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Research: Underground Cables

BY:

M.Awais Ejaz EE307-070 Sir Salman Bilal

TO:

The University of Lahore

Underground Cables
BY THE TEXT BOOK

Several types of cables are in use depending upon working voltage and requirements. A cable must fulfill the following requirements. The conductor used in cables should be tinned stranded copper or aluminum of high conductivity. The conductor size should be such that the cable carries desired load current without overheating. The thickness of insulation of cable must kept proper to restrain uncertainty. The cable must be provided with suitable mechanical protection (cable tray).

Construction:
Cores and conductors: Made of tinned copper or aluminum. Insulation: Different types an different sizes of insulation depending upon he voltage to be withstood by the cable Metallic sheath: To protect cable from moisture.

Bedding: To protect the sheath from corrosion and mechanical injury.


Armoring: Layers of galvanized steel wire or tape to protect cable from mechanical injury while laying it and during course of handling. Serving: In order to protect armoring from atmospheric conditions.

Insulation types: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rubber. Vulcanized Indian rubber. Impregnated paper. Varnished cambric. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

Classification of cables: 1. Low tension (LT) 2. High tension (HT) 3. Super tension (ST) 4. Extra high tension (EHT) 5. Extra super voltage cables

up to 1kV up to 11kV from 22 to 33kV from 33 to 66kV beyond 132kV

3-phase cables:
1.Belted cables 2.screened cables 3.pressure cables up to 11kV from 22 to 66kV beyond 66kV

Laying:
1.Direct laying. 2.Draw in system.

Direct laying

Research Underground Lines

General: Underground line installation will be coordinated with the installation master plan to avoid conflict with construction of future facilities. Lines will normally be installed adjacent to roadways in urban, housing, or industrial plant areas, but may be routed as required to meet the project objectives. Electrical lines will be at least six feet from any steam or hot water lines, except at crossings where a one-foot separation from such lines is adequate.

Cable
Conductor material:

Since underground conductors are continuously supported, soft-drawn copper or aluminum alloy 5005 provides adequate strength. However, the selection of copper or aluminum will be justified based upon an analysis using life, environmental, and cost factors.

Chapter:7 AFJMAN

Insulation material
These should kept following properties Non-inflammable. Unaffected by acids. High resistance to avoid leakage current. High dielectric strength to avoid electric breakdown. Mechanically strong to withstand the handling. Non-hygroscopic. Low cost so as to make the system feasible.
Chapter:7 AFJMAN

Insulations types an parameters:

Cable installation:
Duct lines.

Manholes, handholds and pull boxes

Direct burial cable installation or Direct laying

Chapter:7 AFJMAN

Major underground systems New York City no overhead since 1890s Singapore - 100% underground The Netherlands Distribution 100% Belgium ban on OH Lines since 1992 Denmark replaced six 132 kV OH lines with two new 400 kV UG cables in 1997 and 1999 December 1999 storms in France caused many blackouts-new policy 25% HV lines are UG Connecticut Underground Power Line Legislation Approved Overhead Lines Need a Quick Burial in Atlanta Journal Constitution Two major developments cancelled in Atlanta one for $150M and the other $100M

BY Harry Orton OCEI Vancouver, Canada

Advantages of UG Cables Environmental Minimal visual impact Low EMF No corona discharge, RI and TVI No bush fire problems Minimal lightning problems High level of personnel and public safety, no fallen lines (France 2000, 19 contact deaths with OH lines, 0 with UG cables) Good working conditions
Reference: http://jcots.state.va.us/pdf/overheadorunderground.pdf

Distance from circuit (FL)

Advantages of UG Cables Power Grid Security


Not affected by ice, snow, rain, wind, dust, smoke or fog Not affected by Ice storms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Nothing to be stolen French storms in 1999, 8% of OH lines out of service, 90% of substations back in service after 4 days 6 months to complete repairs to the lines Total cost of damage Euro1.3 Billion No estimate for economic losses Interruption lasted 15 million customer-days Quebec ice storms in the winter of 1998 Hydro-Quebec hundreds of kilometers of EHV and HV lines collapsed Thousands of towers Blackout initiated by OH line at First Hydro in Ohio

Advantages of UG Cables Economy


Low maintenance costs Land use minimized Value of land and buildings unaffected

Advantages of UG Cables Operation


High reliability and availability Few faults, bumps on power system Major blackouts in NE Diagnostics available to locate problems

Disadvantages
Cost, must consider life time costs not just initial

Cost differential decreasing with time Cost of losses (30-60% less than OH), maintenance and repair Under grounding 25% of the existing EHV and HV lines in Italy and the UK will increase the price of electricity by 3-5% Under grounding all of the lines in Italy would increase the cost of electricity by 16% Outage time, locate fault and repair (OH one day, UG 7-10 days) Fault location instantaneous, can have longer repair time Continuous trench required (sensitive areas, directional boring) Soil thermal conditions modified Presence of vaults and manholes Distance limitation 100 km for ac cables HVDC Light 600 km - planned Murray Link 177 km longest in the World 2002

Increasingly cables are being seen as the lowest cost solution for reliable delivery of power. This recognition is seen in the increasing use of cables within utilities. Within Europe the total amount of underground cable used has risen from 15-20% in 1960 to 40% in 1994. In Japan at 275 kV there was 11.5 % in 1980 and in 2001 there was 28%.

