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Hydrology & fluvial geomorphology

• Terms
• Flow in drainage basin
• Storm Hydrograph
• Water balance
• Human actions
• Flood
Look at the diagram:
2. List down input & output

4. Which are the storage &


3. How does water from

surface storage reaches
groundwater storage?

4. Name the flow marked A

and B.

5. Define terms shown in

Catchments of rivers X & Y hydrographs over
24 hours of the two rivers.

Using both diagram explain why the

discharge of the two rivers are different

Explain how each of these influence Describe the differences between

storm hydrograph: the discharges of rivers X and Y in
Drainage basin shape, geology, response to the rainfall
rainfall intensity, drainage density
1. Name the flows shown
as A, B & C.

2. Describe what is meant by


3.Describe and explain the

occurrence of the flows A,
B and C.

Flow of water in a cross section of soil and bedrock

Water balance

1. Briefly define
the term water balance.

2. Describe one reason

why water balance may
vary over time.

3. Label A, B, C & D.
• River processes: erosion, transport &
• Describe flows: helicoidal, laminar &
turbulence flow.
• Landforms
• Urbanisation & river flows.
River erosion
1. Briefly describe the processes by which
rivers can erode their channels. [8]
2. Describe the general effects of erosion on
the shape of the river channel. [3]
• Name four methods by which rivers transport their load
and briefly describe these methods.

2. Briefly describe laminar, turbulent flow and helicoidal

flow and draw them.
Hjustrom curve.
1. Name the type of sediment that requires the
lowest velocity to be eroded. [1]
2. Name the type of sediment that is likely to be
transported at all velocities. [1]
3. Describe and explain the relationship between
water velocity and the erosion of clay
and sand particles. [4]
4. Explain the variation in water velocity that is
required to transport and to deposit
sediments of different particle diameter. [4]
River deposition
Describe what is river deposition and what
are the condition needed for it to occur.
1. Draw a labelled diagram to show each of
the following landforms & explain how
they are formed:
(b) Meandering
(c) Flood plain and levees.
(d) Delta
(d) ox-bow lake
(e) Water fall
(f) Braided channel.
• Explain how river floods might be
predicted. Giving examples, describe the
methods which may be used to reduce the
effects of flooding.
• Describe the main features of river flood
plains and explain why flood plains may
present problems for human settlements.
Human activities on flow
• Suggest how human activities might affect
flows within a river channel.
• How can changes in land use affect flows
and stores in a drainage basin?
• How can the abstraction (removal) and the
storage of water by humans affect flows
and stores within a drainage basin.
• Explain how urbanisation can affect river
channel flows.