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CLASSIFICATION OF NUMBERS

Natural Numbers : N = {1,2,3,4,.} Whole Numbers : W = {0,1,2,3,,...} Integers : Z = { ,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,..} Rational Numbers : Any number which can be expressed in the form p/q , where p & q are integers and q 0. Any Natural Number is a Rational Number. Any Whole Number is a Rational Number. Any Integer is a Rational Number. Any terminating Decimal is a Rational Number. For e.g., 0.25 = 25/100 Any recurring decimal can be converted in to the form p/q where p & q are integers and q0. Therefore, any recurring decimal is a rational Number. Irrational Numbers: Any non-terminating decimal and non recurring decimal is an irrational number. and e are irrational numbers
1

CLASSIFICATION OF NUMBERS

R
Z

N W

Irrational numbers
2

CLASSIFICATION OF NUMBERS
What is the sum of first 10 Whole Numbers? Ans : 45 Product of 2 integers is 6. How many ordered pairs of integer solutions are possible ? a 1 2 3 6 * * * * * b 6 3 2 1 a*b 6 6 6 6 a -1 -2 -3 -6 * * * * * b -6 -3 -2 -1 a*b 6 6 6 6

There are 8 ordered solutions are possible


3

Rational Numbers Let us consider 0.777777 S = 0.77777 10 S = 7.77777 9S= 7 S= 7 9 Let us consider 0.23333333.. S = 0.233333 10S = 2.333333 100S =23.3333 90S =21 S = 21/90 Let us consider 0.23232323.. S = 0.232323 100S =23.2323.. 99S =23 S = 23/99 Let us consider 0.273273273273 S = 0.273273273 1000S =273.273273.. 999S =273 S = 273 999 Let us consider 0.243434343.. S = 0.2434343 10S = 2.434343 1000S=243.3333 990S =241 S = 241/990
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Let us consider 0.243333333.. S = 0.243333 100S = 24.3333 1000S=243.3333 900S =219 S = 219/900

Rational Numbers
42.317317 317317 S = 42.317317317 1000 S = 42317.317317317 999 S = (42317 42) S = (42317-42)/999 S 42.3171717171717 S = 42.317171717 10 S = 423.17171717 1000 S = 42317.171717 990 S = (42317-423) S

42275/ 999

41894/ 990

42.3177777777 S = 42.3177777 100 S = 4231.77777777 1000S = 42317.77777777 900S = (42317-4231) S

2.3171717171717 S = 2.317171717 10 S = 23.17171717 1000 S = 2317.171717 990 S = (2317-23) S

38086/ 900

2294/ 990
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Rational Numbers
Number 0.7 0.23 0.273 0.23
7/ 23/ 273/ 21/ 9 99 999 90

0.273
0.243 42.317 42.317 42.317

246/
241/

900

990 42275/ 999 41894/ 990 38086/ 900

Denominator has as many 9s as the no. of recurring digits and as many 0s as the no. of nonrecurring digits. The number before the decimal does not contribute to the denominator but contributes to numerator.
Kl.abcdef =(klabcdef klabc)/999000
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Rational Numbers
If N =0.d1d2 and d1 & d2 are not necessarily distinct, how many values denominator can take? N=
d1 d2 N
d d 1 2

99

0 1
1/ 99

0 3
1/ 33

0 9
1/ 11

1 1
1/ 9

3 3
1/ 3

Denominators are factors of 99 excluding 1 No. of denominators = 5


7

Rational Numbers
If N1 =.d1d2 & N2 =0.d1d2 . If N1 =.d1d2d3 &N2 = 0.d1d2d3

What is the least number with which N1 & N2 should be multiplied such that

What

is

the

least

number with which N1 &


N2 should be multiplied such that these become

these become integers?


N1 = d1d2 / N= 990 (LCM of 99 & 90 )
99 90

integers.
N1 = [d1d2d3 -d1]/990 N2 = (d1d2 d3- d1d2)/900 N= 9900 (LCM of 990 & 900 )
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N2 = (d1d2 - d1)/

Divisor Quotient Remainder


Any number can be written as N= d *q + r where d is the divisor, q is the quotient & r remainder. 4 = 4* 1 + 0 9 = 4* 2 + 1 16 = 4* 4 + 0 25 = 4* 6 + 1

36 = 4* 9 + 0
49 = 4*12 + 1
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Divisor Quotient Remainder


A number divided by 72 leaves a

remainder of 15. If the same number


divided by 18 which of the following can be the reminders?
(1) 15 (2) 12 (3) 10 (4) 17 (5) 16
Q 0 N 15
N/ 18

N = 72 q + 15 , where q can take all values from 0 to infinity. The issue to examine is whether remainder will change as q changes.

15

1
2 3

87

15

159 15 231 15

For

various

values

of

q,

the

remainder is

only 15. Why?


