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GRE Verbal:

Reading Comprehension (RC):

RC
Each RC Question is based on a passage, which may range in length from one paragraph to several paragraphs The test contains about 10 passages; majority are one paragraph in length, and only 2-3 are several paragraphs long Passages could be from a wide range of topics and would generally deal with unfamiliar subjects About half the questions on the test are from passages, and each passage may have 1 to 6 questions

RC
The screen is split into two, the passage on the left and the question on the right Only one question appears at a time The passage remains on the screen until every question on the passage has been answered.

RC- Types of Questions:


General Specific: - According to the passage.. questions - Inference questions Supporting Idea

General Questions
Such questions deal with the passage in totality Examples: - Primary purpose, - Main idea, - Main theme - Suitable Title for the passage - Organization of the passage - Tone of the passage - Attitude of the author

Specific Questions
Questions deal with specific points mentioned in the passage According to the passage.. questions: Answers to such questions are explicitly stated in the passage Examples: According to the passage, The author mentions/states etc. Inference questions: Answer is implied and not explicitly stated, BUT IS DEFINITELY TRUE from the information in the passage Examples: It can be inferred / It can be concluded / the passage
suggests/ the author implies

Supporting Idea Questions


Examples: -The author of the passage is most likely to agree with which of the following? -The passage provides information to answer which of the following questions? - Which of the following if true would most weaken the authors assertion that.. - Which of the following is an example of the situation/strategy described in the second paragraph of the passage

RC Strategy-Making Structure Sketch


What?
A structure sketch (or just structure hereafter) gives a general sketch of the passage, without including specific details. It is NOT a summary of the passage, but just an overview that lays out the organization of the passage

Why?
Used only for long and medium passages and allows faster first reading and better retention You can skip specific details, and concentrate on extracting the MAIN idea for each paragraph A correct structure will ALWAYS give you the correct answers to general questions

RC Strategy-Making Structure Sketch


How?
Read every paragraph and in a few words try to capture the main idea of the paragraph on your scratch pad Examples: A new theory introduced/ A is an important factor in B /Advantages and limitations of a method/ Possible explanations to an observation - Do not concentrate on names or specific details, but only the main point in the paragraph. - Pay EXTRA attention to the first paragraph, since it sets the tone for the rest of the passage - Pay attention to KEY WORDS (Discussed later) and to something mentioned in quotes or parentheses while structurizing the passage

RC Strategy-Making Structure Sketch


Keywords (Important both for the structure sketch and for answering questions): - Contrast indicators (words that indicate a change in direction): However, While, Although, Nevertheless, In spite of, Despite, But - Support words (words that indicate a continuation in the line of thought): Moreover, Further, In addition, For example, Thus - Cause and effect indicators: Therefore, If..then, Consequently, As a result, Thus Contextual: Such words would be important in the context of a particular passage: Example: The earthquake frequency in this region is remarkably high

RC Strategy-When Reading Options


Justify EVERY word of the answer choice from information in the passage,
Only literal and not liberal interpretation allowed. Creative/liberal interpretation is a sure recipe for disaster. Your real-world knowledge of the subject matter is immaterial here. You may be required to determine whether the author is describing a theory or discussing a theory; or whether the author is providing a reason for something or reasons for something. So WORD MATCH becomes the single most important skill. Be a Word-Police.

RC Strategy-When Reading Options


RED FLAGS: - Options with Superlatives or extreme words, such as The best method, The fastest way, The only reason, The primary consideration, are USUALLY (BUT NOT ALWAYS) wrong - Options that have content that is critical of women/minority groups is ALWAYS wrong

RC Strategy-Making Structure Sketch


Make a structure of the RC passage on the next slide using the technique discussed above

A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the late Pleistocene era. Researchers compared the number of tooth fractures in present-day carnivores with tooth fractures in carnivores that lived 36,000 The primary purpose of the passage to 10,000 years ago and that were preserved in the Rancho La Brea tar pits is to in Los Angeles. The breakage frequencies in the extinct species were (A) present several explanations for a strikingly higher than those in the present-day species. well-known fact In considering possible explanations for this finding, the researchers dismissed demographic bias because older individuals were not (B) suggest alternative methods for overrepresented in the fossil samples. They rejected preservational bias resolving a debate because a total absence of breakage in two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the result of abrasion within the pits. They ruled (C) argue in favor of a controversial out local bias because breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites theory were similar to the La Brea data. The explanation they consider most (D) question the methodology used in plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day a study carnivoresin particular, more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the (E) discuss the implications of a extinct species. research finding Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass theft due to relatively high predator densities.

