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J5800 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL

JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL POLITEKNIK SULTAN AZLAN SHAH

Synopsis
INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL emphasizes to the students on the importance of instrumentations and the basic principles of control system and its application in the industrial sector. This module shall provide knowledge and understanding to students on measurement components in control systems normally used in the industry.

Assessment
Course work (50%) Quiz 4 20% Assignment 3 20% Practical 4 20% Test 2 40% Final Examination (50%) Attendance >80%

Chapter
1. 2.

INTRODUCTION TO INSTRUMENTATION TYPES OF MEASUREMENT IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM TYPES OF CONTROL SYSTEM APPLICTION OF COMPUTER IN PROCESS CONTROL

3. 4. 5.

Course Objective
At the end of this module, the student shall be able to:
1.

Explain The Instrumentation Concept And Measurement System. Elaborate On The Basic Elements In Instrumentation System. Identify Four (4) Types Of Measurements In Industrial Application Such As Electrical, Pneumatic And Hydraulic Control. Elaborate On The Four (4) Types Of Control Action. Application Of Computer Usage In Process Control.

2. 3.

4. 5.

References
1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Franklyn, W.K., Thomas, A.W., Philip, K. Instrumentation 4th Edition. 2005. ATP. W. Bolton. Instrumentation and control system. 2004. Newnes. Eckman, D.P. Industrial Instrumentation. 2004. CBS. Ruzairi A.R. Pengukuran dan Transduser. 1999. UTM. Peter, E. Sensors for Measurement and Control. 1998. Prentice Hall. W. Bolton. Engineering Instrumentation & Control. 1996. BH. Ruzairi, A.R., Herlina, A.R., Nasarudin, A. and Anita, A. Pengukuran & Insrtumentasi Elektrik. 2003. UTM. Mohd Fuaad, R. and Sallehuddin, I. Instrumentasi. 2003. UTM. http://instrumentationandcontrollers.blogspot.com/2010/10/ dead-weight-tester.html.

INTRODUCTION TO INSTRUMENTATION
THIS IS AN INTRODUCTORY TOPIC TO THE BASIC ELEMENTS IN INSTRUMENTATION AND THE TERMINOLOGIES USED IN MEASUREMENT SYSTEM.

1. Requirement and
Content:

2.
3. 4. 5.

importance of Instrumentation in industry Basic elements of Instrumentation system Calibration of instrument and measuring instrument Error in instrument calibration Accuracy and precision

Requirement and importance of Instrumentation in industry

Definition of Instrumentation
Process control instrumentation is the

technology of using instruments to measure and control manufacturing, conversion, or treating processes to create the desired physical, electrical and chemical properties of materials. Measures, controls, and interacts with computer, electrical, hydraulic, and mechanical systems.

Instrumentation and industry


Technicians often read

instruments as part of the job of managing complex industrial processes.

Pneumatic controllers have mechanical internal

components that make it easy to see how they work. Modern digital controllers operate electronically, but the internals are not as easy to see and understand.

Application: stack gas analysis


A boiler operator is

responsible for using instruments that indicate boiler operation efficiency.

Applications: air flow measurement


An HVAC technician

measures airflow to troubleshoot an air handing system.

Application: electrical troubleshooting


An electrician is often

required to troubleshoot electrical systems related to instrument system.

Boiler use primary

elements to measure the steam pressure and temperature, feedwater flow and conductivity, boiler water level, fuel flow and pressure, and composition of the stack gas.

Question?
Now you know why the instrumentation is very

importance in industrial processes? Why?

Answer:
To calibrate machine or system

To monitor system operation


To collect data for research and development

Purpose/function of instrumentation
To give the user a numerical value

corresponding to the variable being measured. Thus, a thermometer may be used to give a numerical value for the temperature of the liquid.

Input: pressure

Measurement system

Output: Value for The pressure

Input: speed

Measurement system

Output: Value for The speed

Input: Flow rate

Measurement system

Output: Value for The flow rate

Examples of sensors to be used in the measurement process

Three (3) basic elements in a instrumentation system

Transducer / sensor contact with the process for which a variable is being measured
Signal conditioner Which converts the output of a sensor into a suitable form for further processing. Display This presents the measured value in a form which enables an observer to recognize it.

