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Codes & Standards

Codes and Standards

Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: Codes and Standards and Standards Writing Bodies Welding Procedure Development and Qualifications

Learning Activities 1. Read Handbook 412-464 2. View Slides; 3. Read Notes, 4. Listen to lecture 5. Do on-line workbook 6. Do homework

Keywords Codes, Specifications, Recommended Practices, Guides, Classifications, Methods, ANSI, ISO, Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), Procedure Qualification Record (PQR), Welder Performance Qualification

Standards that Impact Fabrication


Types of Standards

Codes are generally applicable to processes Shall/will and indicate the mandatory use of materials or actions Specifications are generally associated with Shall/will a product and indicate the mandatory use of materials or actions Should/may Recommended practices and guides are offered primarily as aids to the user Classifications and methods provide lists of established practices or categories for processes or products

Code Writing Agencies This Table is in the Welding Handbook

Standards that Impact Fabrication


What is Covered by Standards

Products  Piping - American Petroleum Institute  Filler metals - American Welding Society  Ships - American Bureau of Shipping  Pressure vessels and boilers - American Society of
Mechanical Engineers  Bridges - American Institute of Steel Construction


Health & Safety Terminology Testing Procedures

Standards that Impact Fabrication


American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

Coordinating organization for the U.S. voluntary standards system There are approximately 10,000 American National Standards, which encompass nearly every field and discipline ANSI standards are developed and used voluntarily; they become mandatory when adopted or referenced by a governmental body

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Establishment of Uniform Standards for International Trade

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Professional Society Standards

International Organization for Standards (ISO)

80 countries, 4000+ standards, ANSI is the U.S. representative ISO 9000-9004 (ANSI/ASQC Q90) is a series of quality management and assurance standards in manufacturing  Designed for manufacturing sector  EC has adopted ISO 9000 and prefers US suppliers
that are ISO 9000 certified  DoD, DuPont, 3M, AT&T are asking suppliers to comply with ISO 9000

ISO 3834 - Factors to be Considered When Assessing Firms Using Welding as a Prime Means of Fabrication

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Health and Safety

Health & Safety

ANSI/ASC Z49.1-1988 Safety in Welding and Cutting  Included in the General Industry Standards of OSHA  Specifically covers arc, oxyfuel gas, resistance welding Health and Safety in Welding and Allied Processes 4th edition, ed. N.C. Balchin and H. R. Castner, McGraw-Hill Inc. 1993

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Professional Society Standards

American Welding Society (AWS) Standards


Definitions and Symbols (A) Filler Metals (A5) Qualification and Testing (B, C, and D) Welding Processes (C) Welding Applications (D)

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Professional Society Standards

Definitions and Symbols

ANSI/AWS A2.4 Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive Examination  Communication between designers and fabricators  Joint geometry, weld contour, surface finish ANSI/AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions  Standard terms for use in written and oral communication
conveying materials joining information  Non-standard terms

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Professional Society Standards

ANSI/AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code: Steel


Guidelines for design of welded joints as well as prequalified joint geometries  Statically loaded structures  Dynamically loaded structures  Tubular sections Details the processes used with particular joints How to qualify welding procedures and personnel Outlines quality and inspection in welded construction Filler metal recommendations

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Professional Society Standards

AWS D1.1 Prequalified Joint Design

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Professional Society Standards

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials)

Specifications cover virtually all materials used in industry and commerce, but not welding consumables Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 15 sections (65 volumes)  1 - Iron and Steel  2 - Non-ferrous  3 - Metal test methods and analytical procedures Specification of groups of similar steel (A)  A36 - general construction steels  A387 - chromium-molybdenum steel for elevated-temperature
service in piping and pressure vessel systems

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Professional Society Standards

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code has 11 sections and is referenced by most states, major cities in the U.S., Canadian provinces, a number of federal agencies Before fabricating a boiler or pressure vessel, a company must have a quality control system and a manual describing it  ASME issues a Certificate of Authorization and a code symbol

Unique in that it required 3rd party inspection independent of fabricator and user Uses same steel designations as ASTM

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Professional Society Standards

