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Animal Kingdom

The animal kingdom is classified into three subkingdoms:

1- Subkingdom Protozoa:
It includes seven phyla as the individuals possess one cell which performs all physiological activities.

2- Subkingdom Parazoa:
It includes one phylum "Phylum" Porifera" as the individuals have simple multicultural structures, and they commonly referred as sponges. Their cells are not differentiated in proper tissues.

3- Subkingdom Metazoa:
It includes many- celled animals, classified to different phyla. manyThe body of the included animals consists of several cells which are well differentiated into distinct types forming specialized tissues, organs, and in many phyla systems could be differentiated.

The phyla included in such subkingdom which are of our interest, and possess members that affect the agricultural production could be outlined as follows:
 Phylum  Phylum  Phylum  Phylum  Phylum  Phylum

Platyhelminthes Nemathelminthes Annelida Arthropoda Mollusca Chordata

1- Subkingdom Protozoa:
Protozoan phyla include over 65.000 species, spread all over 65. the world wherever life exists. Members of Protozoa are unicellular, eukaryotic (nucleated) organisms. Although protozoans are single cells, they are also complete organisms. The cell must perform not just certain functions but also must retain the ability to perform all of the functions demanded of an organism.

 Characteristics of Protozoa:
1. Protozoa are single-celled (unicellular) microscopic, eukaryotic singleorganisms that are noted for ability to move independently. 2. Protozoa live in many different environments. They can drift in the ocean, creep across vegetation in fresh water rivers and ponds, crawl in deep soil, and even reproduce in the bodies of other organisms.

3. Most Protozoa are heterotrophic, obtaining their nutrients from their heterotrophic, hosts by ingesting small molecules or cells. These particles are usually broken down in food vacules, membrane- bound chambers membranethat contain digestive enzymes. Some are saprozoic and other are autotrophic as in Euglena. Euglena. 4. Many species are free living, while others are parasites. 5. Free living live in any habitat where water or moisture is available at same time during the year. 6. Many species make up zooplankton, a population of organisms that zooplankton, constitutes one of the primary sources of energy in aquatic ecosystems. They are the beginning of the food chain. 7. Some free living protozoa live in the soil.

8. Parasitic protozoa usually have complex life cycles that take place in the cells, tissues and blood stream of their host. Several species cause serious human diseases, including malaria, Amebic dysentery. 9. All protozoa reproduce Asexually, usually by binary fission, in which Asexually, fission, protozoan divides into two identical individuals. Some species reproduce by multiple fission which is a from of cell division in a number of identical individuals and or cysts in certain conditions. Protozoa also can reproduce sexually by forming male and female gametes or by conjugation (Paramecium). (Paramecium). 10. 10. Locomotion through pseudopodia as in amebas, flagella as in Euglenids and cilia as in ciliates. 11. 11. Some species possess chrom atophores and eye spots as in Euglena.

12. 12. Aerobic respiration is the rule in many protozoans by simple diffusion. Some are however capable of anaerobic respiration in the absence oxygen in the surrounding media. 13. 13. Excretion of catabolic nitrogenous wastes takes place by diffusion through the body surface. 14. 14. Irritability, all protozoans respond to the environmental condition in the media like temperature, moisture, light, .. etc. encystment is a common phenomenon to resist unfavorable environmental conditions.

 Classification of protozoan phyla:


Subkingdom Protozoa includes seven phyla:

A- Phylum: Sarcomastigophora
1- Subphylum: Mastigophora Class: Phytomastigophora Autotrophic, free living protozoa, Ex. Euglena. Euglena.

Class: Zoomastigophora Heterotrophic, mostly parasites, Ex. Phytomonas, Trichomonas Phytomonas, 2- Subphylum: Opalinata Mostly parasites, Ex. Opalina, Protopalina. Opalina, Protopalina. 3- Subphylum: Sarcodina Free living, parasites or symbiotants SuperSuper-class: Rhizopoda It includes 8 classes. saprophytic or parasitic protozoans. SuperSuper-class: Actinopoda It includes 4 classes. Mostly marine, planktonic, some species are fresh water.

B- Phylum: Labyrinthomophora
Small group living on algae, mostly marine.

