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Lesson 1

Communication

Communication:
It is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood by both sender and receiver.

4 Skills of Communication

Reading:

is a multi-dimensional cognitive process of decoding symbols for the purpose of deriving meaning (reading comprehension) and/or constructing meaning.

Defined as a combination of what we hear and what we understand and what we remember. One of the four fundamental linguistic skills.

Listening:

Listening is one of the most important skills you can have. How well you listen has a major impact on your job effectiveness, and on the quality of your relationships with others.

We listen to obtain information.


We listen to understand. We listen for enjoyment. We listen to learn.

Becoming an Active Listener

Pay attention. Give the speaker your undivided attention and acknowledge the message. Recognize that what is not said also speaks loudly.

There are five key elements of active listening. They all help you ensure that you hear the other person, and that the other person knows you are hearing what they are saying.

Show that you are listening. Use your own body language and gestures to convey your attention.

Look at the speaker directly. Put aside distracting thoughts. Dont mentally prepare a rebuttal! Avoid being distracted by environmental factors. Listen to the speakers body language. Refrain from side conversations when listening in a group setting.

Provide feedback. Our personal filters, assumptions, judgments, and beliefs can distort what we hear. As a listener, your role is to understand what is being said. This may require you to reflect what is being said and ask questions.

Nod occasionally. Smile and use other facial expressions. Note your posture and make sure it is open and inviting. Encourage the speaker to continue with small verbal comments like yes, and uh huh.

Reflect what has been said by paraphrasing. What Im hearing is and Sounds like you are saying are great ways to reflect back. Ask questions to clarify certain points. What do you mean when you say Is this what you mean? Summarize the speakers comments periodically.

Defer judgment. Interrupting is a waste of time. It frustrates the speaker and limits full understanding of the message.

Allow the speaker to finish. Dont interrupt with counterarguments.

Respond Appropriately. Active listening is a model for respect and understanding. You are gaining information and perspective. You add nothing by attacking the speaker or otherwise putting him or her down.

Be candid, open, and honest in your response. Assert your opinions respectfully. Treat the other person as he or she would want to be treated.

Speaking:
Refers to the process of producing sounds used in spoken language.

Writing:
is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system). It is distinguished from illustration, such as cave drawing and painting, and the recording of language via a non-textual medium such as magnetic tape audio.

Before You Write It Down, Know This

Many people are intimidated by writing. Even so, there are times when writing is the best way to communicate, and oftentimes the only way to get your message across.
.. Write With

Necessary Caution

When writing, be mindful of the fact that once something is in written form, it cannot be taken back. Communicating in this way is more concrete than verbal communications, with less room for error and even less room for mistakes. This presents written communicators with new challenges, including spelling, grammar, punctuation, even writing style and actual wording. Thankfully, todays technology makes memo, letter and proposal writing much easier by providing reliable tools that check and even correct misspelled words and incorrect grammar use. Unfortunately, these tools are not fail proof and will require your support, making your knowledge in this area important.

Some of the most basic tips to remember when writing include: Avoid the use of slang words Try not to use abbreviations (unless appropriately defined) Steer away from the use of symbols (such as ampersands [&]) Clichs should be avoided, or at the very least, used with caution Brackets are used to play down words or phrases Dashes are generally used for emphasis Great care should ALWAYS be taken to spell the names of people and companies correctly Numbers should be expressed as words when the number is less than 10 or is used to start a sentence (example: Ten years ago, my brother and I). The number 10, or anything greater than 10, should be expressed as a figure (example: My brother has 13 Matchbox cars.) Quotation marks should be placed around any directly quoted speech or text and around titles of publications. Keep sentences short

Perhaps the most important thing to remember


when writing a letter is to check it thoroughly when it is completed. Even when you think it is exactly what you want, read it one more time. This unwritten rule holds true for everything you write memos, letters, proposals, and so on.

Please be aware of the following in order to proofread your papers effectively. Each problem below begins with an abbreviation. These abbreviations, if found on your returned essays, should refer you back to the writing well handout and to the problem indicated.