10

18 is a factor of 72.

Divisor Quotient Remainder


A number divided by 48 leaves a remainder of 25. If the same number divided by 12 which of the following can be the reminders? (1) 15 (2) 13 (3) 25 (4) 23 (5) None of the above N = 48 q + 25 , where q can take all values from 0 to infinity. The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes. Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of q. For various values of q, the remainder is only 1. Why? 12 is a factor of 48.
Q 0 1 N 25 73
N/ 12

1 1

2
3

121
169

1
1

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A number divided by 17 leaves a remainder of 13. If the same number divided by 68 which of the following can be the reminders?

Divisor Quotient Remainder


Q 0 N 13 N /68 13

(1) 30 (2) 64 (3) 13 (4) 47 (5) All of the above

N = 17 q + 13 , where q can take all values from 0 to infinity. The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes. Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of q. For various values of q, remainders are 13, 30, 47 & 64. Why 4 remainders? 68 = 4* 17

1
2

30
47

30
47

3
4 5 6 7

64
81 98 115 132

64
13 30 47 64

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A number divided by 30 leaves a remainder of 20. If the same number divided by 120 which of the following can be the reminders? (1)30 (2) 50 (3) 80 (4) 110 (5) All of the above N = 30 q + 20 , where q can take all values from 1 to infinity. The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes. Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of q. For various values of q, remainders are 30, 50, 80 & 110 Why 4 remainders? 120 = 4* 30

Divisor Quotient Remainder

Q 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

N 20 50 80 110 140 170 200 230

N /120 20 50 80 110 20 50 80 110

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A number divided by 45 leaves a remainder of 18. If the same number divided by 60 which of the following can be the reminders? (1)18 (2) 3 (3) 48 (4) 33 (5) All of the above N = 45 q + 18 , where q can take all values from 1 to infinity. The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes. Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of q. For various values of q, remainders are 18,3,48 & 33 Why 4 remainders? LCM (45,60) = 180 = 4*45

Divisor Quotient Remainder

Q 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

N 18 63 108 153 198 243 288 333

N /60 18 3 48 33 18 3 48 33

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A number divided by 60 leaves a remainder of 30. If the same number divided by 45 which of the following can be the reminders? (1)30 (2) 0 (3) 15 (4) 33 (5) More than one of the above N = 60 q + 30 , where q can take all values from 1 to infinity. The issue to examine is whether remainders will change as q changes. Let us draw a table of remainders for various values of q. For various values of q, remainders are 30,0 & 15 Why 3 remainders? LCM (45,60) = 180 = 3*60

Divisor Quotient Remainder

Q 0 1 2

N 30 90 150

N /45 30 0 15

3
4 5

210
270 330

30
0 15

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A number divided by 39 leaves a remainder of n. The same number divided by 65 leaves a remainder of 12. What is the value of n if n is odd? (1)21 (2) 25 (3) 35 (4) 29 (5) Cannot be determined (AIMCAT question) N = 65 q + 12 , where q can take all values from 1 to infinity. LCM (65,39) = 195 = 3*65. Therefore 3 remainders are possible. The issue is to find out how many of these remainders will be odd. From the table we find out of 3 remainders only one value is odd. Therefore n = 25

Divisor Quotient Remainder

Q 0 1 2

N 12 77 142

N /39 12 38 25

3
4 5

207
272 337

12
38 25

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A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 22. Twice the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder 7. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + 22 2N = 2*d *q + 44 2N/d = (2*d *q)/d + 44/d Remainder when 2dq is divided by d is zero. why? d is a factor of 2d 44 = d*q1+ 7 d *q1 = 37 = 37*1 = Ans : 37 1*37
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A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 32. Thrice the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder 6. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + 32 3N = 3*d *q + 96 3N/d = (3*d *q)/d + 96/d Remainder when 3dq divided by d is zero. why? d is a factor of 3d 96 = d*q1+ 6 d *q1 = 90 = 90*1 = 45*2 Ans: 90 or 45
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A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 32. Six the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder 48. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + 32 6N = 6*d *q + 192 6N/d = (6*d *q)/d + 192/d Remainder when 6dq divided by d is zero. why? d is a factor of 6d 192 = d*q1+ 48 :: d *q1 = 144

= 144*1
= 72*2
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Ans : 144 or 72

A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder r1. K times the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder r2. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + r1 kN = k* d *q + k r1 kN/d = (k* d *q)/d + k r1/d k r1 = d *q1+ r2 d *q1 = (k r1 - r2 ) d should be factors of the expression (k r1 - r2 ) and greater than Max (r1, r2 )
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A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 8. Square of the number divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder 4. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = d *q + 8 d
N2 = (d *q + 8)2 64 = d*q1+ 4
*q1
60 60 60 60 60 60