A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the late Pleistocene era. Researchers compared the number of tooth fractures in present-day carnivores with tooth fractures in carnivores that lived 36,000 The primary purpose of the passage to 10,000 years ago and that were preserved in the Rancho La Brea tar pits is to in Los Angeles. The breakage frequencies in the extinct species were (A) present several explanations for a strikingly higher than those in the present-day species. well-known fact In considering possible explanations for this finding, the researchers dismissed demographic bias because older individuals were not (B) suggest alternative methods for overrepresented in the fossil samples. They rejected preservational bias resolving a debate because a total absence of breakage in two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the result of abrasion within the pits. They ruled (C) argue in favor of a controversial out local bias because breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites theory were similar to the La Brea data. The explanation they consider most (D) question the methodology used in plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day a study carnivoresin particular, more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the (E) discuss the implications of a extinct species. research finding Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass theft due to relatively high predator densities.

Current feminist theory, in validating womens own stories of their experience, has encouraged scholars of womens history to view the use of The passage is primarily concerned womens oral narratives as the methodology, next to the use of womens with written autobiography, that brings historians closest to the reality of womens lives. Such narratives, unlike most standard histories, represent (A) contrasting the benefits of one experience from the perspective of women, affirm the importance of methodology with the benefits of womens contributions, and furnish present-day women with historical another continuity that is essential to their identity, individually and collectively. (B) describing the historical origins Scholars of womens history should, however, be as cautious about and inherent drawbacks of a accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written particular methodology memories. Oral narratives are no more likely than are written narratives to (C) discussing the appeal of a provide a disinterested commentary on events or people. Moreover, the stories people tell to explain themselves are shaped by narrative devices particular methodology and some and storytelling conventions, as well as by other cultural and historical concerns about its use factors, in ways that the storytellers may be unaware of. The political (D) showing that some historians rhetoric of a particular era, for example, may influence womens interpretations of the significance of their experience. Thus a woman who adoption of a particular views the Second World War as pivotal in increasing the social methodology has led to criticism of acceptance of womens paid work outside the home may reach that recent historical scholarship conclusion partly and unwittingly because of wartime rhetoric encouraging a positive view of womens participation in such work. (E) analyzing the influence of current feminist views on womens interpretations of their experience

According to economic signaling theory, consumers may perceive the frequency with which an unfamiliar brand is advertised as a cue that the brand is of high quality. The notion that highly advertised brands are associated with high-quality products does have some empirical support. Marquardt and McGann found that heavily advertised products did indeed rank high on certain measures of product quality. Because large advertising expenditures represent a significant investment on the part of a manufacturer, only companies that expect to recoup these costs in the long run, through consumers repeat purchases of the product, can afford to spend such amounts.

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the sentence in lines 1015 ? (A) To show that economic signaling theory fails to explain a finding (B) To introduce a distinction not accounted for by economic signaling theory (C) To account for an exception to a However, two studies by Kirmani have found that although consumers generalization initially perceive expensive advertising as a signal of high brand quality, at suggested by Marquardt and McGann some level of spending the manufacturers advertising effort may be (D) To explain why Marquardt and perceived as unreasonably high, implying low manufacturer confidence in McGanns product quality. If consumers perceive excessive advertising effort as a sign of a manufacturers desperation, the result may be less favorable brand research was conducted perceptions. In addition, a third study by Kirmani, of print advertisements, (E) To offer an explanation for an found that the use of color affected consumer perception of brand quality. observation Because consumers recognize that color advertisements are more reported by Marquardt and McGann expensive than black and white, the point at which repetition of an

advertisement is perceived as excessive comes sooner for a color advertisement than for a black and white advertisement.

According to economic signaling theory, consumers may perceive the frequency with which an unfamiliar brand is advertised as a cue that the brand is of high quality. The notion that highly advertised brands are associated with high-quality products does have some empirical support. Marquardt and McGann found that heavily advertised products did indeed rank high on certain measures of product quality. Because large advertising expenditures represent a significant investment on the part of a manufacturer, only companies that expect to recoup these costs in the long run, through consumers repeat purchases of the product, can afford to spend such amounts. However, two studies by Kirmani have found that although consumers initially perceive expensive advertising as a signal of high brand quality, at some level of spending the manufacturers advertising effort may be perceived as unreasonably high, implying low manufacturer confidence in product quality. If consumers perceive excessive advertising effort as a sign of a manufacturers desperation, the result may be less favorable brand perceptions. In addition, a third study by Kirmani, of print advertisements, found that the use of color affected consumer perception of brand quality. Because consumers recognize that color advertisements are more expensive than black and white, the point at which repetition of an advertisement is perceived as excessive comes sooner for a color advertisement than for a black and white advertisement.

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the sentence in lines 1015 ? (A) To show that economic signaling theory fails to explain a finding (B) To introduce a distinction not accounted for by economic signaling theory (C) To account for an exception to a generalization suggested by Marquardt and McGann (D) To explain why Marquardt and McGanns research was conducted (E) To offer an explanation for an observation reported by Marquardt and McGann

According to economic signaling theory, consumers may perceive the frequency with which an unfamiliar brand is advertised as a cue that the brand is of high quality. The notion that highly advertised brands are associated with high-quality products does have some empirical support. Marquardt and McGann found that heavily advertised products did indeed rank high on certain measures of product quality. Because large advertising expenditures represent a significant investment on the part of a manufacturer, only companies that expect to recoup these costs in the long run, through consumers repeat purchases of the product, can afford to spend such amounts.

