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Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)

concentrations (1750 to present)

370
360
350
parts per million volume

340 Mauna Loa (1958-present)


330 Siple Station (1750-)
320
310
300
290
280
270
1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000
Data Source: C.D. Keeling and T.P. Whorf, Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (ppmv) derived from in situ air samples
collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, August 1998. A. Neftel et al, Historical
CO2 Record from the Siple Station Ice Core, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland, September 1994. See
http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/co2/contents.htm WORLD
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Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations

1800
1700
1600
parts per billion volume

1500 Law Dome (1841-1978)


1400 Cape Meares (1979-1991)
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
1840 1890 1940 1990
Data Source: D.M. Etheridge et al. Concentrations of CH4 from the Law Dome (East Side, "DE08" Site) Ice Core(a),
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia. September 1994. Available:
http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/methane/lawdome.259. M.A.K. Khalil, R.A. Rasmussen, and F. Moraes. "Atmospheric
methane at Cape Meares: Analysis of a high resolution data base and its environmental implications." Journal of WORLD
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Geophysical Research 98:14,753-14,770. 1993. Available: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/db1007/cmeares.mon
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How much will the Kyoto Protocol reduce
emissions?
Business-as-usual

8 Kyoto Protocol scenario 8.0


7.6
Billion tons of carbon

6 6.4
5.8

0
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

Data Sources: United States Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration,


International Energy Outlook, 1998 and 1999. WORLD
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Greenhouse gas emission scenarios

14

12 Stabilization Targets
10
Annual Emissions (GtC)

4 450 ppmv 550 650 750

0
1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250

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Cumulative carbon emissions, 1950-1996
China 15,715
Germany 11,651
J apan 8,504
United Kingdom 7,415
India 4,235
Canada 4,054
South Africa 2,331
Mexico 2,118
Australia 2,080
Brazil 1,557
Korea, Rep. 1,361
Indonesia 966
United States 50,795

0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000


Million tons of carbon

Data Source: Marland et al, 1999. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. WORLD
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Per capita emissions of carbon from
industrial sources, 1996
Australia 4.63
Russian Federation 2.91
Germany 2.87
United Kingdom 2.59
J apan 2.54
Korea, Rep. 2.46
Ukraine 2.10
South Africa 1.88
Mexico 1.02
China 0.76
Brazil 0.46
Indonesia 0.33
India 0.29
United States 5.37

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Thousand tons of carbon
WORLD
Data Source: Marland et al, 1999. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. RESOURCES
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