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FRUITS

Definition
Fruit is the whole product of the development of gynaecium (female organ ripened ovary) as a result of fertilization .Fruit is the seed bearing organ of the plant.

seeds have only one scar, the hilum and micropile the fruit usually shows two scars, one at the base marking the attachment to the stalk or parent plant,. the other, mostly apical and minute, marking the scar of Style and stigma.

Structure of Mature ovule


stigma style micropyle Ovary wall Ovum (zygot) Outer integument

nucellus

Polar nuclei

1ry endosperm nucellus

Embryo sac [ 7-8 nuclei ] Inner integument Antipodal cells chalaza funicle

Vascular bundle

Types of Fruits
(A)TRUE (B) FALSE (C ) COMPOSITE

True Fruit: developed from the ovary Of a single flower alone False Fruit; developed from the ovary other parts of the flower as the receptacle, thalamus or calyx . Composite Fruit:developed from the whole inflorescence (not from a single flower)

Types of fruits

. Structure and Microscopical Characters


The fruit consists of the swollen distorted and modified ovary wall known as pericarp enclosing fertilised ripened ovules, the seeds which are arranged on the placenta. The pericarp is divisible into three regions which may be wholly parenchymatous or of different nature. The outer region is called EPICARP, the inner is termed ENDOCARP and the middle is known as MESOCARP.

Common Morphological CharactersOF UMBELLIFEROUS FRUITS


1

They are usually cremocarp or separated into their mericarp.

2. Each mericarp has two surfaces, commissural surface and dorsal surface. 3. The dorsal surface shows 5 raised ridges called primary ridges and between which may be found four ridges over the secretory canals and called secondary ridges. 4. The commissural surface shows two brownish longitudinal bands over the region of the secretory ducts 5. There is a minute thread lies between the two mericarps called carpophore. 6. Each mericarp encloses a single seed derived from anatropous ovule.

Cremocarp. A, lateral view; B, dorsal view; C, commisural surface of a mericarp; D, splitted one showing carpophore supporting two mericarps; E, part of a median L.S. in mericarp. cp. carpophore; sp. stylopod; v. vitta.

Volatile oil containing Umbelliferous Fruits


1-Fennel 2-Anise

Fennel is the dried ripe fruit of F niculum vulgare Mill (Fam. Apiaceae).
It contains not more than 4 per cent of foreign organic matter, and yields not less than 1.4 % of volatile oil.

Anise consists of the dried ripe fruit of Pimpinella anisum L. (Fam. Apiaceae).
It contains not more than 3 per cent of foreign organic matter, and yields not less than 1.5 % of volatile oil.

Cremocarp: often entire. Cremocarp: partly separated into its Mericarp:cylindrical elliptical, mericarps. tapering slightly towards both ends. Mericarp: pear-shaped Yellowish - green to yellowish - brown Grayish or greenish-gray

Glabrous 5 paler prominent primary ridges.


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Rough, pubescent 5 very slightly raised primary ridges.

Kind of the fruit: True, Simple, Dry, Schizocarpic, Cremocarp

Fennel

Anise

Anise - Thamarul Yansoon

Pimpinella anisum L., Fam. Umbelliferae.

2) Key elements:

CONSTITUENTS:
1. 2. 3. 4.

2 to 3 % volatile oil containing up to 90% of anethole. Coumarins: bergapten, umbelliferone and scopoletin. Flavonoidal glycosides. Fixed oil and proteins. Anethol

USES:
branched vittae with endocarp cells; epicarp cells;

1-Carminative, flavouring agent, mild spasmolytic. covering trichomes; 2-expectorant in cough mixtures, and for dyspeptic complaints. 3-Externally it is used as an inhalant for congestion of the respiratory tract.

Fennel

Foeniculum vulgare

family Umbelliferae

Reticulate renchyma

Fennel Microscopical characters of Powdered Fennel

Fibro-vascular bundle

endocarp

epicarp

vittae

testa

endosperm Reticulate parenchyma

Fennel: Foeniculum vulgare

1 Reticulate parenchyma. 2 Endocarp (en.) .3 Endocarp in surface view. 4 Fragment of a reticulately thickened vessel. showing the reticulate parenchyma (r.p.), en 5 Elements from the fibro-vascular tissue. docarp (en.), testa (t.) and endosperm. 6 Epicarp in surface view showing a stomata. 7 Fragment of a vitta.. 8 Epicarp (ep.) and parenchyma of the mesocarp 9 Fragment of a vitta with overlying thick-walled 10 Part of the pericarp and seed in sectional view 11 Endosperm containing microrosette crystals of calcium oxalate 11a Thicker-walled cells of the endosperm, in sectional view.