Measurement system elements: Display Input: Transducer/ sensor True Value of variable Signal conditioner Record Transmit Output: measured Value of variable

Measurement system elements for temperature:

Temperature signal

Transducer/ sensor

Signal conditioner

Display Current change

Movement of Pointer across A scale

Resistance change

Advantages / Disadvantages
Electrical/electronic instrument
Mechanical instrument

Easy to install Need the electric

Difficult to install No need the electric

signal to operate Space less Easy to damage Price less

signal to operate Large space Difficult to damage More expansive

Basic elements of Instrumentation system

Transducer

Application of transducer in the industry: Fluid pressure hydraulic, piping Fluid level Tank, reservoir Fluid flow drinking water inlet Temperature furnace

Signal conditioning methods


Mechanical methods Lever system Gear system Electrical methods Signal amplifier

Display methods
Analogue Indicator the moving coil meter involving a pointer moving across a fixed scale. Digital Illuminative displays light-emitting diodes (LEDs), liquid crystal displays (LCD), visual display units (VDUs)

Analogue
Overall accuracy: 0.1

Digital
LED require low voltages and

to 0.5 The time taken for moving coil meter to reach a steady deflection is typically in the region of a few seconds. Low resistance of the meter can present loading problems.

low current to emit light and are cheap. LED can give red, yellow and green colors. Alphanumeric display LCD do not produce any light of their own but use reflected light and can be arranged in segment like LEDs. VDUs used to display alphanumeric, graphic and pictorial data.

Calibration Of Instrument And Measuring Instrument

Definition of calibration
Process of comparing the output of

measurement system against standards of known accuracy. The standards may be other measurement systems which are kept specially for calibration duties or some means of defining standard values. In many companies some instruments and items such as standard resistors and cells are kept in a company standards department and used solely for calibration purposes.

Calibration should be carried out using

equipment which can be traceable back to national standards with a separate calibration record kept for each measurement instrument. This record is likely to contain a description of the instrument and its reference number, the calibration date, the result, how frequently the instrument is to be calibrated and probably details of the calibration procedure to be used, details of any repairs or modifications made to the instrument, and any limitations on its use.

Traceability chain
International standards International agreement and are maintained by national establishments e.g. the National Physical Laboratory in Great Britain and the National Bureau of Standards in the United States.

Calibration centre standard SIRIM


In-company standards

Process instruments

1. National standards are used to calibrate

standards for calibration centre. 2. Calibration centre standards are used to calibrate standards for instrument manufacturers. 3. Standardized instruments from instrument manufacturers are used to provide incompany standards. 4. In-company standards are used to calibrate process instruments.

Example for simple traceability chain


Let say a glass bulb thermometer, the

traceability might be:

National standard of fixed thermodynamic temperature points. Calibration centre standard of a platinum resistance thermometer with an accuracy of 0.0o5C. An in-company standard of a platinum resistance thermometer with an accuracy of 0.01C The process instrument of a glass bulb thermometer with an accuracy of 0.1C

Dead Weight Tester.


Applications

Advantages

It is used to calibrated all kinds of pressure gauges such as industrial pressure gauges, engine indicators and piezoelectric transducers. It is simple in construction and easy to use. It can be used to calibrated a wide range of pressure measuring devices. Fluid pressure can be easily varied by adding weights or by changing the piston cylinder combination. the accuracy of the dead weight tester is affected due to the friction between the piston and cylinder, and due to the uncertainty of the value of gravitational constant 'g'.

Limitations

Operation The dead weight tester is basically a pressure producing and pressure measuring device. It is used to calibrate pressure gauges. The following procedure is adopted for calibrating pressure gauges. Calibration of pressure gauge means introducing an accurately known sample of pressure to the gauge under test and then observing the response of the gauge. In order to create this accurately known pressure, the following steps are followed.

