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lemale SysLem

W Cons|sts of
arles ((1esLes ln Males))
lalloplan Lubes ((ConducLle 1ube))
8arLholln's glands
lemale 8eproducLle SysLemSysLem
lemale 8eproducLle
1he female gonads or sex glands
2 A|mond S|zed G|ands elLher slde
of uLerus
A woman ls born wlLh abouL
400000 |mmature eggs ca||ed
uurlng a llfeLlme a woman releases
abouL 400 Lo 300 fully maLured
eggs for ferLlllzaLlon
1he folllcles ln Lhe oarles produce
Lhe female sex hormones
progesLerone and esLrogen
1hese hormones prepare Lhe
uLerus for lmplanLaLlon of Lhe
ferLlllzed egg
lemale 8eproducLle SysLem
W @e Cvar|es
W 1he oarles fooctloo lo
W opmot ooJ oootloo of oocyt
W @ ptoJoctloo ooJ cttloo of otmoo
W 1he oary ls aLLached Lo Lhe broad llgamenL by a shorL fold of
perlLoneum called Lhe mootlom Lhrough whlch essels
and neres pass Lo Lhe oary and enLer lL aL Lhe hllus of Lhe
W 1he surface of Lhe oary ls coered by a slngle layer of
cubo|da| ep|te||um also called qermino/ epithe/ium lL ls
conLlnuous wlLh Lhe perlLoneal mesoLhellum
W lL ls coered by a capsule of llbrous connecLle Llssue Lhe
tunico o/buqineo lmmedlaLely beneaLh Lhe eplLhellum
ary PlsLology
W 1he oary ls dllded lnLo an outer cortex and an |nner
W 1he corLex conslsLs of connect|ve t|ssue stroma ln whlch Lhe
oarlan folllcles are embedded
W 1he medulla ls composed of |oose connect|ve t|ssue whlch
conLalns blood essels and neres
W Cvar|an Io|||c|es
W arlan folllcles conslsL of one oocyLe and surroundlng
folcoot c lolllcular deelopmenL can be dllded lnLo a
number of sLages
W ueelopmenL represenLs a morphologlcal conLlnuum LhaL
sLarLs aL puberLy and conLlnues Llll meopause
W ach oary ls held ln place by 3 llgamenLs
road ||gament suspends oarles beLween Lhe uLerus pellc wall
Cvar|an ||gament aLLaches oarles Lo Lhe uLerus
Suspensory ||gament aLLaches oarles Lo Lhe pellc wall
W ach oary ls coered by 3 layers of eplLhellal cells
each wlLh dlfferenL funcLlons
nurLure deeloplng folllcles secreLe hormones blood
essels and muscles
lemale 8eproducLle SysLem
Cvary ls Lhe r|mary Sex Crgan aLLached Lo
perlLoneum (Mesoarlum) of body wall and
8road LlgamenL of Lhe uLerus
arlan eplLhellum ls conLlnuous wlLh
mesoLhellum of perlLoneum of slmple
cuboldal eplLhellum (folllcle cells) wlLh no
basal lamlnae and fuLure oocyLes Cermlnal
arlan sLroma (1unlca albuglnea) ls of dense
modlfled areolar C1 below Lhe germlnal
eplLhellum (reerse poslLlon of sLroma)
unusually cellular wlLh splndle shaped C1 cells
and areolar componenLs
AbouL 200000 oogonla/oary of whlch abouL
200230 maLure Lo oulaLlon/oary 1he resL
reach some sLage of deelopmenL and
undergo aLresla Corpora ALreLlca
Small almond shaped
glands ln Lhe pellc
ConLaln Lhousands of
small sacs called
ach folllcle conLalns
lmmaLure oum
um maLures folllcle