= (d2 q2+16dq+64)/d

d
* q1

60
* 1

30
* 2

20
* 3

15
* 4

12
* 5

10
* 6

d *q1 = 60
Six divisors satisfy the conditions
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A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder r1. Nk divided by the same divisor leaves a remainder r2. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors?
N = Nk = d *q + r1 (d *q + r1)k

d *q1 = ( r1k - r2 )

d should be factors of the expression ( r1k - r2 ) greater than Max (r1, r2 )


22

A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 5. The number divided by thrice the divisor leaves a remainder 25. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = D*q1 + 5 N = 3D*q2 +25
= 3D*q2 +25 D*q1 + 5

D*q1 3D*q2 = 20

D(q1 - 3q2 )
D =

= 20

20 (or) 10
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A number divided by a divisor leaves a remainder 8. The number divided by twice the divisor leaves a remainder 28. How many divisors satisfy these conditions & what are these divisors? N = D*q1 + 8 = 2D*q2 +28 D*q1 + 8 = 2D*q2 +28 D*q1 2D*q2 = 20 D(q1 - 2q2 ) = 20 D=20. Other factors of 20 not possible.
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A teacher went to a class with a certain number of chocolates. He distributed the chocolates equally among the students, he was left with 5 chocolates. Next day he carried the same number of chocolates and found there were three times the number of students present on the first day. On dividing them equally among the students, he was left with 25 chocolates. Find the number of students present on the first day. No. of Chocolates = s*q1 + 5 No. of Chocolates =3s*q2 +25 s*q1 + 5 = 3s*q2 +25 s*q1 - 3s*q2 = 20 s(q1 - 3q2 ) = 20 s = 20 (or) 10
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A teacher went to a class with a certain number of chocolates. He distributed the chocolates equally among the students, he was left with 7 chocolates. Next day he carried the same number of chocolates and found there were twice the number of students present on the first day. On dividing them equally among the students, he was left with 47 chocolates. Find the number of students present on the first day. No. of Chocolates = s*q1 + 7 No. of Chocolates =2s*q2 +47 s*q1 + 7 = 2s*q2 +47 s*q1 - 2s*q2 = 40 s(q1 - 2q2 ) = 40 s = 40 Other factors are not possible. Why?
26

A teacher went to a class with a certain number of chocolates. He distributed the chocolates equally among the students, he was left with r1 chocolates. Next day he carried the same number of chocolates and found there were k times the number of students present on the first day. On dividing them equally among the students, he was left with r2 chocolates. Find the number of students present on the first day. No. of Chocolates = s*q1 + r1 No. of Chocolates =ks*q2 + r2 s*q1 + r1 = ks*q2 + r2 s*q1 - ks*q2 = r2 s(q1 - kq2 ) = (r2 - r1)

S should be factors of (r2 - r1) such that s > r1 and ks> r2 27

N1

N2 Odd Even Even Odd Even Odd Odd

N1+ N2 = Odd
N1+ N2 = Even N1* N2 = Even N1* N2 = Odd

Even Odd Even Odd Odd Even Odd

If product of n integers is odd, then all the numbers must be odd. If product of n integers is even, then at least one number is even
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Numbers
From a book consisting of 50 pages, numbered from 1 to 50, four leaves (i.e., 8 pages) are torn off. What is the probability that the sum of the page numbers on the pages that are torn off is 67? (1) 0.2 (2) 0.3 (3) 0.4 (4) 0.5 (5) None of these. P1+P2+P3+P4+P5+P6+P7+P8= 67 P1+P2 = 2k+1 :: P3+P4 = 2m+1 P5+P6 = 2n+1 :: P7+P8 = 2p+1 P1+P2+P3+P4+P5+P6+P7+P8 = Even. Answer : 0 A die is peculiarly numbered. One set of opposite faces are numbered 1 & 11, next set of opposite faces are numbered 3 & 9 and the third set of opposite faces are numbered as 5 & 7 . The die is rolled ten times. What is the probability that the sum of the numbers 45? (1) 0.2 (2) 0.3 (3) 0.4 (4) 0.5 (5) None of these. Sum of ten odd numbers is always even. Answer : 0 29

Prime Numbers
A prime number is a number which is divisible by 1 and itself. In other words, it has exactly 2 factors. Eg : 2, 3, 5, 7, 11,13. 2 is the only even prime number.1 is neither prime nor composite. There are 25 prime numbers between 1 to 100 and 21 prime numbers between 101 and 200. Any prime number (greater than 3) can be expressed in the form 6k + 1 where k is a natural number. 37=6*6+1 :: 31 = 6*5+1 Any number of the form 6k 1 need not be a Prime Number. Eg. 35 = 6*6 -1 but is not prime.
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If p, p+2 and p+4 are primes, how many values can p take? By observation, it can be seen that p =3. Can we be sure that p can take no more value? Any prime Number greater than 3 can be written as 6k 1
P 6k+1 p+2 p+4 6k+3= 6k+5 3(2k+1) Not prime p p+2 p+4 6k-1 6k+1 6k+3=3 (2k+1) Not prime
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Prime Numbers

