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Chapter 1- Show that you know about and understand the aged care field
Definitions Older person the aged person. They are mostly aged over 65 years. An older person who is an Aboriginal or Torres Trait Islander is over 50 years. Carer an unpaid person who looks after an older person. This might be someone in the family, a friend or neighbour. Aged care worker a paid worker who looks after an older person. Also known as personal carers or staff members. Other names for aged care workers include support worker, home care assistant, in-home respite worker, assistant in nursing accommodation support worker.

Supervisor a person who leads a team of aged care workers. A supervisor might also be called a team leader.

The issues that older people and their carers face

The main issues facing older people include: a. Physical changes b. Cognitive changes c. Social changes d. Family changes e. Living changes f. Independence changes g. Loss and grief

a. Physical changes
bodies change muscles might not be as strong bones might break more easily not be able to bend and stretch lose their balance eyes and ears might not work as well Aged care workers can: Encourage to exercise Watch for things that might make them trip. Check euipments,make sure hearing aid works well, take care or their specks or lenses Help them move around if needed Tell someone if they have a problem

b. Cognitive change
Older people at times find it hard to think At times may find difficult to remember things They might even get lost This may be due to dementia PS not all cognitive changes are due to dementia Aged care workers can: Write reminder notes Put appointment calendar Talk about important details Write down phone numbers and names Introduce themselves clearly Find fun activities Remember older people can get upset at times Tell someone if there is a problem

c. Social Changes
As people grow older it can be harder for them to be social Families and older friends might move away Getting out becomes harder Staying in touch becomes harder Aged care workers can: Encourage phone calls from friends and family Find out about social groups and activities Talk about photos Introduce them to new people Respect privacy Drive them to activities

d. Family Changes
Families change with times Children grow up and move away They spend less time with older people Families may not like to be the carers Aged care help can: Help older person stay at home longer Families can enjoy being together

e. Living Changes
Moving house is stressful, it takes time to adjust Aged care workers can: Talk to them about how they feel Listen when they want to talk Show where things are kept Help them find their way around Treat them with respect Give them choices Watch for signs when they are upset

They may not like their new home

f. Independence Changes
They might need a bit of help or may be do a task for them Help might also include: Financial help: take care of their money Self-care help: keep things private Transport help: help them get around

f. Independence Changes
Aged care worker & older people

Financial help Being honest Help pay bills Count money carefully Ask for receipts Check if money is safe Write expenses

Self care help

Ask what help is needed Ask how they like things done Show respect Keep things confidential Check if they are safe Tell someone if there is a problem

Transport help
Talk about things they want to do Places they want to go How long they want to go for Dont take risks Always do things safely Check with your supervisor if not sure


g. Loss and grief

Older people can feel grief for lot of reasons Partner might be sick or may die Family might move away They might need to move to a new home They cant move independently Aged care workers Need to know when they are sad Listen when they want to talk Treat them with respect Think before you speak Dont make them feel bad about things they cant do instead help them think of things they can do Dont rush them Be polite

Demographics of ageing
Demographics:' the science of vital and social statistics - e.g. births, deaths, marriages etc of populations Population Ageing: Average life expectancy of the world's population: 41 years in 1950 62 years in 1990 70 years in 2020 (WHO, 1998)

AUSTRALIA'S AGEING POPULATION: 1996 - 12% - 65 years and over (2.2 million) 2016 - 16% - 65 years and over (3.5 million) SOME POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOGRAPHICS ON SERVICE PROVIDERS: the largest proportional increases are in the over 85 year group; there are more older women, half of whom are widows; greater proportional increases are occurring for non-Englishspeaking immigrants; families are more mobile, therefore may not be living close; more daughters are working, therefore are unable to take traditional role of caring for older family members.



Advances in health care have not only increased life expectancy but also caused the prevalence of disability to rise. There has been a convergence between ageing and disability populations. More older people are experiencing disability in later life. More persons with a life-long disability are living into old age (Liebig & Sheets 1998).


Almost half (49%) of older people have a specific activity limitation; 71% of people over 80 years report a specific activity limitation; 80% have one or more chronic diseases (Fried, 1997); the disability rate is projected to be stable, but increasing absolute numbers will influence service providers, planners and policy analysts (AIHW, 1999).


19th century - improvements in public health emerged. 20th century - acute disease became preventable or cures were found. 21st century - management of chronic disease becomes the test of our own ingenuity and imagination (NHMRC/DHAC, 2001

Government funding
The government of Australia pays for: Care in aged care homes Care at home provided by the local council, district nurses Allied health Respite care Day centres that provide social activities for older people It will provide more funding for Providing more beds in aged care New support programs in the community Older people will not have to wait for long for services Getting the right sort of care

Legislation to workplace policies

Legislation Aged care act 1997 State/territory laws Residential care manual 2005 HACC Standards What it covers All aged care workplaces All aged care homes Community programs only

OHS Act 1991

All workplacesemployers and employees


Chapter 2:Ageism
IMAGES OF AGEING To devalue the aged through myths/stereotypes is, perhaps, to deny that we are aging and will some day too become elderly. This could be a way of handling what we fear most: losing our youthfulness, good health, a circle of friends, or facing the inevitability of our deaths and ultimately accepting responsibility for our own lives. 1. STEREOTYPE a. an over generalised idea, impression, or point of view allowing for no individuality or variation; b. a person or thing conforming to such an idea, etc. 2. MYTH from Greek mythos a. an ancient story dealing with gods and heroes, especially one explaining some natural phenomenon; such stories in general; b. commonly held false notion; c. a non-existent person or thing. 3. ASSUMPTION a. something accepted as true without proof

Definition of Ageism
AGEISM - can be defined as: a process of systematic stereotyping and discriminating against people because they are old, just as racism and sexism accomplish this with skin colour and gender. (R. Butler. 1975) Disdain for the aged can be manifested in stereotypes, hostility and discrimination (housing, employment, etc.) and may even result in poorer quality care for those who are institutionalised

older people can be seen in unrealistically negative terms: dependent, sick, lonely, incapable of change, forgetful, senile, rigid in thought and manner, old fashioned in morality, a drain on our financial resources, etc. etc.