1) S-V. Subject-verb agreement. Subjects and verbs must agree in number. Make sure you use a plural verb form with a plural subject and a singular verb form with a singular subject. (They do, and she does.) 2) PRO. Pronouns must agree in number with the noun to which they are referring. Check! When referring to a country, government, or a political party, the proper pronoun is it, not they. This applies even to the United States (which was often referred to as they before the Civil War). British usage on pronouns varies slightly. Please follow US practice. 3) LIST. Lists should be made up of parallel parts of speech: answering, doodling, and crying (all -ing verb forms); pen, pencil, crayon (all nouns). 4) X CONT. Try not to use contractions in formal writing. Its=belonging to it (not its, which means it is). 5) E/AFFECT. Effect is a noun. Affect is a verb (exception: to effect change).

6) TENSE. Verb tenses should be consistent within paragraphs. Do not jump from present to past and back again. 7) VARY. Vary sentence structure and word choice. Do not use all subject-verb-direct object sentences. Sometimes begin sentences with prepositional phrases or adverbs of time to change things. Try to avoid using the same word repeatedly. The thesaurus is your friend! 8) END PREP. Try not to end a sentence with a preposition (to, with, from, at, etc.) 9) COMMA. As you read your paper aloud (and you should!), notice where your voice pauses. That is a candidate location for a comma. Commas are often helpful after introductory phrases using prepositions (After taking office, she), infinitives (To improve the class, I), and gerunds (Using the computer for the first time, Dave). 10) ABA. Watch sweeping generalizations. Can you support what you are asserting? ABA stands for argument by assertion. ABA means that you are putting something forward without demonstrating it in a logical, persuasive fashion to your reader.

11) ACRONYM. Define acronyms the first time you use them. University of North Carolina, Wilmington (UNCW). Define even obvious acronyms (UN, IMF). 12) PARA. Paragraphs that run on too long suggest poor organization. Make sure your paragraphs are tight and focused on a specific point. 13) M-D. The em-dash (--) has become increasingly common as a way of setting apart subordinate clauses and phrases. Use it correctly. It is made up of two hyphens/dashes, not one. 14) POSS. Watch out for possessives. Use the "of the" test. If you could put "of the" between two words, you probably need an apostrophe. The students' answers (the answers of the students). 15) HYPHEN. When making adjectives out of a series of words, use hyphens (less-than-stellar performance, high-flying candidate). 16) CLQ. Avoid being overly when writing (I just felt, f*%# this assignment). 17) CANNOT. Cannot is one word! 18) ADDRESS. Set off persons being addressed with commas (Please, Sir, may I have another?). 19) ITAL. Italicize foreign words and phrases. 20) WR #. Write out numbers under 10 unless to do so would be awkward. Starting a

colloquial

21) US$. When writing out amounts of money in the millions and billions of dollars, the correct form is US$# million/billion. When figures are presented in a currency other than US dollars, a contemporary conversion to US dollars or another international benchmark currency should be provided. 22) LONG Q.

this format, quotation marks are unnecessary. 23) Q in Q. Quotation marks inside a quotation work as follows. "Start of quotation 'Q in Q' rest of quotation." 24) RUN ON and INCOMP. Two variants of the same issue: ungrammatical sentences. Runon sentences (RUN ON) have too many subjects and verbs without proper use of conjunctions. Incomplete sentences (INCOMP) are missing either a subject or a
25) NJWeb. Not just a website address. See information on footnoting below. 26) WC. If you find WC on your returned paper, something is wrong with the word(s) you have chosen. Perhaps the meaning is not as you intended or you have not used the right language for the field. 27) COMMA APP. Use a comma or commas to set off an appositive, a noun or phrase that renames a noun. Dr. Tan, a professor at the local university, will be attending the gathering. 28) S-CIRCLE. A claim or fact that should be attributed in a footnote.

Quotations of longer than forty words should be set apart from the normal text by being single-spaced and doubleindented. Double indentation means one indentation to the left and one to the right (In Word, use format, paragraph). If you follow

verb; often these are fragments beginning with "which" or "because" and should actually be part of the preceding sentence.