enlarges and rupLures Lo
release maLure oum
called ulaLlon ulaLlon
ulaLlon occurs abouL
eery 28 days
roduce hormones
LhaL help deelopmenL
of reproducLle organs
and produce
secondary sex
W 8reasL enlargemenL
W ublc halr
Cvar|an Io|||c|es
W arlan folllcles conslsL of one oocyLe and surroundlng
folllcular cells lolllcular deelopmenL can be dllded lnLo a
number of sLages
W ueelopmenL represenLs a morphologlcal conLlnuum and lL
may noL be posslble Lo asslgn all folllcles Lo a speclflc sLage
1hls sald lLs preLLy easy mosL of Lhe Llme
W r|mord|a| Io|||c|es are locaLed ln Lhe corLex [usL beneaLh
Lunlca albuglnea Cne Layer Cf I|attened Io|||cu|ar Ce||s
surround Lhe oocyLe (abouL 30 m ln dlameLer) 1he
nucleus of Lhe oocyLe ls poslLloned eccenLrlc ln Lhe cell lL
appears ery llghL and conLalns a promlnenL nucleolus
MosL organelles of Lhe oocyLe aggregaLe ln Lhe cenLre of
Lhe cell where Lhey form Lhe lLelllne body (probably noL
lslble ln any of Lhe aallable preparaLlons)
AL blrLh many oogonla are lnesLed by flaLLened folllcle cells
rlmary arlan lolllcle %%r|mord|a| Io|||c|es))
AL maLurlLy upon sLlmulaLlon (lSP) folllcle cells enlarge and
dllde formlng a Strat|f|ed Cubo|da| Lp|te||a| Layer
Membranosa Cranulosa wlLh a hollow fluld fllled calLy
1he oum ls suspended ln Lhe cenLer f @e Antrum Cn A
n|||ock Cf Granu|osa Ce||s Cumu|us Coporus
1he deeloplng oum ls surrounded by a layer of folllcle cells
%Corona kad|ata strat|f|ed cubo|da| ep|te||um) and Lhese
Lwo bodles secreLe an amorphous rlng Lhe Zona elluclda
around Lhe oum
W Secondary Io|||c|e Sma|| I|u|df|||ed spaces become lslble
beLween Lhe granulosa cells as Lhe folllcle reaches a dlameLer of
abouL 400 m 1hese spaces enlarge and fuse Lo form Lhe Io|||cu|ar
Antrum whlch ls Lhe Def|n|ng Ieature Cf @e Secondary Io|||c|e
1he oocyLe ls now locaLed eccenLrlc ln Lhe folllcle ln Lhe cumulus
oophorus where lL ls surrounded by granulosa cells
W @e @eca Io|||cu|| D|fferent|ates wlLh Lhe conLlnued growLh of Lhe
folllcle lnLo a @eca Interna And A @eca Lxterna Vascu|ar|zat|on
of te teca |nterna |mproves and Lhe splndleshaped or
polyhedral cells ln Lhls layer sLarL Lo kCDUCL CLS@kCGLNS 1he
@eca Lxterna keta|ns Lhe characLerlsLlcs of a hlghly cellular
connecLle Llssue wlLh Smoot Musc|e Ce||s
W 1he oocyLe of Lhe secondary folllcle reaches a dlameLer of abouL
123 m 1he folllcle lLself reaches a dlameLer of abouL 1013 mm
W @e 2ona e||uc|da @e Cocyte outer
membrane(glycoproLelns beLween
lnLerdlglLaLlng processes of oocyLe and
granulosa cells) becomes lslble arenchymal
cells of Lhe oary surroundlng Lhe growlng
folllcle become organlsed ln concenLrlc
sheaLhs Lhe Lheca folllcull
W 1he maLure or LerLlary or preoulaLory Cr Graaf|an
Io|||c|e lncreases furLher ln slze (ln parLlcular ln Lhe lasL
12h before oulaLlon) 1he Craaflan folllcle forms a