Anise Fruits: Pimpinella anisum

Powdered Anise
. 1-lignified pitted cells. 2, 6- branched vittae with endocarp cells. 3- covering trichomes. 4- fragment of vascular strand. 5- epicarp cells 7- testa in surface view. 8-endosperm.

Anise Fruits
1- sclereids from the mesocarp 2- Branching vittae 6- Part of two vittae 3- Covering trichomes 4- Part of a group of fibro-vascular tissue 5- Epicarp in surface view showing stomata and striated cuticle 7-Testa in surface view. 8- Endosperm containing microrosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

Bitter principles containing Umbelliferous Fruits


3- Ammi visnaga
Botanical origin is the dried ripe fruit of Ammi visnaga (Fam. Apiaceae). It contains not more than 3 % of foreign organic matter, and yields not less than 0.5 % of the bitter principle, khellin. Cremocarp: ovoid, usually separated into its mericarp. mericarp: planoco-nvex and ovoid lanceolate Greenish-brown with a violet tint. 2mm. long & 1mm. broad. Glabrous, 5 distinct primary ridges and 4 inconspicuous secondary ridges.

4- Ammi majus
is the dried ripe fruits of Ammi majus (Fam. Apiaceae). It contains not more than 5 % of foreign organic matter and not less than 0.5 % ammoidin (xanthotoxin), 0.3 % ammidin (imperatorin), and 0.01 % majodin (bergapten). Cremocarp: nearly cylin-drical usually separated into its mericarp. mericarp: oval lanceolate. Greyish-brown to reddish-brown Smaller Glabrous, 5 primary ridges and 4 more prominent secondary ridges.

AMorphology: - Shape - Colour - Size (mericap) - Dorsal surface of the mericarp.

Kind of the fruit: True, Simple, Dry, Schizocarpic, Cremocarp


Reflected style

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Dorsal side ventral side

Ammi visnaga A. entire cremoarp; B, commissural of a mericarp; C. diagrammatic T.S.; D, detailed T.S. of a mericarp; E, isolated elements from the fruit. C.r., ridge over vitta; e, elevation over raphe; end endosperum; I, schizogenous duct r1, primary ridge; r2, secondary

ridge; ra, raphe; s, style; sp, stylopod; t, testa; v, vitta; v.b., vascular bundle; i.ml, innermost layer of mesocarp; en, endocarp; e.s. epidermis of testa; r.p., reticulate parenchyma.

Powdered Ammi visnaga fruit

Verry bitter taste powder Gives red color with solid KOH

Innermost layer of mesocarp (porous)

endocarp endosperm vittae

Fibro vascular bundle Reticulate parenchyma

testa epicarp

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Visnaga

Constituents Ammi visnaga


1- Furanochromones ( named : Khellin (= visammin),visnagin, khellol and its glucoside khellinol) 2- Pyranocoumarins (Visnagans) ( named : Visnadin, samidin) 3- Traces only of the furanocoumarins: xanthotoxin and ammidin. 4- Flavonoids:. 5- Essential oil (0.02 - 0.03%) . 6- Fixed oil and protein.

Ammi majus 1- furanocoumarin bitter principles (Psoralenes) : The most important is xanthotoxin (ammoidin) 2- Other related bitter principles, imperatorin (Ammidin) and bergapten. 3- Fixed oil and protein.

Uses and Actions: 1-The drug acts as a spasmolytic (especially on the


muscles of the bronchi, GIT, biliary tract, urogenital system and the coronary vessels). Therefore: The drug is used for treatment of whooping cough, cramp-like conditions of GIT, biliary colic, and painful menstruation.

1-Psoralene stimulates pigment production in skin exposed to UV light. 2-It is used externally, in the form of liniments and lotions 2-It is used for the removal of small bladder and kidney stones made of alcoholic extracts of fruits by relaxing the muscles of the ureter. as well as ammoidin, for treatment 3-The drug relaxes the coronary arteries, helps to improve the of veitiligo (leukoderma) blood supply to the heart muscle and thereby eases angina pectoris. alopecia and psoriasis.
12 4-It is given for bronchial asthma and is safe even to children.