Here's How: Draw up an outline, listing each item you need to discuss in your memo, letter, or report. Put items in order -- from most to least important Gather information to backup what you plan to say, or to help illustrate your points If appropriate, get input from others who are involved in the project you're discussing Write a brief summary of your entire memo -- this will be your first paragraph. Expand on each item listed in step 1, to make up the body of the memo. In your last paragraph tell the recipient if he or she needs to take any action. Set your document aside before proofreading it. This will allow you to look at it with a fresh eye. Tips: Avoid wordiness. Write for your audience. Don't use jargon that your reader may not understand. Don't rely entirely on your word processor's spell checker. It won't pick up incorrect use of a word, i.e. to vs. too

If a writer considers writing to be a task, he/she is doomed to failure. Since it cannot be a task, then what is it? It is a

What that mean?


discipline.

does

A discipline

means development, and that means preparation. So a writer must prepare to be a writer and that means study, study of the English languageits words, its structure, its syntax, and its style. That is the groundwork that a writer must follow all his/her life. This implies training.

Where does a writer obtain this training? From many sourcesworkshops,

seminars, courses, reading, and connection with other writers. Every day becomes part of a writers training. Every moment adds to the writers store of information, ideas, topics, and themes.

Discipline means the cultivation of input, of broadening the writers


outlook, of developing something to say, and of creating a way to say it. Without effort there can be no outputat least no yield that readers are willing to add to their store of thoughts and ideas.

Discipline means practice. A writer is not a writer until he or she


puts words to paper or screen and this is the application of the training that preceded it. All of this implies a love of the art, and if that is not present, then it becomes a task, and writing can never succeed as a chore.

Discipline means exercise, which means action, which means the act
of writing, of sitting before the blank page or screen and filling it. This is the time of labor, but it must be a labor of love, a desire, a need, an addiction, in fact, to expressing oneself. Of course, this action can take many formspoetry, essays, short stories, articles, novels, and non-fiction booksbut it must be treasured and desired for its own sake before it is presented to readers.

Without discipline, writing becomes nothing more that a job to be completed leaving the author unfulfilled and wanting.

This model is simple:

A person discovers meaning in an experience. Subsequently, the person writes something (a poem, a novel, an essay, a letter, a journal entry . . .) that expresses the meaning found in the experience. Finally, someone reads the text and discovers meaning in it. The reader may be the writer himself or herself; the reader may be a complete stranger.

An important implication of this model is that the text does not convey the original experience to the reader. Instead, it conveys meaning to the reader. Further, the meaning the reader discovers in the text may not be the meaning intended by the writer. In other words, a text can not convey an experience; it can only convey meanings. Many texts do not convey a single, unequivocal meaning to all readers: These are the texts we call literature.

Actually, there is not one writing process that all writers use for all writing. When we look at the act of writing in detail, there are many different writing processes. However, all of the different processes which writers use share some common elements.

Writing process

The common elements of writing processes are


discovery development completion.

These elements form three phases, but they also overlap. That is, one may discover things to say even in the completion phase; one may begin development during the discovery phase; many writers find that a piece of writing is never completed in the sense of being perfect.

Discovery

Students who are given a writing assignment often complain that they don't know what to write about. If one doesn't know what to write about, one hasn't learned to use the discovery phase of the writing process. Often, however, one does know what one wants to write about. In this situation, one may go too quickly into the development phase without thoroughly exploring what one wants to write. There are many techniques used for discovering something to write about. They include Free writing. Clustering. Listing. Games and other exercises. Research.
Discovery techniques are often called "heuristics," from a Greek word meaning "to discover."

Development
The development phase of the writing process includes planning, drafting, and revising the writing being done. Once one has produced ideas, images, information, or other relevant materials during the discovery phase, one is ready to develop those ideas and images.

PLANNING
In the planning phase for prose, writers often outline their material. Such a working outline helps the writer get an overview of his or her material and to see the relationships among the different parts. A working outline can be as simple as a list of four or five major ideas or as complex as a detailed formal outline. Fiction writers vary widely as to how much planning they do, but some produce extensive plot outlines. Poets often "plan" a poem by choosing a form. You may think of traditional poetic forms as templates which the poet can use and modify to meet the needs of the actual poem.

DRAFTING AND REVISING


If, while writing a rough draft, you pause to change a sentence, you are revising while drafting. Drafting and revising are the most obviously recursive parts of the writing process. One writes, rereads, notes possible changes, makes changes, writes further, and so on. It is often helpful to get responses from other people during this process. Even reading a draft aloud to another person can be very helpful. Computers are invaluable in drafting and revising. Don't, however, forget to print hard copies and use them for revision as well. You will find that reading a hard copy of a draft and marking it up will help your revising greatly. Revising is more than correcting grammatical mistakes. Revising can involve rethinking the idea entirely, reorganizing the writing, or adding/deleting substantial parts of the writing.