small bump on Lhe surface of Lhe oary Lhe sLlgma
(or macula pelluclda) 1he sLlgma ls characLerlsed by a
Lhlnnlng of Lhe capsule and a progressle resLrlcLlon of
Lhe blood flow Lo lL r|or @o Cvu|at|on @e Cumu|us
Coporus Separates Irom @e Io|||cu|ar Wa|| 1he
Cocyte Is Now I|oat|ng Iree|y In @e Io|||cu|ar
Antrum lL ls sLlll Surrounded y Granu|osa Ce||s whlch
form Lhe corona radlaLa 1he folllcle flnally rupLures aL
Lhe sLlgma and Lhe oocyLe ls released from Lhe oary
8eproducLlon and Lhe
MensLrual Cycle
W 1he egg cell ls ferLlle for abouL 2448 hours
afLer oulaLlon
W ln general ferLlllzaLlon occurs 4t and
W Sperm cells are ferLlle ln Lhe reproducLle
Lubes for abouL 4872 ours
@e Corpus |uteum
W 1he corpus luLeum ls formed by ot Granu|osa Ce||s And @eca|
Ce||s After Cvu|at|on nas Cccurred 1he wall of Lhe folllcle
collapses lnLo a folded sLrucLure whlch ls characLerlsLlc for Lhe
corpus luLeum Vascu|ar|zat|on Increases and a connecLle Llssue
neLwork ls formed 1heca lnLerna cells and granulosa cells Lrlple ln
slze and sLarL accumulaLlng luLeln (Whlch hormone sLlmulaLes Lhls
process? Where ls Lhls hormone produced?) wlLhln a few hours
afLer oulaLlon @ey Are Now Ca||ed Granu|osa Lute|n Ce||s And
@eca Lute|n Ce||s And roduce rogesterone And Cestrogens
W Pormone secreLlon ln Lhe corpus luLeum ceases w|t|n 4 days
afLer oulaLlon lf Lhe Cocyte Is Not Iert|||sed ln Lhls case Lhe
corpus luLeum degeneraLes lnLo a Corpus A|b|cans w|t|s scar
Llssue wlLhln Lhe oarles
W Pormone secreLlon conLlnues for 23 mont afLer oulaLlon lf
ferLlllzaLlon occurs Llll ICkMA@ICN CI LACLN@A
W ls Lhe name for Lhe degenerat|ve process by w|c oocytes %and fo|||c|es)
perlsh wlLhouL halng been expelled by oulaLlon abouL 999 of Lhe
oocyLes LhaL where presenL aL Lhe Llme of puberLy undergo aLresla
W ALresla may effecL oocyLes aL all sLages of Lhelr llfe boLh prenaLally and
posLnaLally 8y Lhe slxLh monLh of gesLaLlon abouL 7 mllllon oocyLes and
oogonla are presenL ln Lhe oarles 8y Lhe Llme of blrLh Lhls number ls
reduced Lo abouL 2 mllllon f Lhese only abouL 400000 surle unLll
W ALresla ls also Lhe mode of desLrucLlon of folllcles whose maLuraLlon ls
lnlLlaLed durlng Lhe cyclus (1013) buL whlch do noL oulaLe ALresla ls
operaLlng before puberLy Lo remoe folllcles whlch begln Lo maLure durlng
Lhls perlod (none of whlch are oulaLed) Clen LhaL aLresla affecLs folllcles
aL arlous sLages of Lhelr deelopmenL lL ls oblous LhaL Lhe process may
Lake on qulLe a arleLy of hlsLologlcal appearances
O Ia||op|an tubes
2 Lubes 3 lnches long
aLLached Lo Lhe upper parL of
Lhe uLerus
LaLeral ends found aboe Lhe
oarles and noL dlrecLly
llngerllke pro[ecLlons called
flmbrlae LhaL help moe
oum lnLo Lhe falloplan Lube
Seres as passage for oum
from Lhe oary Lo Lhe uLerus
um moed by perlsLalsls
Cllla keep oum molng
Loward Lhe uLerus
