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Computer Studies Section 1 Applications of computers and their social and economic implications

Information System


Data - Raw Facts & Figures are called Data Processing - Conversion of data into a form that can be processed by computer. - The storing or processing of data by a computer. Information information When Data is processed, it provides

Data

Processing

Information

Figure : Processing of data produces information Source [http://www.answers.com/topic/data-processing]

Parts of Computer


Input : These devices often receive input from users, and forward it to the computer for processing. E.g. Keyboard, Mouse, pointing devices, microphone, biometric readers, and scanners Processing : Processor often processes data into information, that is meaningful and useful Output : It convert the data from the computer to a form that is usable by us. Examples of output devices are monitor, speakers, printers, and plotters.

Source [http://cstrend.com/computer.html]

Types of Applications


Expert Systems
A special type of computer system that stores all the knowledge of an expert in a particular subject so that people can ask questions. OR An expert system is software that attempts to provide an answer to a problem, or clarify uncertainties where normally one or more human experts would need to be consulted.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. An expert system would be programmed using an AI (Artificial Intelligence) language such as PROLOG.
Source [ Chris Leadbetter & Stewart Wainwright] & [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expert_system]

Elements of an Expert System




Knowledge Base A database designed to allow the complex storage and retrieval requirement of a computerized knowledge base management system. Inference Engine A software that attempts to derive answers from the knowledge base using a form of reasoning. - It is how expert systems appears to use human like reasoning when accessing information from the knowledge base , in order to find the conclusion of a problem.

User Interface

Inference Engine

Knowledge Base

Knowledge Base

Figure : Elements of an Expert System


Source [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

Elements of an Expert System




Rule Base Made up of a series of Interference Rules ( e.g. IF the country is in south America AND the language used is Portuguese THEN the country must be brazil). These rules are used by interference engine to draw conclusions.

Figure : Elements of an Expert System


Source [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

How to set up an expert system




Experts in the field are interviewed to find out what is needed in the expert system. Data is then collected from these experts. A Knowledge base is designed and then created. A rule base is designed and then created. A inference engine is designed and then created.

   

Source [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

How to set up an expert system




The input screen and output format are also designed and created Known as user interface. The expert system is tested against known conditions are scenarios. It is also checked to see , if it meets the original specifications. Experts are interviewed about how effective it is before the expert system goes out in general release.

Source [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

Advantages of Expert System




Expert system provides consistent answers. They never forget to answer a question when determining logic. Using expert systems reduces the time taken to solve a problem. A less skilled workforce is needed, which gives the potential of saving money, but also allows areas of the world access to expertise which they could not afford

Source [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

Disadvantages of Expert System




They tend to lack common sense in some of the decision-making processes. Errors in the knowledge base can lead to incorrect decisions being made It is expensive to setup in the first place. Considerable training is necessary to ensure the system is needed correctly by the operators

Source [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

Examples of an expert system- Oil systemProspecting


  

An interactive user screen appears. Questions are asked about geographical profiles Answer to the questions and information about the geographical profiles are typed in. The inference engine searches the knowledge base using the rule base.

Source [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

Examples of an Expert SystemSystem- Oil Prospecting




The system: - suggests the probability of finding oil as an output. - indicates the probable depth of deposits. - makes predictions about the geological deposits above the soil. - produces contour maps showing concentration of minerals, rocks , oil etc.

Source [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

Examples of Expert Systems Medical Diagnosis




In Medicine, expert systems are being used for disease diagnosis. The patient's details and symptoms are input, and the system outputs probable diagnoses, recommended treatments or drugs which may be prescribed.

Figure : Expert System


Source [Leadbetter & Wainwright] & [ Information & [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

Expert Systems Medical Diagnosis

Figure : Medical Expert System

Examples of Expert Systems


Automatic pilots


Automatic pilots in aeroplanes . These systems are only as good as the rules programmed by the human computer programmer and cannot deal with the unexpected.

Figure : Expert System Automatic Pilots


Source [Leadbetter & Wainwright] & [ Information & [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]

More Examples of Expert Systems


  

Chess game Prospecting for oil and minerals Identification of plants , animals and chemical compounds. Road scheduling for delivery vehicles. Robotics
Figure : Expert System Chess Game & Talking Robot Source [Leadbetter & Wainwright] & [ Information & [Communication Technology by Graham Brown & David Watson]