Completion
Completion might not seem to be a phase, but it is. Once one has developed the idea satisfactorily, then one is ready to copyedit the draft, making sure it is correct in all aspects, and to read it over, checking for areas that need more work. Finally, one produces a final copy of the piece of writing, using whatever means are appropriate to the writing's intended audience and purpose. The means might be writing a final copy of a personal letter in longhand or they might be formatting the writing in a desktop publishing program.

Writing is the primary basis upon which your work, your learning, and your intellect will be judgedin college, in the workplace, and in the community. Writing expresses who you are as a person. Writing is portable and permanent. It makes your thinking visible. Writing helps you move easily among facts, inferences, and opinions without getting confusedand without confusing your reader. Writing promotes your ability to pose worthwhile questions.

Writing fosters your ability to explain a complex position to readers, and to yourself. Writing helps others give you feedback. Writing helps you refine your ideas when you give others feedback. Writing requires that you anticipate your readers needs. Your ability to do so demonstrates your intellectual flexibility and maturity. Writing ideas down preserves them so that you can reflect upon them later.

Writing out your ideas permits you to evaluate the adequacy of your argument. Writing stimulates you to extend a line of thought beyond your first impressions or gut responses. Writing helps you understand how truth is established in a given discipline. Writing equips you with the communication and thinking skills you need to participate effectively in democracy. Writing is an essential job skill.

What

to write Content How to write Organization

Words Sentences Paragraphs

Group of related sentences joined together to

develop one

idea or single idea.

Is also called

main idea

Topic The subject matter it deals with.

Topic Sentence Parts of a TS:

-always found at the beginning (opening) or ending (concluding) paragraph

beginning (opening)

Supporting Details
ending (concluding)

Types of topic sentence:


Explicit TS
topic sentence is directly stated in the paragraph.

Implicit TS
topic sentence is indirectly stated

Explicit Hazing Marvels Fraudulent Insidious Fostered Inflates Persecuting

Obscure Twee-collar crime Untainted Ubiquitous

Writing is hard work and all the marvels of modern technology havent made it any easier. Vast resources now lie just keystrokes away, but the basic art of assembling ones thoughts into engaging prose is little changed since the days of paper and pencil. While mindless information doubles every three years, thoughtful writing still proceeds at an old fashioned pace. Unfortunately, the timeless nature of writing isnt shared by its fraudulent imitation: plagiarism. Though nearly as ancient as writing itself, plagiarism adapts quickly to new technology. With a web full of seemingly ownerless prose, plagiarism is as easy as cut-and-paste. And if you dont see exactly what you want for free, you can buy it online at any number of paper mills.

But a more insidious way in which technology has fostered plagiarism is by shifting our attention from content to appearance. A well-written student paper is no longer A work unless its printed in color on glossy paper, with fonts and images and an accompanying multimedia presentation. Students feel expected to turn in the best papers ever written, not the best papers they can write themselves. So they assemble those papers. With hours invested in the decorations, students feel justified in stealing some or all of the text. After all, they couldnt have said it any better themselves. In addition to its easy rationalization by people seeking the rewards of writing without the associated effort, plagiarism is also widely misunderstood. It isnt limited to the theft of another persons words; it also includes the theft of their ideas. More generally, plagiarism is any form of dishonesty about authorship. A reader or listener should always know whose thoughts theyre hearing.

Plagiarism isnt a victimless crime. It deprives its readers of their time and trust, and its true authors of their good names. In academia, plagiarism inflates grades relative to education and devalues honest scholarship. Among authors and journalists, plagiarism cheapens the very art of writing, much as performance enhancing drugs cheapen so many sports. Plagiarism is as much a problem of morale as it is of ethics.
Prosecuting plagiarists is a miserable undertaking. It brings joy to no one, as I know from sad experience at the University of Virginia. After uncovered extensive plagiarism in my large introductory physics class in 2001, I spent two years dealing with endless honor cases. But I view that episode as an antiscandalas an enlightened community taking action against a misbehaving few in order to maintain its own intellectual integrity. Eliminating plagiarism isnt about the plagiarists; its about supporting the honest people by giving them a fair environment.