O Iert|||zat|on
unlon of Lhe oum and
sperm Lo creaLe a new
1akes place ln Lhe
falloplan Lube
lalloplan 1ube/lducL
W 1he olducL funcLlons as a condulL for Lhe oocyLe from Lhe oarles Lo Lhe
W PlsLologlcally Lhe olducL conslsLs of amocooand amocootl1he
perlLoneal surface of Lhe olducL ls llned by a serosa and sub[acenL
connecLle Llssue
W @he mucoso
SLCkL@Ck LI@nLLIUMresLlng on a ery cellular |am|na propr|a 1he
number of clllaLed cells and secreLory cells arles along Lhe olducL SecreLory
acLllLy arles durlng Lhe mensLrual cycleSome of Lhe secreLed subsLances
are LhoughL Lo nourlsh Lhe oocyLe and Lhe ery early embryo
W @he muscu/oris
conslsLs of an |nner c|rcu|ar musc|e |ayer and an outer |ong|tud|na| |ayer An
lnner longlLudlnal layer ls presenL ln Lhe lsLhmus and Lhe lnLramural parL of
Lhe olducL 8lS1AL1lC MuSCL acLlon seems Lo be more lmporLanL for Lhe
LransporL of sperm and oocyLe Lhan Lhe acLlon of Lhe c|||a
W 1hese llgamenLs work wlLh Lhe 8ound and uLerosacral
llgamenLs Lo suspend female reproducLle sysLem ln Lhe lower
W SlgnlflcanLly dlfferenL from males where all sLrucLures hang
@e Uterus
W 1he uLerus ls dllded lnLooJy upper LwoLhlrdsandctlx1he walls of
Lhe uLerus are composed of
W mucosa| |ayer Lheendometrium and a flbromuscular layer Lhe
myometrium1he perlLoneal surface of Lhe uLerus ls coered by a serosa
1he muscle flbres of Lhe uLerus form layers wlLh preferred orlenLaLlons of
flbres acLually 4 buL Lhls ls ery dlfflculL Lo see ln mosL preparaLlons
1he muscular Llssue ypertrop|es dur|ng pregnancy and GA[unct|ons
between ce||s become more frequent
W Lndometr|um
1he endomeLrlum conslsLs of a S|mp|e Co|umnar Lp|te||um (clllaLed
cells and secreLory cells) and an underlylng @|ck Connect|ve @|ssue
@e mucosa ls lnaglnaLed Lo form many slmple LubularU@LkINL
GLANDS1he glands exLend Lhrough Lhe enLlre Lhlckness of Lhe sLroma
1he stroma| ce||s of Lhe endomeLrlum are embedded ln a Network Cf
ket|cu|ar I|bres
1he endomeLrlum ls sub[ecL Lo Cyc||c Canges @at kesu|t In
Menstruat|on nly Lhe mucosa of te body of te uterus Lakes parL ln
Lhe mensLrual cycle
W 1he endomeLrlum can be dllded lnLo Lwo zones based on
Lhelr lnolemenL ln Lhe changes durlng Lhe mensLrual cycle
W 1he ASALIS ls noL sloughed off durlng mensLruaLlon buL
funcLlons as a regenerat|ve zone for te funct|ona||s afLer lLs
sloughlng durlng mensLrualon
W 1he lunC1lnALlS lS 1P LuMlnAL parL of Lhe endomeLrlum
lL ls sloughed off durlng eery mensLruaLlon and lL ls Lhe slLe
of cycllc changes ln Lhe endomeLrlum
W 1hese cycllc changes are dllded lnLo a number of phases
9ro/iferotive %Cr Io|||cu|ar) 5ecretory %Cr Lutea|) And
Cell coloured uslng Lhe
meLhod lnenLed by
Ceorge apanlcolaou
Cross AnaLomy
Squamocolumnar [uncLlon
ap l normal cells
1superflclal cells
ap ll lnflammaLory cells wlLh
1rlchomonas (3)

Cerlx carclnoma