A- Histochemical Tests: ( for all umbelliferous fruits) 1- Powder + sudan III reagent 2- Powder + Millons reagent red color ( due to fixed oil and volatile oil) (warm) red color ( due to protein)

B- Chemical Tests: ( Special tests ) Ammi visnaga 1. 2. 3. 4. Boil about 0.1 g. of Ammi visnaga fruits with 5 cc. of water for a minute. Strain Add 1 to 2 drops of this decoction to 1 cc. solution of sodium hydroxide (1 in 1). Shake a rose red color is produced within 2 minutes (c.f. Ammi majus).

Ammi majus 1- Boil about 0.1 gm of Ammi majus fruit with 5 ml of water for a minute. Strain. Add 1 to 2 drops of this decoction to 1 cc. solution of sodium hydroxide (1 in 1). Shake no rose red colour is developed (c.f. Ammi visnaga). 2-The alcoholic extract of A. majus fruit (1 in 10), gives a blue fluorescence in Ultraviolet light (due to furanocoumarin content) (c.f. A. visnaga).
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Other fruits

Senna pods Capsicum

Colocynth
2

Uses and Actions:

1- As Laxative : in habitual ( acute ) constipation (short term use) 2- For conditions where easy defecation with soft stool is desirable: e.g. as anal fissures, hemorrhoids, after recto-anal operations, for bowel clearance before X-ray examinations and before and after abdominal surgery.

Senna Pods

Mechanism of action of Senna pods as Laxative: The hydroxyanthracene glycosides are not absorbed in the stomach but are converted by the microflora of the large intestine into active aglycones which exert their laxative effect on the colon. This action includes: 1-Stimulation of colonic motility 2. Change in the electrolyte absorption /secretion balance by the colon, resulting in fluid secretion leading to diarrhea. Contraindications: - Intestinal obstruction, - Acute intestinal inflammation e.g. appendicitis, - Abdominal pain of unknown origin. - Children under 12 years of age

Senna Pods

Chemical test: Test for Identity Modified Borntragers test:

test for hydroxyanthracenes

- Boil 0.2 gm of the crushed or powdered senna fruits with 4 ml alcoholic potassium hydroxide T.S., for about 2 to 3 minutes, - Dilute with 4 ml of water, and filter. - Acidify 5 ml of the filtrate with dilute hydrochloric acid R., - Cool, add few drops of hydrogen peroxide solution, - Shake with an equal volume of ether R. - Allow to separate, - Then transfer the ethereal layer to clean test tube, - Shake with 2 ml of dilute solution of ammonium hydroxide R

a rose-red to intense red color


( in the aqueous layer)

Capsicum Fruit
(Fructus Capsici)

Botanical origin: Capsicum is the dried ripe fruits of Capsicum minimum,


(Fam. Solanaceae).
(It should contains not more than 3 per cent of calyces and pedicels, and not more than 1 per cent of foreign organic matter)

Kind of the fruit: True, Simple, Succulent, Berry,many seeded Constituents:


1- Pungent principles named Capsaicinoids ( up to 1.5% ), including: Capsaicin (0.1 1%). 6,7-dihydrocapsaicin. [ The pungency of capsicum is not destroyed by treatment with alkalis] ( distinction from gingerol , the phenol pungent principle of Ginger) **** Capsaicin is a vinillyl fatty acid amide and destroyed by oxidation with potassium dichromate or permanganate.**** 2- Fixed oils. 3- Carotenoid pigments (including capsanthin, capsorubin, alpha- and betacarotene). 4- Steroid glycosides (including capsicosides A,B,C, and D). 6 5- Fats (9 17%), proteins (12 15%), vitamins A and C, and trace of volatile oil.

Capsicum Fruit

The medicinal value of capsicum is directly related to its pungency: It is used as a condiment (cayenne pepper). Internally, used in atonic dyspepsia and flatulence. Externally, It is used in different formulations Uses and Actions: (ointments, plasters, medicated wool, .etc.) as

a pain controller for the treatment of rheumatism, and lumbago.


Topical application of capsaicin relieves pain and itching

by acting on sensory nerves. (mechanism of action)


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Capsicum Fruit

Chemical tests: test for capsaicin 1. Capsaicin gives a bluish-green color on addition of few drops of FeCl3. 2. When capsaicin dissolved in H2SO4 and small piece of sucrose sugar is added, a violet color is developed after few hours. Characters of Powder: Powdered Capsicum is yellowish-brown to brownish-red in color; having a characteristic but not powerful odor and an extremely pungent taste; the pungency is not destroyed by solutions of caustic alkalis (1 in 50), but is destroyed by potassium permanganate (T.S.). Microscopically, it is characterized by:

1&3, epicarp in s.v.; 7, a group of vessels; 4, epicarp near base of fruit; 5, outer part of pericarp in sectional view; 6, endocarp sclereids with adjacent parenchyma; 13, epidermis of the testa; 8, sclereids of endocarp in s.v.; 9, endosperm.