Plagiarism isnt an obscure tweed-collar crime. Its a sorry fact of life everywhere and any school or organization that feels untainted is probably in denial. With plagiarism so commonplace, an organization that deals openly with it deserves our support, not our condemnation. There is no scandal in cleaning house. The scandal is in tolerating or covering up plagiarism. Unfortunately, plagiarism is openly tolerated in the most public sectors of modern life. It wasnt always that way. Lincoln didnt just perform his Gettysburg address; he actually wrote it. What happened to that tradition of intellectual honesty in public speech? With ghostwriting so ubiquitous among the rich and powerful, its no wonder that young people see little value in learning to write well. They view writing the way they view cleaning their roomsan unpleasant chore theyll do only until they can afford to hire someone else.

When students believe that writing assignments are merely hazing rituals, hurdles on the path to success in life, some will inevitably plagiarize. And when instructors assign writing that has no clear educational goals, how can the students value it? Having explicitly stated goals is both good discipline and a way to avoid misunderstandings. If students believe an assignment is busy work, some will be busy cheating. Finally, students need to be taught that the act of writing is intrinsically valuable to them. It crystallizes ones thoughts in a way that nothing else can. As a physicist, I find that I often learn more from writing papers and proposals than I do from working in the laboratory. I rarely find writing easy, but I always find it rewarding.

Who

is the author of the essay? What does the author say about writing? Define plagiarism base from the authors point of view.

Strategies in Writing

What is an Outline?
Is the skeletal framework of your paper. It helps you organize the ideas and information you collected from different reading materials. Since the main concern or purpose of the outline is to show relationships among various ideas, you must then make an outline that is clear, logical, or orderly.

Organize ideas facts, details and examples logically according to their level of importance

Using an outline can help you organize your material and can also help you discover connections between pieces of information that you weren't aware of when you first conceived the plan of your paper. It can also make you aware of material that is not really relevant to the purposes of your paper or material that you have covered before and should therefore be removed. A Working Outline might be only an informal list of topics and subtopics which you are thinking of covering in your paper. The working outline can be revised as you discover new material and get new ideas that ought to go into your paper.

A Final Outline should enhance the organization and coherence of your paper. Material that is not relevant to the purpose of your paper as revealed in your outline should be excised from the paper; if portions of your outline seem weak in comparison to others, more research may be required to create a sense of balance in your argument and presentation. Outlines can be organized according to your purposes. Are you attempting to show the chronology of some historical development, the cause-and-effect relationship between one phenomenon and another, the process by which something is accomplished, or the logic of some position? Are you defining or analyzing something? Comparing or contrasting one thing to another? Presenting an argument (one side or both)? An effective introduction will map out the journey your reader is about to take, and a satisfactory conclusion will wrap up the sequence of ideas in a nice package. A final outline can be written as a topic outline, in which you use only short phrases to suggest ideas, or as a sentence outline, in which you use full sentences (even very brief paragraphs) to show the development of ideas more fully.

How to Write an Outline


What is it?
An outline is a general plan of the material that is to be presented in a speech or a paper. The outline shows the order of the various topics, the relative importance of each, and the relationship between the various parts.

Thesis Statement Summarizing Sentence

of

All outlines should begin with a thesis statement of summarizing sentence. This thesis sentence presents the central idea of the paper. It must always be a complete, grammatical sentence, specific and brief, which expresses the point of view you are taking towards the subject.

Order in an Outline
There are many ways to arrange the different parts of a subject. Sometimes, a chronological arrangement works well. At other times, a spatial arrangement is best suited to the material. The most common order in outlines is to go from the general to the specific. This means you begin with a general idea and then support it with specific examples.

Types of Outlines
The two main types of outlines are the topic outline and the sentence outline. In the topic outline, the headings are given in single words or brief phrases. In the sentence outline, all the headings are expressed in complete sentences.

topic outline sentence outline


FORMAL OUTLINE

Examples

Topic Outline
Choices in College and After
Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my lifes work. I. Two decisions described A. Art history or chemistry 1. Professional considerations 2. Personal considerations B. A third year of French? 1. Practical advantages of knowing a foreign language 2. Intellectual advantages 3. The issue of necessity II. Definition of the problem A. Decisions about occupation B. Decisions about a kind of life to lead III. Temporary resolution of the problem A. To hold open a professional possibility: chemistry B. To take advantage of cultural gains already made: French

