who are moderately to severely ill should probably wait until they recover before getting the polio vaccine.

What are the possible side effects or risks of an adverse reaction?


Many children feel a little soreness at the site of the injection. No serious side effects from the IPV have been reported

Polio Vaccine
Polio is a disease caused by a virus. It enters a child's (or adult's) body through the mouth. Sometimes it does not cause serious illness. But sometimes it causes paralysis. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) can prevent polio. IPV is a shot, given in the leg or arm, depending on age. Most people should get polio vaccine when they are children. Children should get 4 doses of IPV at these ages. 2 months 4 months 6-18 months 4-6 years Side effects of polio vaccine Some babies who get IPV get a sore spot where the vaccine was given.

PCV Vaccine

A vaccine used to protect infants and young children against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). What are the benefits of the pneumococcal vaccine? This vaccine protects against pneumococcal (pronounced new-m'COCKL) infections, which mostly strike children under age 5 and can lead to some of the worst childhood diseases. The bugs responsible for pneumococcal are bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. They live in the mucous lining of the nose and in the back of the throat. And when they're plentiful enough, they can cause an infection in the respiratory tract, middle ear, or sinus cavities. Antibiotics such as penicillin can kill them, but up to 40 percent of the strains are resistant to antibiotics. Pneumococcal bacteria spread by close contact and through coughing and sneezing. Diseases such as meningitis and pneumonia can crop up within days of infection. Symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia usually include fever and chills with shaking or trembling, as well as chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate, fatigue, and weakness. Nausea, vomiting, and headaches are also associated with pneumococcal pneumonia, but are less common. Pneumococcal bacteria also cause some of the most serious ear infections in children. Recommended number of doses Four doses.

Recommended ages At 2 months At 4 months At 6 months Between 12 and 15 months Who shouldn't get the PCV vaccine? Children who've had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous PCV shot or to certain other vaccines should not get the PCV vaccine. If your child has had this type of severe reaction to any immunization, talk to her doctor about whether the PCV vaccine is advisable. Are there any precautions should take? Mildly ill children can be vaccinated. But if your child has a high fever or a severe illness, such as pneumonia, wait until her health improves before taking her in for the vaccine. She'll be better able to handle the immunization when she's healthy. What are the possible side effects? About a third of vaccinated children have redness, discomfort, or swelling at the site of the injection. A third also develops a mild fever. One in 20 has a higher fever of over 102.2 degrees.

Pneumococcal Conjugate
Infection with streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can cause serious illness. It is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United states. (Meningitis is an infection of the covering of the brain). Babies should get 4 doses of immunization, one dose at each of these ages: 2 months 4 months 6 months 12-15 months The number of doses needed depends on the child's age. Always ask your health care provider for more details. Side effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccine: 1. Baby may get fever. 2. Redness or swelling can occur where the vaccine was given. 3. Some baby also became fussy or drowsy, or had a loss of appetite.

HepB Vaccine

Your child will receive her third hepititus b vaccine anywhere between six and eighteen months old. A vaccine developed for the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). What are the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine? The hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) protects your child against the hepatitis B virus, which can lead to liver damage and even death. Hepatitis B is generally considered an adult disease because it's known to be transmitted through unsafe sex and shared needles. But many who get it, including children, don't engage in these "highrisk" behaviors. They're either infected at birth or they contract the disease from close contact during childhood with others who are infected. Recommended number of doses Three shots.

Recommended ages At birth Between 1 and 2 months Between 6 and 18 months Women screened for hepatitis B during pregnancy. If you test positive, your baby should get an injection of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG), which provides short-term protection, within 12 hours of birth. Who shouldn't get the hepatitis B vaccine? A child who had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of hepatitis B vaccine should not be vaccinated again. Also, if for some reason your child didn't get hepatitis B shots as a baby and you know that she's had a life-threatening allergic reaction to baker's yeast (the kind used in baking bread), she shouldn't receive the hepatitis B vaccine because it's made with that type of yeast. Are there any precautions should take? Newborns weighing less than 4 pounds should wait to get vaccinated until they're a month old or are discharged from the hospital. Children who are moderately to severely ill should probably wait until they recover before getting the hepatitis B vaccine. That way, if they do have any side effects, they'll be better able to tolerate them. What are the possible side effects? Some children feel soreness where the shot was given and a few develop a low-grade fever.

Hepatitis B Vaccine
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious disease. Hepatitis B virus can cause short-term illness such as loss of appetite, diarrrhea and vomitting, tiredness, jaundice (yellow skin or eyes). It can also cause long-term illness such as liver damage (cirrhosis) and liver cancer. Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B virus. It is the first anti-cancer vaccine because it can prevent a form of liver cancer. Babies should get 3 doses of hepatitis vaccine according to the following schedule. If you miss a dose or get behind schedule, get the next dose as soon as you can. There is no need to start over. Birth to 2 months of age 1-4 months of age (at least 1 month after first dose) 6-18 months of age Side effects of Hepatitis B vaccine 1. Soreness of the baby where the vaccination or immunization shot was given, lasting a day or two. 2. Babies may get fever.

MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella)


MMR vaccine protects against 3 viruses: Measles, mumps and rubella (German measles). Many parents choose the MMRV vaccine instead of the MMR, except that it includes protection against the varicella virus, which causes chicken pox. Measles is a highly contagious illness. The main symptoms are a fever, runny nose, cough, rash and eye irritation. Other complications include pneumonia, ear infections, diarrhea, seizures and brain damage. Mumps is a viral infection that typically causes a fever, headache and inflammation of the glands under the jaw. It can lead to meningitis and encephalitis. It can also cause painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries. Rubella also called German measles, is characterized by a pinkish red rash that starts on the face, a mild fever, and swollen lymph nodes. It's possible, however, to have rubella without any symptoms. Rubellais a mild illness that runs its course in about three days, but if a woman gets it during pregnancy, it can cause miscarriage or birth defects in her baby including deafness, eye problems, heart defects, and mental retardation. Babies should get 2 doses of MMR vaccine according to the following schedule. Between 12 to 15 months Between 4 and 6 years old - although the second dose can be given at any time as long as it's at least 28 days after the first. Side effects of MMR vaccine: 1. Baby may get fever. 2. Swelling and rashes can occur where the vaccine was given.

Thanks for listening & Have a great day!