Stereotypes and myths

Stereotypes are perceptions that are factually incorrect, they are generalisations with the purpose of exemplifying groups rather than individuals. They may attribute characteristics to the old that do not exist in reality and often are at odds with what the elderly themselves perceive. The most important point to be made about myths of growing older is that such views simply have no realistic basis and have often been proven false by research conducted by social analysts who study the aging process.


Examples of myths
Older people are tranquil They are unproductive They are sexually uninterested or incapable etc. Reason This is because unfortunately, many older people underestimate their skills simply by identifying with the label old (connoting inferiority). This is partly due to the modern stressing of youth, work roles, functional ability, etc.

Genetic characteristics that effect ageing

Cognitive changes Sensory factors Intelligence and problem solving Memory and learning Speed of information/mental process Language Personality Social change Sexuality

The impact of consumerism on service delivery is recognised

CONSUMER One who uses a commodity or service CLIENT One who employs or seeks advice from a professional CASE A person, family or other social unit receiving any kind of professional social assistance CUSTOMER One who purchases goods from another, a buyer

6 consumer rights
Privacy and Confidentiality Respect and Dignity Quality services Information Choice and control Complain and redress


Chapter 3: Support the rights and interests of older person


Objective 6: To ensure that each consumer has access to fair and equitable procedures for dealing with complaints and disputes. Service Standards 6.1 Consumer Outcome: Consumers are aware of the complaints process. 6.2 Consumer Outcome: Each consumer's complaint about a service, or access to a service is dealt with fairly, promptly, confidentially and without retribution. 6.3 Consumer Outcome: Services are modified as a result of 'upheld' complaints. 6.4 Consumer Outcome: Each consumer receives assistance, if requested, to help with the resolution of conflict about a service that arises between the frail elderly person or younger person with a disability and his/her carer.

HACC guidelines
7 goals of HACC Access to service Information and consultation Efficient and effective management Coordinated, planned and Reliable service delivery Privacy, Confidentiality and Access to personal information Complaints and disputes Advocacy

How Does Your Agency Ensure That Consumers Are Aware Of The Complaints Process?
Minimum Criteria: demonstrate that it provides information about the complaints process to consumers, and that it explains these procedures to consumers at the time of their commencement with the service.

Further Requirements: Consumers can express their informal concerns to the agency about the service they received. Demonstrate that it takes some action to periodically remind all consumers of these procedures. Inform consumers of the external bodies within the State or Territory to whom complaints can be taken.

How Can Your Agency Demonstrate That Consumer Complaints Are Dealt With Fairly, Promptly, Confidentially And Without Retribution?

Minimum Criteria: demonstrate that it has a complaints process which is designed to be fair and enable a timely response Further Requirements: should be able to outline the process by which 'informal complaints' or concerns are dealt with, again demonstrating that it is fair, timely, treated confidentially and does not result in discriminatory treatment of the client involved.


To ensure that each consumer's access to a service is decided only on the basis of relative need. SERVICE STANDARDS: 1.1 Consumer Outcome: Formal assessment occurs for each consumer. 1.2 Consumer Outcome: Consumers are allocated available resources according to prioritised need. 1.3 Consumer Outcome: Access to services by consumers with special needs is decided on a non-discriminatory basis. 1.4 Consumer Outcome: Consumers in receipt of other services are not discriminated in receiving additional services. 1.5 Consumer Outcome: Consumers who reapply for services are assessed with needs being prioritised.


Individual care plan

Individual care plans are documents that explain the needs of older person they are used both in residential and community services. Individual care plan gives information about: What has to be achieved How the support is to be given Where the support is needed When will the support be given Details of how things have t be done

Assessing needs of the older person

Assessing needs means looking after the older persons needs. The needs that need to be done but they cannot manage to do independently and hence require assistance from a service. These needs should not be ignored and the care plan needs to be organized accordingly.

There are many situations where a client may feel unable to best represent their own interests, or express their concerns. These might include: power differentials (for example, a young person when being questioned by police; a worker interviewed under disciplinary proceedings by management) lack of skills (for example, ability to speak in public; to write documents in a particular format) lack of confidence feeling isolated or powerless lack of access to the information required to successfully represent oneself requirement of specialist information (for example, the court system) language barriers literacy deficit physical or intellectual disability


Advocacy services take different shapes, and include the following: individual advocacy (representing or speaking on behalf of an individual client) self-advocacy (supporting the client in representing themselves) group advocacy (the advocate represents, or speaks on behalf of a group) public interest advocacy (advocacy representing the broad interests of the public) professional advocacy (advocacy services in return for payment - for example, unions, peak bodies, lawyers).


FORMAL ADVOCACY Usually involves long-term, personal relationships Advocates are appointed under various pieces of legislation and include guardians, financial managers and attorneys and May be appointed indefinitely in the case of persons considered to be incapable of giving consent to decisions, as in the case of dementia



INFORMAL ADVOCACY An advocate has no legal power to act on the older persons behalf The advocates role includes the provision of support necessary to seek redress in any dispute Act on the clients behalf, but decisions are made by the client. If the client is incapable of expressing his/her wishes, the informal advocate may act on the wishes of the guardian or other formal advocate will take steps to identify all significant others relating to the older person including family and friends when an older person is unable to express their wishes work with the representative of the older person when they are seen to be acting in the older persons best interests