W Cerlcal cancer ls Lhe mosL common mallgnanL
genlLal cancer of women
W Cancerogenesls
normal eplLhellum
recancerosls (noL
uysplaslas 2033 years
Carclnoma ln slLu 2340 years
Cancer 4333 years
8asal lamlna
SLraLum basale
SLraLum splnosum
SLraLum superflclale
uysplasla Carclnoma ln slLu
ConnecLle Llssue

Cell classes
O Vag|na
Muscular Lube connecLs
cerlx of uLerus Lo ouLslde of
assageway for mensLrual
8eceles sperm and semen
from male
AcLs as blrLh canal durlng
Llned wlLh mucous
membrane arranged ln folds
called rugae LhaL allow aglna
Lo enlarge durlng chlldblrLh
and lnLercourse
O arto||n's g|ands
2 small glands on each
slde of Lhe aglnal
Secrete Mucus for
lubrlcaLlon durlng
W 1he aglna ls a flbromuscular Lube wlLh a wall conslsLlng of Lhree layers
te mucosa muscu|ar|s and advent|t|a of te vag|na
W ,ocoo
@e strat|f|ed squamous ep|te||um (deep sLraLum basalls lnLermedlaLe
sLraLum splnosum superflclal layers of flaL eoslnophlllc cells whlch do conLaln
keraLln buL whlch do noL normally form a Lrue horny layer) resLs on a ery
cellular lamlna proprla (many leukocyLes) 1owards Lhe muscularls some
ocoot cotooo pocmay be seen (Lyplcal erecLlle Llssue
W ,ocootl
Inner c|rcu|ar and outer |ong|tud|na| |ayers of smoot musc|e are presenL
lnferlorly Lhe sLrlaLed olunLary bulbosponglosus muscle forms a sphlncLer
around Lhe aglna
W Jotltlo
1he parL of Lhe adenLlLla borderlng Lhe muscularls ls falrly dense and conLalns
many elasLlc flbres Loose connecLle Llssue wlLh a promlnenL enous plexus
forms Lhe ouLer parL of Lhe adenLlLla
Iema|e Accessory keproduct|ve G|ands
Mammary G|ands
W 1he mammary glands are mod|f|ed g|ands of te sk|n 1helr
deelopmenL resembles LhaL of sweat g|ands
W 1hey are compound kANCnLD ALVLCLAk GLANDS whlch
conslsL of 1323 lobes separaLed by dense lnLerlobar
connecLle Llssue and faL ach lobe conLalns an lndlldual
gland @e excretory duct of eac |obe a|so ca||ed
LAC@IILkCUS DUC@ has lLs own openlng CN @nL NILL
W @e secretory un|ts are ALVLCLI w|c are ||ned by a
W A layer of MCLI@nLLIAL CLLLS l ooy ptot to
t pltlom ooJ t omot mmtoo of t tooc
of t octlftoo Joct ooJ t ool
Cvar|an Cyc|es
W AfLer puberLy Lhe oary cycles beLween a Io|||cu|ar ase
%Matur|ng Io|||c|es) and a Lutea| ase %resence Cf @e
Corpus Luteum)
W 1hese cycllc phases are lnLerrupLed only by pregnancy and
conLlnue unLll menopause when reproducLle capablllLy ends
W 1he oarlan cycle lasLs usually 28 days
W uurlng Lhe flrsL phase Lhe oocyLe maLures wlLhln a folllcle AL
mldpolnL of Lhe cycle Lhe oocyLe ls released from Lhe oary ln a
process known as CVULA@ICN
W lollowlng oulaLlon Lhe folllcle forms a corpus luLeum whlch
synLheslzes and prepares normones @o repare @e Uterus Ior
W 1he maLure oocyLe passes lnLo Lhe olducL (falloplan Lube or
uLerlne Lube)
W 1he olducL ls connecLed Lo Lhe uLerus