P cannot take any value other than 3

Prime Numbers
If p, p+2 and p+14 are primes, how many values can p take? By observation, it can be seen that p =3. Can we be sure that p can take no more value? Any prime Number greater than 3 can be written as 6k 1
p 6k+1 p+2 p+14 K 1 3 5 10

P
6k-1 5 17 29 59

p+2
6k+1 7 19 31 61

p+14
6k+13 19 31 43 73

6k+3= 6k+15= 3(2k+1) 3(2k+5) Not prime Not prime

So on More than 5 Values


32

Factors of a Number N = ap * bq * cr . Number of factors is (p+1) (q+1) (r+1) provided a, b, c are distinct prime numbers Why (p+1) (q+1) (r+1)?

144 = 24*32 No of Factors = 5*3 = 15 20


30 31 32 1 3 9

21
2 6 18

22
4 12 36

23
8 36 72

24
16 48 144
33

Factors of a Number 900 = 22*32*52 No. of Factors =3*3*3 =27 30 20 1 3 9 5 21 2 6 18 10 22 4 12 36 20

50

31 32 30

51

52

31 32 30 31 32

15 225 25 75 45

30 450 50 150 90

60 900 100 300 180

34

Factors of a Number
Prime Factors No. of Factors

6 12 32 512 48 72 96 2048 150

2 *3 22 *3 25 29 24 *3 23 *32 25 *3 211 2*3*52

4 6 6 10 10 12 12 12 12

Prime Factors 25 49 169 196 225 256 576 52 72 132 22 *72 32 *52 28 26*32

No. of Factors 3 3 3 9 9 9 21

Any Perfect Square has odd no. of factors. Any number which has odd no of factors will be a Perfect Square. Many numbers can have same no. of factors.

35

Factors of a Number
If a number has 32 factors, in how many ways can it be expressed as a product of powers of prime number/s?
32*1 = 32 16*2 =32 N = a31 N = a15 *b

If a number has 24 factors, in how many ways can it be expressed as a product of powers of prime number/s?
24*1 = 24 12*2 = 24 N = A23 N = a11 *b

8*4 = 32
8*2*2 = 32 4*4 *2 = 32 4*2*2*2= 32

N = a7 * b3
N = a7 * b * c N = a3 * b3 * c N = a3* b * c * d

8*3 = 24
6*4 = 24 6*2 *2 = 24 2*3*4 = 24 2*2*2*3= 24

N = a7 * b2
N = a5 * b3 N = a5 * b * c N = a* b2 * c3 N = a* b * c * d2

2*2*2*2*2= 32 N = a* b * c * d * e

36

Factors of a Number
A number has 288 factors. What is the maximum number of prime factors the number can have? (p+1) (q+1) (r+1)..= 288 Maximum number of Prime factors can be obtained by splitting 288 into as many prime numbers (not necessarily distinct) as possible. 288 = 2*2*2*2*2*3*3 N = a* b * c * d * e* f 2 * g 2 A number has 720 factors. What is the maximum number of prime factors the number can have?
(p+1) (q+1) (r+1)..= 720

The number can have a maximum of 7 prime factors

Maximum number of Prime factors can be obtained by splitting 720 into as many prime numbers (not necessarily distinct) as possible. 720 = 2*2*2*3*3*2*5 N =a * b * c * d 2 * e 2 * f * g 4 The number can have a maximum of 7 prime factors
37

Factors of a Number How many 2 digit numbers have exactly three factors?
If a number has exactly three factors , it must be a square of a prime number . The numbers are 25 & 49.
Having exactly 3 factors

Single Digit Numbers Two digit Numbers Three Digit Numbers Four Digit Numbers

2 2 7 14

22 3 2 5 2 72 112 132 172 192 232 292 312 372 412 432 472 532 592 612 672 712 732 792 832 892 972
38

Prime Numbers
2 11 31 41 43 53 3 13 5 7 17 37 47 59 19

23

29

61
71 73 83

67
79 89 97

39

Prime Numbers
How many prime numbers less than 100 can be written as sum of 2 prime numbers? 5 3
+

7 5
+

13 11
+

19 17
+

31 29
+

43 41
+

61 59
+

73 71
+

A room has certain clocks. Each clock gives alarms in minutes and has distinct alarm cycle time. These clocks give alarms together every 60 minutes. What is the maximum number of clocks possible?

