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Lecture:

Molecules of Life

Organic Compounds
Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon
 Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic

Acids

Organic Compounds
carbon (C) oxygen (O) hydrogen (H) nitrogen (N) calcium (C) phosphorous (P) potassium (K) iron (S) sodium (Na) chlorine (Cl) magnesium (Mg) iron (Fe)

p.34a

Organic Compounds

structural formula for methane

ball-and-stick model

space-filling model

p.34b

Carbons Bonding Behavior


 Outer

shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8 carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to four atoms

 Each

Bonding Arrangements
 Carbon

atoms can form chains or rings atoms project from the carbon backbone

 Other

Organic Compounds

or

Simplified structural formula for a six-carbon ring

icon for a six-carbon ring

p.34e

Organic Compounds

Fig. 3-2, p.35

Functional Groups
 Atoms

or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to carbon backbone organic compounds their different properties

 Give

Examples of Functional Groups


Hydroxyl group Amino group Carboxyl group Phosphate group Sulfhydryl group - OH - NH3+ - COOH - PO3- SH

Types of Reactions
    

Functional group transfer Electron transfer Rearrangement Condensation Cleavage

Common Functional Groups in Biological Molecules

Fig. 3-4, p.36

Functional Groups in Hormones


 

Estrogen and testosterone are hormones responsible for observable differences in traits between male and female wood ducks Differences in position of functional groups attached to ring structure (pg 36)

An Estrogen

Testosterone

Fig. 3-5b, p.36

Condensation Reactions
 Form

polymers from subunits

 Enzymes

remove -OH from one molecule, H from another, form bond between two molecules atoms can join to form water

 Discarded

Condensation

Fig. 3-6a, p.38

Hydrolysis
A

type of cleavage reaction polymers into smaller units split molecules into two or more

 Breaks

 Enzymes

parts
 An

-OH group and an H atom derived from water are attached at exposed sites

Hydrolysis

Fig. 3-6b, p.38

Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides (simple sugars) Oligosaccharides (short(short-chain carbohydrates) Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates)

Monosaccharides
  

Simplest carbohydrates Most are sweet tasting, water soluble Most have 5- or 6-carbon backbone 5- 6Glucose (6 C) Ribose (5 C) Fructose (6 C) Deoxyribose (5 C)

Two Monosaccharides

glucose

fructose
Fig. 3-7, p.38

Disaccharides
 Type

of oligosaccharide  Two monosaccharides covalently bonded  Formed by condensation reaction

glucose

fructose

+ H2O

sucrose

Fig. 3-7b, p.38

Polysaccharides
 Straight  Most

or branched chains of many sugar monomers common are composed entirely of glucose
  

Cellulose Starch (such as amylose) Glycogen

Cellulose & Starch


 Differ

in bonding patterns between monomers - tough, indigestible, structural material in plants - easily digested, storage form in

 Cellulose

 Starch

plants

y1

Cellulose and Starch

Fig. 3-8, p.38

Slide 25 y1 add figure 3.9b


David, 10/19/2005

Glycogen
 Sugar  Large

storage form in animals stores in muscle and liver

cells
 When

blood sugar decreases, liver cells degrade glycogen, release glucose

Fig. 3-9, p.38

Fig. 3-9, p.39

Chitin
 Polysaccharide  Nitrogen-containing Nitrogen-

groups attached to

glucose monomers
 Structural

material for hard parts of invertebrates, cell walls of many fungi

Chitin
 Chitin

occurs in protective body coverings of many animals, including ticks (pg 39)

Fig. 3-10a, p.39

Fig. 3-10b, p.39

Lipids
 Most
  

include fatty acids

Fats Phospholipids Waxes

 Sterols

and their derivatives have no fatty

acids  Tend to be insoluble in water

Fats
 Fatty

acid(s)

attached to glycerol
 Triglycerides

are most common


Fig. 3-12, p.40

Fatty Acids
 Carboxyl  Carbon


group (-COOH) at one end (-

backbone (up to 36 C atoms)

Saturated - Single bonds between carbons Unsaturated - One or more double bonds

Three Fatty Acids

Fig. 3-11, p.40

Fig. 3-12a, p.40

y3

Phospholipids
 Main

components of cell

membranes

Slide 36 y3 add figure3.13a


David, 10/19/2005

Waxes
 Long-chain Long-

fatty acids linked to

long chain alcohols or carbon rings


 Firm

consistency, repel water in water-proofing water-

 Important

Waxes
 Bees

construct honeycombs from their own waxy secretions

Fig. 3-14, p.41

Sterols and Derivatives


 No

fatty acids backbone of

 Rigid

four fused-together fusedcarbon rings


 Cholesterol

- most

common type in animals


Fig. 3-14, p.41

Amino Acid Structure

carboxyl group amino group

R group

Properties of Amino Acids


 Determined  Amino


by the R group

acids may be:

NonNon-polar Uncharged, polar Positively charged, polar Negatively charged, polar

Protein Synthesis
 Protein

is a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds bond


Type of covalent bond Links amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of next Forms through condensation reaction

 Peptide
 

Fig. 3-15b, p.42

Fig. 3-15c, p.42

Fig. 3-15d, p.42

Fig. 3-15e, p.42

Primary Structure
    

Sequence of amino acids Unique for each protein Two linked amino acids = dipeptide Three or more = polypeptide Backbone of polypeptide has N atoms:
-N -C -C -N -C -C -N -C -C -N one peptide group

Protein Shapes
 Fibrous


proteins

Polypeptide chains arranged as strands or sheets

 Globular


proteins

Polypeptide chains folded into compact, rounded shapes

Primary Structure & Protein Shape


 Primary

structure influences shape in two main ways:




Allows hydrogen bonds to form between different amino acids along length of chain Puts R groups in positions that allow them to interact

Secondary Structure
 Hydrogen

bonds form between different parts of polypeptide chain bonds give rise to coiled or extended pattern or pleated sheet

 These

 Helix

Examples of Secondary Structure

Tertiary Structure
heme group

Folding as a result of interactions between R groups


coiled and twisted polypeptide chain of one globin molecule

Quaternary Structure
Some proteins are made up of more than one polypeptide chain

Hemoglobin

heme

alpha globin

alpha globin

beta globin

beta globin
Fig. 3-17, p.44

Polypeptides with Attached Organic Compounds


 Lipoproteins


Proteins combined with cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids

 Glycoproteins


Proteins combined with oligosaccharides

Denaturation
 Disruption  Breakage  Causes
 

of three-dimensional shape threeof weak bonds

of denaturation:

pH Temperature

 Destroying

protein shape disrupts

function

Fig. 3-18c, p.45

a Normal amino acid sequence at the start of a beta change for hemoglobin

VALINE

HISTIDINE

LEUCINE THREONINE PROLINE

GLUTAMATE GLUTAMATE

Fig. 3-18a, p.45

b One amino acid substitution results in the abnormal beta chain in HbS molecules. During protein synthesis, valine was added instead of glutamate at the sixth position of the growing polypeptide chain.

VALINE HISTIDINE LEUCINE THREONINE PROLINE VALINE GLUTAMATE

Fig. 3-18b, p.45

c Glutamate has an overall negative charge; valine has no net charge. The difference gives rise to a water-repellant, sticky patch on HbS molcules. They stick together because of that patch, forming rod-shaped clumps that distort normally rounded red blood cells into sickle shapes. (A sickle is a farm tool that has a crescentshaped blade.)

sickle cell

normal cell

Fig. 3-18c, p.45

Clumping of cells in bloodstream Circulatory problems, damage to brain, lungs, heart, skeletal muscles, gut, and kidneys Heart failure, paralysis, pneumonia, rheumatism, gut pain, kidney failure Spleen concentrates sickle cells Spleen enlargement Immune system compromised

Rapid destruction of sickle cells Anemia, causing weakness,fatigue, impaired development,heart chamber dilation Impaired brain function, heart failure
Fig. 3-18d, p.45

Nucleotide Structure
 Sugar


Ribose or deoxyribose

 At

least one phosphate group

 Base


NitrogenNitrogen-containing Single or double ring structure

Nucleotide Functions
 Energy

carriers

 Coenzymes  Chemical  Building

messengers

blocks for nucleic

acids

ATP - A Nucleotide
base three phosphate groups

sugar

Nucleic Acids
Cytosine Adenine

 Composed

of nucleotides  Single- or double-stranded Single- double Sugar-phosphate backbone Sugar-

Bonding Between Bases in Nucleic Acids


THYMINE (T) base with a single-ring structure

CYTOSINE (C) base with a single-ring structure


Fig. 3-20, p.46

DNA
 Double-stranded Double Consists

of four types of nucleotides  A bound to T  C bound to G

RNA
 Usually  Four

single strands

types of nucleotides

 Unlike  Three

DNA, contains the base uracil in place of thymine types are key players in protein synthesis

Fig. 3-22, p.49

Fig. 3-23, p.49

Fig. 3-23, p.49