Calibrating a pressure gauge


A known weight is placed on the platform.

Now by operating the plunger, fluid pressure is applied to the other side of the piston until enough force is developed to lift the piston-weight combination. When this happens, the piston weight combination floats freely within the cylinder between limit stops. In this condition of equilibrium, the pressure force of fluid is balanced against the gravitational force of the weights pulls the friction drag.

1.4 Error In Instrument Calibration

The difference between the result of the

measurement and the true value of the quantity being measured, i.e.

Error = measured value true value

Thus, if the measured value is 10.1 when the true

value is 10.0, the error is +0.1. if the measured value is 9.9 when the true value is 10.0, the error is -0.1. Errors can arise in a number of ways and the following describes some of the errors that are encountered in specifications of instrumentation systems.

Hysteresis error The different in outputs given from the same value of quantity being measured according to whether that value has been reached by a continuously increasing change or a continuously decreasing change. Thus, you might obtain a different value from a thermometer used to measure the same temperature of a liquid if it is reached by the liquid warning up to the measured temperature or it is reached by the liquid cooling down to the measured temperature.

Non-linearity error The error that occurs as a result of assuming a linear relationship between the input and output over the working range, i.e. a graph of output plotted against input is assumed to give a straight line.

Insertion error

When a cold thermometer is put in to a hot liquid to measure its temperature, the presence of the cold thermometer in the hot liquid changes the temperature of the liquid. The liquid cools and so the thermometer ends up measuring a lower temperature than that which existed before the thermometer was introduced. The act of attempting to make the measurement has modified the temperature being measured. This effect called loading and the consequences as an insertion error. If we want this modification to be small, then the thermometer should have a small heat capacity compared with that of the liquid. A small heat capacity means that very little heat is needed to change its temperature.

1.5 Accuracy And Precision

Accuracy
The extent to which the value indicated by a

measurement system or element might be wrong. For example, a thermometer may have accuracy of 0.1C. Accuracy is often expressed as a percentage of the full range output or full-scale deflection (f.s.d). For example, a system might have an accuracy of 1% of f.s.d. If the f.s.d is, say 10 A, then the accuracy is 0.1 A. The accuracy is a summation of all the possible errors that are likely to occur, as well as the accuracy to which the system or element has been calibrated.

Precision
The degree of freedom of a measurement system

from random errors. Thus, a high precision measurement instrument will give only small spread of readings if repeated readings are taken of the same quantity. A low precision measurement system will give large spread of readings. For example, consider the following two sets of readings obtained for repeated measurements of the same quantity by two different instruments:

20.1mm Set 2 - 19.9mm, 20.3mm, 20.0mm, 20.5mm, 19.8mm The result of the measurement give values scattered about some value. The first set of results shows a smaller spread of readings than the second and indicates a higher degree of precision for the instrument used for the first set.

Set 1 - 20.1mm, 20.2mm, 20.1mm, 20.0mm,

Terms used to specify A measurement system


Reproducibility The ability of a system to give the same output when used with a constant input with the system of elements of the system being disconnected from its input and then reinstalled. Drift The change in output that occurs over time. Response time This is the time which elapsed after the input to a system or element is abruptly increased from zero to a constant value up to the point at which the system or element give an output corresponding to some specified percentage, e.g. 95% of the value of the input. Range / span The limits between which the input can vary. For example, a resistance thermometer sensor might be quoted as having a range of -200 to +800C.

ASSIGNMENT 1
Please explain the measuring sensor that had

been given to you. Please include on your presentation the description, applications, operation, advantages & disadvantages of that measuring sensor. Presentation Duration = 15 minutes Q&A = 5 minutes The marks will be given depend on your contain, presentation skill, & the ability to answer the question.

Temperature RTDs Thermistors Thermocouples Fluid flow Differential pressure method orifice plate & rota meter electromagnetic flow meter Ultrasonic flow meter Fluid level Floats Capacitive level indicator Nucleonic level indicator Fluid pressure Diaphragm sensor Piezoelectric sensor Bourdon tube