C1

C2

C3

C4 15

C5 12

C6 10

C7 6

C8 5

C9 C10 C11 C12 4 3 2 1


40

Alarm time 60 30 20

Factors of a Number
How many pairs of two prime numbers less than 100 Satisfy the condition that 1 added to their product makes it a perfect square?
P1* P2 + 1 = K2 : P1 = K 1 :: P2 = K +1 ::: P2 - P1 = 2
P1
3

How many pairs of two prime numbers less than 100 Satisfy the condition that 4 added to their product makes it a perfect square? P1* P2 + 4 = K2 P1 = K 2 :: P2 = K +2 P2 - P1 = 4
P1
3

P2
5

P1*P2 P1*P2+1
15 16

P2
7

P1*P2
21

P1*P2+1
25

5
11 17 29 41 59 71

7
13 19 31 43 61 73

35
143 323 899 1763 3599 5183

36
144 324 900 1764 3600 5184

7
13 19 37 43 67 79

11
17 23 41 47 71 83

77
221 437 1527 2021 4757 6557

81
225 441 1541 2025 4761 6561
41

Factors of a Number

If N2 has 5 factors less than N, how many factors N3 has ?


For the given question , as has five factors less than N, it will have 5 factors more than N and N is also a factor. So, N2 has eleven factors (p+1) (q+1) (r+1) = 11 N2 = a10 N3 = a15 N3 has 16 factors N2

Let N2 = 16 then N = 4 . Factors of 16 are 1, 2, 4, 8 & 16. Factors less than N are two & factors greater than N are also two. N is also a factor of N2. Therefore N2 has 5 factors Let N2 = 36 then N = 6 . Factors of 36 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18 & 36. Factors less than N are four & factors greater than N are also four. N is also a factor of N2. Therefore N2 has 9 factors Note: If N2 has k factors less than N, it will have k factors more than N . N will also be a factor. Therefore N2 will have (2k+1) factors

42

Factors of a Number
If N2 has 7 factors less than N, how many factors N3 has ?

If N2 has 13 factors less than N, how many factors N3 has ?


N2 has 27 factors (p+1) (q+1) (r+1) = 27 Case 1 27 = 27* 1 N2 = a26 N3 = a39 :: N3 has 40 factors Case 2 27 = 9* 3 N2 = a8 * b2 N3 = a12*b3 N3 has 52 factors Case 3 27 = 3* 3 * 3 N2 = a2 * b2 * c2 N3 = a3*b3*c3 N3 has 64 factors
43

N2 has 15 factors (p+1) (q+1) (r+1) = 15 Case 1 15 = 15* 1 N2 = a14 N3 = a21 N3 has 22 factors Case 2 15 = 5* 3 N2 = a4 * b2 N3 = a6 * b3 N3 has 28 factors

Factors

of a Number

Find the number of odd proper divisors of 3 2 x 23 x 21 2. 3 2 x 2 3 x 21 2 = 23 x 34 x 72


Number of odd Proper divisors = number of ways of selecting any number of 3s and 7s from 4 identical 3s and 2 identical 7s. = 5* 3 1 = 14
30 20 70 1 31 3 32 9 33 27 34 81

71
72

7
49

21
147

63
441

189
1323

567
3969

Find the number of odd proper divisors of 3m x 6 n x 21 p .

3m x6n x 21p = 3m x 2n x 3n x 3p x 7p = 2n x 3 m+n+p x 7p Hence number of odd proper divisors = number of ways of selecting any number of 3s and 7s from ( m+n+p) identical 3s and p identical 7s. = ( m+n+p+1)(p+1) 1.
44

Factors of a Number How many factors of 1021


How many factors of integral multiples of 56 ? Factors of 511 are 50 56 51 57 52 58 53 59 54 55 How many factors of 900 are integral multiples of 15 ? 900 = K*15 K = 60 K = 22 *3*5 K has 12 factors 511 are are integral multiples of 1010 ? 1021 = K* 1010 K = 1011 = 211* 511 K has 144 factors

510 511

Six factors of 511 which are integral multiples of 56 511 = K* 56 K = 55 K has 6 factors

45

Factors of a Number
A number N has 4 factors. Sum of the factors other than 1 & itself is 30. How many values N can take? Case 1 : N = a3 The factors are 1,a, a2 & a3. Given a2 + a = 30 :: a = 5 N = 125 Case 2 : N = a * b The factors are 1,a, b and ab Given a + b = 30 a = 7 b = 23 N = 23*7 a = 11 b = 19 N = 11*19 a = 13 b = 17 N = 13*17 N = 125 or 161 or 209 or 221 N Can take 4 Values A number N has 4 factors. Sum of the factors other than 1 & itself is 42. How many values N can take? Case 1 : N = a3 The factors are 1,a, a2 & a3. Given a2 + a = 42 :: a = 6 N.A. Case 2 : N = a * b The factors are 1,a, b and ab Given a + b = 42 a = 5 b = 37 N = 37*5 a = 11 b = 31 N = 11*31 a = 13 b = 29 N = 13*29 a = 19 b = 23 N = 19*23 N = 185 or 341 or 377 or 437 N Can take 4 Values
46

