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SEMINAR ON SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE PRODUCTION

BY SHREYASHRI NAYAK ROLL- 27604 GUIDED BY:MRS SWARNALATA BEHERA

overview:
Introduction Base iron composition Steps in production of s.g iron Properties Defects Advantages and disadvantages Applications Conclusion

introduction
It is a type of cast iron. It is also known as ductile, nodular or spherulitic iron. It has graphite in form of spheroids embedded in a steel matrix, mainly ferrite or pearlite. It is produced by treating the molten alloy with magnesium and cerium which cause spheroidal graphite to grow during solidification. After that ferro-silicon is added as inoculant.

Base iron composition


A typical chemical analysis of this material: Iron Carbon 3.3 to 3.4% Silicon 1.5- 1.7% Manganese 0.1 to 0.5% Phosphorus 0.005 to 0.04% Sulphur 0.007 to 0.012%

S.G IRON COMPOSITION


C- 3.3-3.5% Si 2.5% Mn- 0.1- 0.5% S- 0.001-0.010% P- 0.004-0.01% Other elements such as copper or tin may be added to increase tensile and yield strength while simultaneously reducing elongation. Improved corrosion resistance can be achieved by replacing 15% to 30% of the iron in the alloy with varying amounts of nickel, copper, or chromium.

Steps involved in production of s.g iron


Desulphurisation : sulphur helps to form graphite as flakes. So raw material should have low sulphur content(<0.1%). Sulphur may be removed from iron during melting or by using a desulphurising agent such as calcium carbide or sodium carbonate. Nodulising: magnesium is added to desulphurise the iron to below 0.02% s before alloying with it. Magnesium removes sulphur and provides a residual 0.04% magnesium which causes growth of graphite to be spheroidal. Mg is specially added for its lightness. Magnesium is added when melt is nearly 1500c but magnesium vapourises at 1150c. magnesium being lighter floats on top of bath and being reactive burns off the surface. As it burns off the surface it creates pressure which causes the graphite to form as nodules instead of flakes resulting in good ductile iron. to reduce violence of reaction magnesium is added NiMg,Ni-Si-Mg alloy. This also saves violence of reaction.

Innoculation:
As magnesium is a carbide former ferrosillicon is added as innoculant as it prevents formation of carbide and helps in nucleation of graphite. Inoculation of ductile iron requires greater amounts of treatment agent than grey iron. Formation of rounded , even nodules is essential to obtain the best properties. Ferrosilicon gives satisfactory nodule counts and iron properties in many medium castings. Addition of Mg followed by FeSi makes the growth rate of graphite to be approximately same in all directions so that a spherical shape results.

Effect of iron composition on Mg- FeSi alloy selection

0.5- 1.5%
Silicon content

Use 5% MgFeSi alloy

1.5- 1.8%
<0.025%

10% MgFeSi alloy All type of nodulisers can be used


high Mg alloy recommended. Desuphurisation required.

Sulphur content

0.025-0.04%

Properties of sg iron castings


Sg iron castings have high tensile strength(400700 MPa), ductility, toughness, good machinability, damping capacity, high wear resistance, reasonable castability, elongation between (1018%) It has a yield strength of 270-290 Mpa They do not suffer from defect such such as fire crazes when used at elevated temperatures and are less section sensitive.

Complete ferritic matrix having a maximun 10% pearlite possess maximum ductility, toughness and machinability.
Austenitic ductile matrix has good corrosion resistance good creep resistance at high temperature and are used for applications such as transport of sulphuric acid, handling of alkali, etc

defects
various defects associated with production of Sg iron are:1.Fading of nodularity in ductile iron:- when properly treated and inoculated ductile iron is held for prolonged time, it results in deterioration of nodule shape of graphite. It is mainly due to either fading of Mg or fading of inoculation. FADING OF MAGNESIUM- when Mg is lost to liquid metal surroundings either due to loss of residual Mg content in the iron or a pick-up of sulphur or oxygen from the surroundings results in poor nodules formation referred to as compacted graphite.

INNOCULANT FADING EFFECT When the metal is held for prolonged times after addition of post inoculant effect of inoculant gradually fade . As a result there is a loss in nodule count and nodules will lose their spherical shape and irregular shape nodules result.

Possible cures inoculant fading consists of:addition of more inoculant avoiding high holding temperatures and long holding time. use a second, late addition of a powerful speciality post inoculant material

Magnesium slag defect in ductile iron


Magnesium containing reaction products act as source for inclusion defects in ductile iron. Slag inclusion are found beneath the surface as a result of improper separation during liquid metal processing. Magnesium defects may also arise from turbulent mould filling and often appear as dross in areas where the metal is deadlocked. Possible remedies extending hold time between treatment and skimming to allow proper slag separation. Avoid high Ca and Mg alloys.

advantages
Nodular iron is a major engineering material as it combines the engineering advantage of steel with the processing economics of cast iron so it has high tensile strength and elongation. Nodules of graphite weakens steel matrix to a lesser extent than gray iron flakes. It does not suffer from firecrazes when used at elevated temperature. It does act very much as stress raiser as they have no sharp ends like graphite flakes hence increased strength.

disadvantage
Stirring of molten alloy after addition of nodulising element evolves a lot of gas which gets dissolved in liquid alloy and forms blow holes in castings. Contraction during solidification of nodular cast iron castings is much greater than grey iron castings which needs careful design of moulds to avoid shrinkage cavities in solidification casting. Inspite of these drawbacks nodular cast iron is replacing gray cast iron and steel in applications.

applications
Much of the annual production of ductile iron is in the form of ductile iron pipe, used for water and sewer lines. It competes with polymeric materials such as PVC, HDPE, LDPE and polypropylene, which are all much lighter than steel or ductile iron. Ductile iron is specifically useful in many automotive components, where strength needs surpass that of aluminum but do not necessarily require steel. Other major industrial applications include off-highway diesel trucks, class 8 trucks, agricultural tractors, and oil well pumps.

Conclusion
Hence spheroidal graphite are a range of cast irons having superior mechanical and physical properties . they are of much interest to engineers because of their useful combination of strength, ductility and toughness. Hence it is finding wide application in various industries because of its superior properties.

References
Technical information By elkem, L&T.
Physical metallurgy- vijendra singh. http:/ www.istikamet.com.tr/en/ default.asp http:/www.wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Privacy_p olicy.

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