Choices in College and After


Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my lifes work.
I. I have two decisions to make with respect to choosing college courses in the immediate future. A. One is whether to elect a course in art history or in chemistry. 1. One time in my life, I planned to be a chemical engineer professionally. 2. On the other hand, I enjoy art and plan to travel and see more of it. B. The second decision is whether to continue a third year of French beyond the basic college requirement. 1. French might be useful both in engineering and travel. 2. Furthermore, I am eager to read good books which are written in French. 3. How necessary are these considerations in the light of other courses I might take instead? II. My problem can be put in the form of a dilemma involving larger questions about my whole future. A. On the one hand I want to hold a highly-trained position in a lucrative profession. B. On the other hand I want to lead a certain kind of life, with capacities for values not connected with the making of money. III. I will have to make a decision balancing the conflicting needs I have described. A. I will hold open the professional possibilities by electing chemistry. B. I will improve and solidify what cultural proficiency in another language I have already gained, by electing French.

Other Types of Outline

Sample alphanumeric outline

Alphanumeric outlines
An alphanumeric outline uses Roman numerals, capitalized letters, Arabic numerals, and lowercase letters, in that order. Each numeral or letter is followed by a period, and each item is capitalized:

Thesis statement: E-mail and internet monitoring; is it really an invasion of the employees' rights in the workplace?
I. Why do over 80% of today's companies monitor their employees? A. To prevent fraudulent activities, theft, and other workplace related violations. B. To more efficiently monitor employee productivity. C. To prevent any legal liabilities due to harassing or offensive communications. II. What are the employees privacy rights when it comes to EM/S (Electronic Monitoring and Surveillance) in the workplace? A. American employees have basically no legal protection from mean and snooping bosses. 1. There are no federal or State laws protecting employees 2. Employees may assert privacy protection for their own personal effects.

Family Tree outline

Family Tree outlines are used to show people, their spouses and their children in chronological order.

1. Gregory CURIOUS A. Patricia JONES (1st marriage) 1. Chloe CURIOUS 2. Lola CURIOUS B. Katie HOGLEG (2nd marriage) 3. Jenny CURIOUS A. Paul SMITH (1st marriage) 1. John SMITH 2. Jill SMITH 3. Vincent CURIOUS Here you can see that Gregory had two wives (Patricia and Katie) and 4 children (Chloe, Lola, Jenny and Vincent) and you can see who he had each child with. You can also see his son-in-law (Paul Smith) and his 2 grandchildren who are Jenny's and Paul's. This is very useful in graphing descendents rather than ancestors.

Decimal outlines
The decimal outline format has the advantage of showing how every item at every level relates to the whole:

Sample decimal outline Thesis statement: --1.0 Introduction 1.1 Brief history of Liz Claiborne 1.2 Corporate environment 2.0 Career opportunities 2.1 Operations management 2.1.1 Traffic 2.1.2 International trade and corporate customs 2.1.3 Distribution

Outlining stories

Outline is also a name for a prose telling of a story to be turned into a screenplay. Sometimes called a one page (one page synopsis, about 1 - 3 pages). It is generally longer and more detailed than a standard synopsis (1 - 2 paragraphs), but shorter and less detailed than a treatment or a step outline. There are different ways to do these outlines and they vary in length.

Location outlines Plot outlines

In comics, an outline--often pluralized as outlines--refers to a stage in the development where the story has been broken down very loosely in a style similar to storyboarding in film development. The pencils will be very loose (i.e., the sketch rough), the main aim being to lay out the flow of panels across a page, ensure the story successfully builds suspense and to work out points of view, camera angles and character positions within panels. This can also be referred to as a plot outline or a layout.

TRADITIONAL METHOD
I. A. B. C. 1. 2. 3. II. A. B.
2. 1.

MODERN METHOD
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.3.1 1.3.3.2 2.1 2.2

1. 2.
a. b. c.

2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2 2.2.2.3

1. Subdivide topics by a system of numbers and letters, followed by a period.


Example: I. A. B. 1. 2. II.

a. b.

A. B.

2. Each heading and subheading must have at least two parts. 3. Headings for parts of the paper of speech such as, Introduction and Conclusion, should not be used. 4. Be consistent. Do not mix up the two types of outlines. Use either whole sentences of brief phrases, but not both.

1. Write an outline about the topic Smoking among Teenagers. Mention the following as your sub topics. Causes of Smoking Effects of Smoking