W 1he uLerus has an lnner layer Lhe endomeLrlum ln whlch a
ferLlllzed egg IMLAN@S
normones and Iema|e Cyc|es
W 1he oarlan cycle ls normona||y kegu|ated ln
W Pormones from Lhe nypota|amus And
Anter|or |tu|tary conLrol Lhe oarlan cycle
W 1he folllcle secreLes sLrogen 8efore
ulaLlon Lhe Corpus LuLeum SecreLes 8oLh
sLrogen And rogesLerone AfLer ulaLlon
W 1he oarlan cycle coers eenLs ln Lhe oary
Lhe mensLrual cycle occurs ln Lhe uLerus
W 1he flrsL day of Lhe cycle ls Lhe flrsL day of blood flow %Day 0)
known as mensLruaLlon
W uurlng mensLruaLlon Lhe Uter|ne L|n|ng Is roken Down and
Sed As Menstrua| I|ow
W ISn and Ln are secreLed on day 0 beglnnlng boLh Lhe
Menstrua| Cyc|e And @e Cvar|an Cyc|e
W 8oLh lSP and LP sLlmulaLe Lhe Maturat|on Cf A S|ng|e Io|||c|e
ln one of Lhe oarles and Lhe secreLlon of esLrogen
W 8lslng leels of Lstrogen In @e |ood Lrlgger secret|on of Ln
whlch sLlmulaLes ICLLICLL MA@UkA@ICN and oulaLlon (day
14 or mldcycle)
W LP sLlmulaLes Lhe remalnlng folllcle cells Lo form Lhe Corpus
Luteum W|c roduces ot Lstrogen And rogesterone
W Lstrogen And rogesterone sLlmulaLe Lhe
deelopmenL of Lhe Lndometr|um and
preparaLlon of Lhe uLerlne lnner llnlng for
lmplanLaLlon of a zygoLe
W lf pregnancy does noL occur Lhe drop ln ISn
And Ln Cause @e Corpus Luteum @o
W 1he drop ln hormones also causes Lhe
s|oug|ng off of Iunct|ona||s Layer by a serles
of muscle conLracLlons of Lhe uLerus
8eproducLlon and Lhe
MensLrual Cycle
W 2 maln phases folllcular and luLeal phase each 14 days
W Io|||cu|ar pase (14 days)
lncludes mensLrual flow phase (3 days)
W Loss of 2363 ml of blood aerage
PypoLhalamus Lrlggers plLulLary Lo secreLe lSP
W Causes Lhe folllcle Lo deelop
W As folllcle deelops sLarLs Lo produce esLrogen
sLrogen has Lhree lmporLanL effecLs
W lnhlblLs lSP producLlon
we'e goL a folllcle and don'L need Lo produce anoLher one now"
W causes Lhe endomeLrlum llnlng Lo bulld up
W Causes Lhe plLulLary Lo secreL LP
LP surge causes oulaLlon marks end of Lhe folllcular phase
8eproducLlon and Lhe
MensLrual Cycle
W As lSP decllnes causes Lhe lncrease ln secreLlon of LP
(LuLelnlzlng hormone)
Splke ln LP causes oulaLlon Lo occur
W AfLer oulaLlon ln |utea| pase
W AfLer oulaLlon Lhe folllcle ls called a corpus luLeum
W Corpus luLeum makes progesLerone
W rogesLerone
lnhlblLs plLulLary manufacLure of LP (and lSP)
We'e goL successful oulaLlon don'L need anymore"
sLrogen (oary)
lnhlblLs lSP
lolllcle deelops
LP surge (due Lo low
lSP) Lrlggers
Corpus luLeum
lnhlblLs lSP LP
8eproducLlon and Lhe
MensLrual Cycle
W lf pregnancy occurs
sLrogen and progesLerone sLay hlgh
lSP and LP sLay low Lhe endomeLrlum conLlnues
Lo grow
Corpus luLeum grows and domlnaLes Lhe oary
W MosL blrLh conLrol pllls conLaln Lhe comblnaLlon of
Lhe hormones estrogen and progesterone Lo preenL
oulaLlon lnhlblLs lSP and LP