C- Phylum: Apicomplexa
All species are parasites, it includes two class, class Sporozoa is the most important. Ex. Eimeria, Babesia. Babesia.

D- Phylum : Apicomplexa
All are parasites on lower invertebrates and vertebrates especially fishes.

E- phylum: Microsopora
Parasites on arthropods and some lower vertebrates.

F- Phylum : Ascetospora
Small group that is parasites in invertebrates and some vertebrates.

G- Phylum : Ciliophora
Most species free living, but many commensal, some parasitic Ex.Paramecium, Balantidium, Vorticella. Vorticella.

Economic importanse of protozoa:


Protozoa are found wherever life exists and require moisture whether they live. They from a large part of the floating plankton. They may have positive influence on the soil fertility through decaying organic matter to be more easier for plants to absorb by some ciliated protozoans. Others, like flagellated protozoans may play an important role in fixing nitrogen in the soil through encouraging the nitrogen fixing bacteria Azotobacter. On the other hand some Rhizopods may have a negative influence by feeding on such bacteria or the decaying organic matter. Some of the most important diseases of humans, domestic animals and economic plants are caused by parasitic protozoa. Some parasitic protozoans will be discussed in derails.

Ex. 1- Club root of Cabbage:


Roots of cabbage, cauliflower, raddish, turnip and other Cruciferous plants are attacked by a pathogenic protozoan, Plasmodiophora brassica related to order Mycetozida, phylum Sarcomastigophora.

Symptoms:
The first symptoms on aboveground parts vary with environmental above conditions. Temporary flagging (wilt) of leaves in the middle of bright days is often the first sign in cabbage and cauliflower. Plants may later wilt permanently or they may recover to a condition of retarded growth. Thus, stunting may be the only evidence of disease above ground. Infected roots enlarge rapidly after infection to from "clubs" or swellings on the roots, which take on a variety of shapes. In some hosts the clubbed roots take on a spindle shape, in others a spherical shape along the root axis.

Disease Cycle:
P. brassica is capable of surviving in the soil for 7-10 years or longer as resting spores. The resting spores can be spread from field to field by infested soil, contaminated water supplies, infected transplants, infested soil on farm machinery, and even by roving animals such as cattle. When soil conditions dictate, the resting spores of the pathogen geminate to produce zoospores, which are able to "swim" by means of flagella to infect susceptible plant root hairs. The germination of resting spores requires moist, acid soil and can occur over a wide temperature range of (12 -27 C). Disease development is favored by high soil moisture and soil temperatures between, (18 25 C). (18

Although club root has been found in soils exhibiting a wide pH range from 4.5-8.1, the disease is primarily associated with acid soils. Within the infected plant roots, the organism develops rapidly, causing an increase in the number and size of cells, which results in "clubbing" During the development of the organism in the plant, new zoospores are produced; these are capable of infecting the same plant or adjacent plants and, thus, repeating the cycle. Eventually, resting spores are formed within the diseased plant tissue, and these are released into the soil when the plant roots disintegrate.

Club root cabbage Plasmodiophora brassica

Treatment and Prevention:


There are several approaches to the control of club root, all of which may be used where appropriate. The first defense should be aimed at excluding the disease by avoiding the purchase or use of infected transplants. Regardless of your source, inspect all seedlings before transplanting and discard any diseased plants. If transplants are to be grown, care must be taken to use clean or sterile soil mixes for the seed bed. If infected plants have occurred in a garden, a tong rotation of crops (5 (5 years) combined with liming may reduce or completely control the disease. The pH of the soil should be raised to 7.2 or higher with hydrated lime. Family crop as part of the rotation crop. Although resistant cultivars of cabbage are not readily available, there is at least one, Badger Shipper, that has a fair amount of resistance. In some situations this cultivar may solve the control problem.

2- White spot disease


The largest protozoan parasite of fish, ciliated Ichthyophthirius multifilis, phylum Ciliophora multifilis,

Symptoms:
Clinically fish become hyperactive with fish flashing and cutting against rocks or sides of aquariums. As the trophozoites enlarge they cause hyperplasia of the epidermis with white spots forming on the skin and gills. Severely infected fish may have respiratory problems and die. Histologically there is epidermal hyperplasia with the encysted trophozoite present in the epidermis.