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code


Section II- Materials Specifications for base metals, filler metals, fluxes Section V - Nondestructive Examination Section IX - Welding and Brazing Qualifications for personnel and procedures  Delineates a P number grouping of steels for the purpose of
welding qualification  P1 - carbon-manganese steels with a minimum UTS of 45-90 ksi  P5 - alloy steels with 2.25-9% chromium, <10% total alloy  All steels within a P number can be welded with the same procedure

Standards that Impact Fabrication

Professional Society Standards

Other Standards

American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 1104 Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities  Qualifications of Welding Procedures and Welders  Inspection and nondestructive testing  Repair and removal of defects Unified Numbering System (UNS)  Cross references the numbering systems from different countries  Over 3500 metals, alloys, and filler metals  Designated SAE HSJ1086 / ASTM DS56

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): What does being a third party consensus standards writing body mean?

Qualification & Certification

Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)

A document that provides in detail required welding conditions for a specific application.

Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)

A record of actual welding conditions used to produce an acceptable test joint and the results of the qualification tests.

Welder Performance Qualification-Certification

A record of a welders or welding operators ability to produce welded joints that meet prescribed standards

Pre-Qualified Procedures
(Some Codes Permit - Example AWS D1.1 Code) Based on the reliability of certain proven procedures spelled out by the applicable code or specification

Use Written Procedures From Code All Essential Variable Specified Weld Qualification Tests Not Required Employer Accepts Responsibility for Use Deviations Negate Prequalified Status

Basic Steps in Qualification of a Procedure

1. Prepare a preliminary WPS 2. Prepare and weld a suitable test weldment using WPS 3. Conduct required NDT and Destructive Tests 4. Evaluate Results of prep, welding, testing 5. Document results on PQR 6. Issue approved PQR 7. Issue approved WPS

PQR - WPS Variables Considered


Metal Welding Process Filler Metal Type of Current/Range Voltage Heat Input Travel Speed Joint Design and Tolerances Joint and Surface Prep

Tack Weld/Grind Off? Welding Details Electrode Size Passes Weave Position * Preheat and Interpass Peening Second Side Prep Post Weld Heat Treat Records (If Required)

Check Specific Code for List of Essential Variables

(Essential Variable Must Be Included in the WPS)

PQR Page 1

PQR Page 2

Tests Commonly Used for PQRs

Test Fracture Tests (Charpy, COD, Drop) Nick-break Free Bend Shear Test Hardness All-Weld-Metal Tension Elevated Temp Restraint Test Corrosion NDE Delayed Cracking Evaluation Risk of Brittle Fracture at Use Temperature Determine Weld Soundness Ductility of Weld Metal Shear Strength of Fillet Welds Adequacy of Heat Treatment Mechanical Prop of WM Prop at Elev. Service Temp Crack Susceptibility Prop. In Aggressive Environ. Soundness of Weld Resistance to H Cracking


Welder Performance Qualification

Welding Process Filler Metal Position Joint Details Thickness Technique
(Qualifying in a more difficult position may qualify in an easier position)

Duration Of Qualification
Dependent upon Code (Usually inactivity of 3 to 6 months required requalification)

Performance Qualification Record

Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification Variable That May Require Requalification Procedure Variable Base Metal (Type, Composition, Process) Thickness of BM Joint Design Pipe Diameter Type of Current, Polarity Electrode Classification, Size Welding Current Position, Progression Deposition of Filler Metal Root Prep , Other Side Preheat, Interpass Temp Postheat Temp Procedure Requalification May Be Required Change in BM, Some Codes List Equivalencies Change Outside Thickness Range Change in Root, Included Angle, Dimensions Usually Not Required Usually Not Required Change in Electrode Classification or size When Outside Range Usually not Required, But Desirable For Marked Changes When Method or Extent Has Changed When Outside Range When Outside Range Welder or Operator Requalification Usually Not Required Change Outside Range Change in Root, Included Angle, Dimensions When Reduced Below Some Minimum Usually Not Required Change in Electrode Classification or size Usually Not Required When Change Exceeds Limits Usually Not Required Usually Not Required Usually Not Required Usually Not Required

Run the Welding Procedure Specification from the Demonstration Page of the WE300 Web Page

Please do Assignment 14