Table: Amount of Underground Energy Cable installed At 1994

BY Harry Orton OCEI Vancouver, Canada

Table: Public Concerns for cables and overhead lines 0 no importance, 1 low importance, 2 high importance, 3 compulsory

BY Harry Orton OCEI Vancouver, Canada

Table: Cost ratio of UG cables to OH lines

BY Harry Orton OCEI Vancouver, Canada

Prices of OH and Underground cables

Overhead:
Between $1,469 and $1,923 per lot including installation.

Underground:
Between $1,475 and $2,243 per lot including installation.

By FPL electric services

OVERHEAD VS. UNDERGROUND COST COMPARISON 5 MILE, 230kV SINGLE CIRCUIT LINE EXAMPLE 1035 MVA CAPACITY INITIAL COST ANALYSIS 1. UNDERGROUND 230kV PIPE TYPE CABLE SYSTEM: $40,577,000

2 4 foot wide trenches on 24 foot right of way 4 8 inch diameter steel pipes 12 2500 kcmil copper cables 5 mile length Large Cost Items Quantity Material Cost Installation Cost Steel Pipe 105,700 ft. $ 1,902,000 $15,840,000 Power Cable 317,400 ft. $11,109,000 $ 952,000 Manholes 26 $ 390,000 $ 370,000 Cable Splices 44 $ 1,144,000 $ 2,948,000 Terminations 24 $ 840,000 $ 144,000 Pumping Plant 2 $ 750,000 $ 106,000 Dielectric Fluid 158,000 gal. $ 792,000 $ 158,000 Other Misc. Items $ 2,550,000 Total Material & Labor $39,995,000 Right of Way $ 582,000 Grand Total $40,577,000

2. UNDERGROUND 230kV XLPE CABLE SYSTEM: $32,123,000 2 2 foot wide trenches on 20 foot right of way 8 6 inch diameter PVC conduits 8 3000 kcmil copper cables 5 mile length Large Cost Items Quantity Material Cost Installation Cost PVC Conduit 211,200 ft. $ 634,000 $11,880,000 Power Cable 212,500 ft. $12,328,000 $ 638,000 Manholes 24 $ 360,000 $ 360,000 Cable Splices 96 $ 1,104,000 $ 2,112,000 Terminations 16 $ 288,000 $ 96,000 Other Misc. Items $ 1,838,000 Total Material & Labor $31,638,000 Right of Way $ 485,000

Grand Total $32,123,000

3. OVERHEAD 230kV CIRCUIT: $5,282,000

Self-supporting steel poles on 100 foot right of way Concrete foundations 6 - 636 kcmil ACSR conductors & 1 - 3#6 Alumoweld shield wire 5 mile length Large Cost Items Quantity Material Cost Installation Cost Poles with Insulators 40 $ 797,000 $ 334,000 Conductor 159,000 ft. $ 149,000 $ 225,000 Shield Wire 27,000 ft. $ 9,000 $ 25,000 Foundations $ 563,000 Other Misc. Items $ 756,000 Total Material & Labor $ 2,858,000 Right of Way $ 2,424,000 Grand Total $ 5,282,000

Underground cables site


SITARA CHEMICAL IND. Faisalabad The industry is one of the largest loads of the industrial sector, 60MW. Running on Wapda, Sitara energy (pvt) LTD. And internal power plant of 32MW. Plant is generating at 11KV and that is supplied to Grid, from where it is distributed.

Whole distribution with in the plant premises is through underground cable system.11KV is distributed in the whole system and then after auxiliary transformers, 400v to the plant to all motor and to residential area. for 400v 3-core LT cables of different sizes are being used.120mm at most places. And specifications of 11kv underground lines are given below.

Cables used:
1. CABLE XELPE HT.

Capacity Size Type Length Rate Total amount Vendor

12KV 300MM HT-Single core 4500meters Rs. 2323.33 per meter Rs 10,454,997.6 Newage cables (pvt) LTD.

2.

CABLE HT-1 Core Capacity Size Type Length Rate Total amount Vendor 11-15KV 500mm HT-1 Armoured Alu 14,400meters Rs. 1140.00 per meter Rs 15,696,000 Newage cables (pvt) LTD.

Why using underground there?

Longer Life Expectancy Reduced Maintenance Costs Service Uninterrupted by Storms and weather Reduced Fire Fighting Hazards in plant area Conserve Valuable Land Enhancement of the beauty of plant area Prevention of Accidents and short-circuiting Better voltage regulation

View of overhead lines

With underground

What else you need to know about the difference?

Sometimes, being cost efficient does not work