Factors of a Number
A number N has 20 factors. If n represents the no of factors which are perfect squares, how many values n can take? N N n =5 N= n=6 N= n=3 a19 a9 *b a0 * b0, a2 * b0,a4 * b0,a6 * b0,a8 *b0 a4 *b3 a0*b0,a2*b0,a4*b0,a0*b2,a2*b2,a4*b2, a *b*c4 a0*b0*c0, a0*b0*c2 a0*b0*c4

n =10 a0, a2 , a4, a6, a8, a10, a12, a14, a16, a18

47

Factors of a Number
For how many values of n, will (n+726)/(n-3) perfect square ?
(n+726)

be a

/ (n-3)

= 1+729/(n-3)

(n-3) should be factors of 729.


(n-3)

729/ (n-3) 1+ 729/(n-3)

1 729 730

3 243 244

9 81 82

27 27 28

81 9 10

243 3 4

729 1 2

ok
48

Factors of a Number
For how many values of n, will (n+40)/(n-8) be a perfect square ?
(n+40) /

= 1+48/(n-8) (n-8)

(n-8) should be factors of 48. 1


48/ (n-8) 1+ 48/(n-8)

16

12

24

48

48 49

24 25

12 3

6 7

3 4 Ok

16 17

8 9 Ok

4 5

2 3

1 2

Ok Ok

49

Factors
If N= ap * bq * cr.. Number of ways of writing N as a product of 2 factors = {(p+1)(q+1)(r+1)..}
N 24 24 = = = f1 1 2 * * * f2 24 12

N
36

=
=

f1
1

*
*

F2
36

36
36 36 36

=
= = =

2
3 4 6

*
* * *

18
12 9 6

24
24

=
=

3
4

*
*

8
6

No. of Factors of 24 is 8 N = f1* f2 in 4 (=8/2) ways.

No. of Factors of 36 is 9
N = f1* f2 in 4 ways where factors are distinct N = f1* f2 in 5 ways where factors are not necessarily distinct
50

Factors
In a Quadratic Equations where roots are integers, the product of roots is 28, how many quadratic equations in its simplest form can be set up ?
20 70 1 71 7 21 22 2 14 4 28 X2 29x X2 + 29x X2 27x X2 + 27x + 28 = 0 + 28 = 0 - 28 = 0 - 28 = 0 X2 16x + 28 = 0 X2+ 16x + 28 = 0 X2 12x - 28 = 0 X2+ 12x 28 = 0 X2 11x + 28 = 0 X2+ 11x + 28 = 0 X2 3x - 28 = 0 X2+ 3x - 28 = 0

Twelve (12) Quadratic Equations can be set up In a Quadratic Equations where roots are integers, the product of roots is 36, how many quadratic equations in its simplest form can be set up ?
20
30 31 32 1 3 9

21
2 6

22
4 12

18 36

X2 37x + 36 = 0 X2+ 37x + 36 = 0 X2 35x - 36 = 0 X2+ 35x - 36 = 0

Similarly for 2 & 18 4 eqns. 3 & 12 4 eqns. 4 & 9 4 eqns.

X212x+36 = 0 X2+12x+36 = 0 X2- 36 = 0 Totally 19 Eqns


51

Factors
For how many values of a, will a + 123 be a perfect square of a surd? (m+ n)2 = m + n + 2mn a+123 = a+2363 = a+2108
mn 108 108 108 108 108 108 m 108 54 27 18 12 36 n 1 2 4 6 9 3 m+n=a 109 56 31 24 21 39

For how many values of a, will a + 142 be a perfect square of a surd? (m+ n)2 = m + n + 2mn a+142 = a+2492 = a+298
mn m n m+n=a

98
98 98

98
49 14

1
2 7

99
51 21

a can take 3 values

a can take 6 values


52

Factors
If N = a p * b q * c r * . Sum of factors = ap+1 1 bq+1 1 cr+1 1 (a -1) (b-1) (c-1) Find the sum of factors 0f 9216. 9216 = 2 10 * 3 2 Sum of factors

[211 1]/ ={

[2-1]}

[33 1]/ {

[3-1]}

= 2047* 13 = 26611

Find the sum of even factors 0f 24 24 = 23 * 3 . The factors are 1,2,4,8,3,6,12,24. The answer is 56. Another way of calculating the sum of even factors is to write 24 = 2 * 12 . Find the sum of factors of 12 and multiply the same by 2. The sum of factors of 12 is (1+2+4+3+6+12). The answer is 2 * 28 = 56

53

Factors
Find the sum of odd factors of 24 54 = 2 * 33 . The factors are 1,3,9,27,2,6,18,54. The answer is 40. Another way of calculating the sum of even factors is to write 54 = 2 * 27 . Find the sum of factors of 27. The sum of factors of 27 is (1+3+9+27) = 40.