Capsicum. A, Zanzibar; B, Sierra Leone; C, Japanese; D, Bombay; E. Natal; F, Capsicum annuum ; G, T.S. in the pericarp; H,T.S. in the seed; I, T.S. in dissipiment;. C.1. collapsed layer; cu, cuticle; en. endocarp; ep. epidermis; en, endosperm; g.c. giant celt: id, idioblast; hp. hypodermis; m. mosocarp; me, mesophyll; o.s. oily secretion; v.b, vascular bundle.

Colocynth Pulp
(Fructus Colocynthidis) Names: Colocynth, Colocynthis; Colocynthidis Pulp; Colocynth Pulp; Bitter apple. Botanical origin: Colocynth is the dried unripe, but fully grown, fruits of Citrullus Colocynthis (Linn) Schrader (Fam. Cucurbitaceae), ( deprived of its seeds and outer hard pericarp)
( It contains not more than 5 per cent of its seeds, and not more than 2 per cent of the outer sclerenchymatous part of the pericarp )

Part used: The Pithy Pulp

Kind of the fruit: True, Simple, Succulent, Berry, Pepo.

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Colocynth Pulp

Constituents:
1- Resin soluble in ether and chloroform (a powerful purgative). 2- A crystalline alcohol, citrullol. 3- Cucurbitacins:( not purgative ) 4- Recently, flavonoids as vitexin., isovitexin, acacetin and acacetin 7-0-glycoside.

Uses and Actions:


Colocynth is a gastro-intestinal stimulant or irritant and one of the most powerful of

well-known purgatives (acting as a hydragogue cathartic). It is a very powerful cathartic and is not now used in standard medicine. The drug as well as the cucurbitacins are reported as potent cytotoxic.
In folk medicine it is used as antirheumatic. The flavonoidal content found to have moderate antimicrobial activity.

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Fennel

Origin : Its the dried ripe fruits of Foeniculum vulgare


family Umbelliferae

T.S. in fennel

Simple vittae

Reticulate parenchyma

Simple vittae

Anise - Thamarul Yansoon


Origin :

is the dried ripe fruits of Pimpinella anisum L., Fam. Umbelliferae.

CONSTITUENTS:
1. 2 to 3 % volatile oil containing up to 90% of anethole. 2. Coumarins: bergapten, umbelliferone and scopoletin. 3. Flavonoidal glycosides. 4. Fixed oil and proteins. MeO Anethol

USES:
1-Carminative, flavouring agent, mild spasmolytic. 2-expectorant in cough mixtures, and for dyspeptic complaints. 3-Externally it is used as an inhalant for congestion of the respiratory tract.

Macroscopical characters : fruit is entire cremocarp which consists of 2 mericarps. Shape : ovoid-conical or pear-shaped. Outer surface : rough due to hairs. Dorsal surface : shows only 5 pale brown 1ry ridges(i.e. no 2ry ridges). Odour: aromatic Color: grey, greenish- Taste: sweet agreable brown or yellowishand aromatic brown.

Microscopical characters : I- Pericarp : Epicarp : polygonal with striated cuticle. And has warty hairs.

Trichome

V.B

Branched vittae

endosperm

Mesocarp: parenchymatous and showing 20-40 vittae on the dorsal surface due to branching of the 4 original vittae and showing 2 (may 4) vittae on the commissural surface. It shows also 5 VBs. Under the 5 1ry ridges.

II- Seed : seed coat is polygonal brown cells and endosperm composed of thick-walled cellulosic cells containing fixed oil and aleurone grains. III- Carpophore : split at its apex into 2 mericarps

Anise powder: 1) Physical properties: Color: grey, greenish-brown or yellowish-brown. Odor: aromatic Taste: sweet agreable and aromatic.

2) Key elements:

branched vittae with endocarp cells; epicarp cells;

covering trichomes;

Coriander

Origin : its the dried ripe fruits of Coriandrum


sativum family Umbelliferae

Matt shaped sclerieds

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