Disease Cycle:
The life cycle is direct and there are three phases of the life cycle of this protozoa. Adult phase- it is embedded in the skin or gills of the fish, causing phaseirritation (with the fish showing signs of irritation) and the appearance of small white nodules. As the parasite grows it feeds on red blood cells and skin cells. After a few days it bores itself out of the fish and falls to the bottom of the aquarium.

Cyst phase- after falling to the bottom, the adult parasite forms into a phasecyst with rapid cell divisions occurring.

Free swimming phase- after the cyst phase, about 1000 free phaseswimming young swim upwards looking for a host. If a host is not found

within 2 to 3 days, the parasite dies. Once a host is found the whole cycle begins a new.

These three phases take about 4 weeks at 70 F but only 5 days at 80 F. For this reason it is recommended that the aquarium water be raised to about 80 for the duration of the treatment. If the fish can stand it, raise the temperature even higher up to 85. 85.

Treatment and Prevention:


It is only the free- swimming stage of the parasite that is susceptible to freetreatment; neither the trophonts under the epithelium or the tomont cysts can be killed. So any treatment plan has to be carried out over a period of time in order to kill the emerging parasites. This in turn depends on temperature. At 7 C the life cycle will take six weeks whereas at 25 C it will be complete in a week. Tomites (free swimming) stage could be killed by treating water with malachite green, Formaline or KMnO4. KMnO4

* An

alternative treatment is prolonged salt immersion at 1-2 ppt

(parts per thousand), i.e. 1-2 grams per liter.

* Water should be monitored during the treatment course in case


there is any loss of filter activity.

* It is believed that fish that survive an attack of the disease have an


in creased immunity against future attacks.

White spot disease Ichthyophthirius multifilis

Ex. 3 Coccidia:
Coccidia cause a greater economic loss among domestic and wild animals in temperate climates. They are of major importance to poultry raisers and produce serious disease in rabbits and cattle. Many other animals frequently suffer from their attacks. The coccidian are most commonly parasites of the epithelial cells of some parts of the intestine, although some species attack the liver and other organs. Eimeria performance and E. steidae of rabbits are representative examples of coccidian.

Symptoms:
In light cases there are often no symptoms but in severe attacks there is extensive destruction of the epithelium in the chosen sites, with sloughing of the walls and severe hemorrhage. Also, symptoms are loss of appetite, emaciation, weakness, pallor, diarrhea, blood feces, and sometimes fever.

Life Cycle:
The infection start when the animal swallows ripe oocysts mixing with the infested food. Each oocyst contains 4 sporocysts each with 2 sporozoites. The sporozoites liberated from ingested oocysts penetrate cells in their chosen sites of development, feed on the contents, and named as the trophozoites. Then, they grow to schizonts which divide into a cluster of spindlespindle-shaped merozoites. All of the above mentioned steps referred as schizogony. After one, two, or more schizonic cycles, the merozoites develop into gametocysts to start the gamogony cycle. Two types of gametocysts are developed, the macrogametocysts which develop later to macrogametes; and the microgametocysts. Which produce later a swarm of minute twotwoflagellated microgametes. The microgametes fertilize the macrogametes, usually after the latter have escaped from the cells which mothered them.

The macrogmetes are provided with cyst walls, but a small opening celled a microphyle at one end through which the microgamets are able to enter. The resulting zygote is a young oocyst, ready for escape from the host in which it was developed and prepared to withstand conditions in outside until opportunity to enter another host is afforded. The oocysts are undeveloped when they leave the host with the feces and require almost one week to develop. Development takes place in two steps, (1) a division of the nucleus and cytoplasm (1 into four parts called sporocysts, (2) the further development of these (2 sporoblasts into sporocysts with resistant cyst walls, and the division of their contents into two sporozoites for each one. The sporocysts are cysts within cysts. The ripe oocysts are considered the infective stage which repeat the life cycle as a suitable host swallow, it with its food.

Treatment and Prevention:


1.

Following of new means and technology in rearing houses.

2. Isolation of the infected animals, and elimination of the

severely infected ones.


3. Addition of suitable drugs to food or water are capable of

preventing infection prior to its establishment.

The complete life cycle of a "typical" Eimeria species

/. 2011/2012