Find the sum of factors of 18000, which are multiples of 8 or 25. 18000 = 8 * 2250. find the sum of factors of 2250 and multiply by 8. 18000 = 25 * 720. find the sum of factors of 720 and multiply by 25. 18000 = 200 * 90. find the sum of factors of 90 and multiply by 200. Add the first two and subtract the third.

54

Factors
How many natural numbers less than 100 are such that these numbers are one less than the sum of factors? Let us take the number 2. Factors are 1 & 2. Sum of factors is 3. 2 satisfies the condition. Let us take the number 3. Factors are 1 & 3. Sum of factors is 4. 3 satisfies the condition. Let us take the number 4. The sum of factors is 7.This number does not satisfy this condition. Prime numbers satisfy this condition. There are 25 prime numbers between 1 & 100.

Area of a rectangle is 48 Sq units. All distinct rectangles with sides integers are drawn. Find the sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles.

48*1 24*2

16*3

12*4

8*6

Sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles = 2(1+2+3+4+6+8+12+16+24+48) = 248 = 2 * sum of factors


55

Factors
Area of a rectangle is 36 Sq units. All distinct rectangles with sides integers are drawn. Find the sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles.
18*2

36*1

6*6

12*3 9*4

Sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles = 2(1+2+3+4+6+6+9+12+18+36) = 194 = 2 * sum of factors + 236
Area of a rectangle is A Sq units. All distinct rectangles with sides integers are drawn. Find the sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles. Sum of perimeter of all distinct rectangles = 2 * sum of factors + 2A
56

Factors
Perimeter of a rectangle is less than 100 units. How many distinct rectangles can be drawn if sides are integers? 2(l + b) < 100 :: (l + b) < 50 :: 2(l + b) 49
l+b 2 3 4 5 6 l+b l+b l+b 13 13

1 1 2 2 3

14 15 16 17 18

7 7
8 8 9

26 27 28 29 30

38
39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

19
19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23

14 14 15

7
8 9 10

3
4 4 5

19
20 21 22

9
10 10 11

31
32 33 34

15
16 16 17

11
12 13

5
6 6

23
24 25

11
12 12

35
36 37

17
18 18

47
48 49

23
24 24

2(l + b) [2k+1] No. of rectangles is k(k+1)


57

Totally 600 rectangles can be drawn

Factors
Perimeter of a rectangle is less than or equal to 80 units. How many distinct rectangles can be drawn if sides are integers? 2(l + b) 80 :: (l + b) 40 :: 2(l + b) 40
l+b 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 l+b l+b l+b 10 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5

11

21

15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20

12
13 14 15 16

6
6 7 7
8

22
23 24 25 26

11
11 12 12 13

17
18 19 20

8
9 9 10

27
28 29 30

13

14 14 15

Totally 400 rectangles can be drawn

2(l + b) 2n No. of rectangles is n2


58

Co primes
Co primes: Two numbers are said to be co primes if their HCF is unity Numbers by themselves need not be prime 2 consecutive numbers are always co primes.

How many numbers from 1 to 48 are co prime to 48?


48 = 24*3 Any multiple of 2 will not be co prime to 48 Any multiple of 3 will not be co prime to 48 No of co primes to 48 = 48 48/2 48/3 + 48/6 = 48( 1- - + 1/6 ) = 48 ( 1 ) ( 1 - ) = 16 1 47 5 43 7 41 11 37 13 35 17 31 19 29 23 25
59

Co primes
How many numbers from 1 to 35 are co primes to 35?
35 = 5*7 Any multiple of 5 or 7 will not be co prime to 35 No of co primes to 35 = 35 35/5 35/7 + 35/35 = 35 ( 1 - 1/5 - 1/7 + 1/35) = 35 ( 1 1/5) ( 1 - 1/7 ) = 24
1 2 3 4 6 8 9 11 12 13 16 17
34 33 32 31 29 27 26 24 23 22 19 18

60

Co primes
If N = a
p

xb

xc

No of co primes to N = N ( 1 a) ( 1- b) ( 1- c) No of co primes to N (N>2) will be even Half the no of co primes will be less than N/2 & the other half will be greater than N/2

If x is co prime to N , then (N-x) will be


definitely be co prime to N.

Sum of co primes to N = N/2 {No of Co primes}


61

Co primes
How many numbers less 9216 are co primes to 9216 and find the sum of the co primes ? 9216 = 210 * 32 No of co primes =9216* 1/3 = 3072. Sum of co primes = 3072 *4608 How many numbers from 61 to 120 are co primes to 120? 120 = 23 * 3 * 5 No. of Co primes to 120 = 32 No of co primes to 120 from 61 to 120 = 16 How many natural numbers less than 7225 are co primes to 221? 221 = 13*17. Any multiple of 13 will not be co prime to 221 and similarly any multiple of 17 will not be co prime to 221. Multiples of 13 = 7224/13 = 555 Multiples of 17 = 7224/17 = 424 Multiples of 221 = 7224/221 = 32 7224 555 424 + 32 = 6277 62

Co primes
In a college sports meet, there were exactly 24 participants, numbered from 101 to 125, and there were four events- E1, E2, E3, E4, The following is the list of the participants who took part in each event: E1 :101,102,103,. E2 :101,103,105,.. E3 :101,104,107,. E4 :101,105,109,.. How many students participated only in E1? (1) 8 (2) 10 (3) 7 (4) 5 (5) 6
E1 101 X E2 X X X X X X X X X X X E3 X E4 X 113 E1 X E2 X X X X X E3 X E4 X 125 E1 X E2 X E3 X E4 X

102
103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

X
X X X X X X X X X X

114
115 116 117 118

X
X X X X

102, 106, 108, 112,114, 118, 120, 124. Eight students. participate in Event 1. No . 0f Students = 125 101 = 24 Rewrite Students Nos subtracting from 101. the new Nos. 0,1,2,3,4..24 No. of Students who participate in Event E1 only are co primes to 24 1(102) , 5 (106) , 7 (108) , 11 (112) , 13 (114) , 17 (118), 19 (120) , 23 (124) Eight students participate in Event 1
63

119
120 121 122 123 124

X
X X X X X

X
X

X
X X

Co primes
In a college sports meet, there were exactly 24 participants, numbered from 101 to 941, and there were four events- E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6 & E7. The following is the list of the participants who took part in each event: E1 :101,102,103, E2 :101,103,105, E3 :101,104,107, E4 :101,105,109, E5 :101,106,111,.. E6 :101,107,113,.. E7 :101,108,115,.. How many students participated only in E1? (1) 8 (2) 10 (3) 7 (4) 5 (5) 6
No . 0f Students = 941 101 = 840 Rewrite Students Nos subtracting from 101. the new Nos. 0,1,2,3,4..840 No. of Students who participate in Event E1 only are co primes to 840 No of Co primes to 840 = 840 (1 ) ( 1- 1/3) ( 1- 1/5) ( 1- 1/7)

= 192

64

Co primes
In a college sports meet, there were exactly 24 participants, numbered from 101 to 941, and there were four events- E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6 & E7. The following is the list of the participants who took part in each event: E1 :101,102,103, E2 :101,103,105, E3 :101,104,107, E4 :101,105,109, E5 :101,106,111,.. E6 :101,107,113,.. E7 :101,108,115,.. How many students participated only in E1? (1) 8 (2) 10 (3) 7 (4) 5 (5) 6
No . 0f Students = 941 101 = 840 Rewrite Students Nos subtracting from 101. the new Nos. 0,1,2,3,4..840 No. of Students who participate in Event E1 only are co primes to 840 No of Co primes to 840 = 840 (1 ) ( 1- 1/3) ( 1- 1/5) ( 1- 1/7)

= 192

65

Co primes
N is a product of 3 Prime Numbers. Sum of squares of Prime Numbers is 579. Sum of factors is 3024. No. of co primes is 1920. Find N.
N = p* q*r p2 + q2 + r2 = 579 Sum of Factors is = (p21) (q21) (r21) (p1) (q 1) (r1) = (p+1) (q+1) (r+1) = 3024 (pqr+pq+qr+rp+p+q+r+1)= 3024 ..A N = p* q*r No. of co primes= N(1- p)(1- q)(1- r) =(p-1) (q-1) (r-1) = 1920 (pqr-pq-qr-rp+p+q+r-1)=1920 ..B Adding A & B , 2[p q r +p +q + r] = 4944 [p q r +p +q + r] = 2472 Subtracting B from A, 2(p q + q r + r p + 1 ) = 1104 p q + q r + r p = 551 [p +q + r]2 = p2 + q2 + r2 + 2 [p q + q r + r p ] p +q + r =(579+1102) = 41 p q r + p + q + r = 2472 p q r = 2431

66

Co primes
Perimeter of a rectangle is 600 units. It can be perfectly cut into identical squares of maximum length 15 units. How many distinct rectangles can be drawn if sides are integers? a b L B Let L = 15a and B = 15b . ::: a+ b = 20 19 1 285 15 A = 19 B=1
18 2 3 4 270 255 240 30 45 60 X X

A = 18 B=2

17 16

15
14 13

5
6 7 8 9

225
210 195 180 165 150

75
90 105

X
X

4 rectangles can be drawn

12 11

120 X 135 150 X


67

10 10