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the sentence in lines 1015 ? (A) To show that economic signaling theory fails to explain a finding (B) To introduce a distinction not accounted for by economic signaling theory (C) To account for an exception to a generalization However, two studies by Kirmani have found that although consumers suggested by Marquardt and initially perceive expensive advertising as a signal of high brand quality, at McGann some level of spending the manufacturers advertising effort may be (D) To explain why Marquardt perceived as unreasonably high, implying low manufacturer confidence in and McGanns product quality. If consumers perceive excessive advertising effort as a sign of a manufacturers desperation, the result may be less favorable brand research was conducted perceptions. In addition, a third study by Kirmani, of print advertisements, (E) To offer an explanation for an found that the use of color affected consumer perception of brand quality. observation Because consumers recognize that color advertisements are more reported by Marquardt and expensive than black and white, the point at which repetition of an McGann advertisement is perceived as excessive comes sooner for a color advertisement than for a black and white advertisement.

RC-Inference Questions
If the passage says: the customers were not leaving at an unacceptable rate for whatever reason We may infer that company was able to retain customers at an acceptable rate.

Inference Questions

If the passage states that Miles Davis and his group that assembled in a Harlem apartment in 1945 SLOWED DOWN the tempo of jazz music and STARTED featuring ensemble playing our inference about the type of jazz music played BEFORE 1945 is that

Inference Questions
Economists believe that further interest rate cuts will provide the needed acceleration to the sluggish economy.
Our inference on the basis of this statement will be that

Inference Questions
Graduate School admission procedures since 1990 have always included Standardized test scores as a critical factor in the evaluation process.
Our inference about the admission procedures prior to 1990 on the basis of this statement will be that

Inference Questions
Earth will receive a meteor shower during its yearly travel through the Geminid meteor stream.
Our inference will be:

Unconditional guarantees deceptively suggest that the results can be guaranteed


Our inference will be:

Inference Questions
60% of all students admitted to a graduate study program are males
Our inference will be:

The textile mill-owners chose women for jobs that required detailed attention and repetitive actions because they thought that women were more patient with such jobs
Our inference will be:

Inference Questions
Some economists believe that all companies should give away free shares to their employees in order to provide the needed acceleration of the privatization process.
Our inference will be:

Inference Questions
If the statement reads, the colonists suspected that the Massachusetts governor was involved in a CONSPIRACY to deprive them of their civil liberties
Our inference will be:

Haffer s hypothesis appears to explain the distribution of species as well as the unusual species diversity. The ice-age refuges would have protected existing species from extinction. But the periodic geographic isolation of related populations (there have been an estimated 13 ice ages to date) would have facilitated the development of new species as existing species on the lowlands adapted to changing climates. ..

The author mentions the number of ice ages in the third paragraph in order to provide proof that cooler and drier temperatures were primarily responsible for the distribution of species in the Amazon. Explain how population of species were protected from extinction in the Amazon basin. Explain how most species were able to survive periodic climatic disturbances in the Amazon basin Suggest that certain types of climatic disturbances cause more species diversity than other types of climatic disturbances. Suggest that geographical isolation may have occurred often enough to cause high species diversity in the Amazon basin.

It can be inferred from the In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for passage that accidentaldamages in the accidental death of death damage awards in their two year old was told that since America during the the child had made no real economic nineteenth century tended to contribution to the family, there was no be based principally on the liability for damages. In contrast, less earnings of the person at time than a century later, in 1979, the of death parents of a three year old sued in wealth of the party causing the New York for accidental-death death damages and won an award of degree of culpability of the party $750,000. causing the death amount of money that had been spent on the person killed amount of suffering endured by the family of the person killed

They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses training hospital in London.

The passage suggests which of the following about the sanitary conditions in Britain after the war? They were better than the conditions in most other countries. They were worse than the conditions in most other countries. The sanitary conditions in the army camps were worse than the conditions in the civilian areas. A special training hospital had to be set up in London to deal with the poor sanitary conditions Royal Commission on the health of the army was reluctant to address the problem without prodding by Nightingale.

The transformation in social values implicit in juxtaposing these two incidents is the subject of Viviana Zelizers excellent book, Pricing the Priceless Child. During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the useful child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present-day notion of the useless child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to, its parents, is yet considered emotionally priceless. Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the iate-nineteenth and earlytwentieth centuries as reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws predicated in part on the assumption that a childs emotional value made child labor taboo.

It can be inferred from the passage that in the early 1800s children were generally regarded by their families as individuals who needed enormous amounts of security and affection required constant supervision while working were important to the economic well-being of a family were unsuited to spending long hours in school were financial burdens assumed for the good of society

Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration News, and industry trade journal, said that they did not believe that CFCs damage the ozone layer. Moreover, some in the industry apparently do not want to pay for CFC substitutes, which can run five times the cost of CFCs. Consequently, a black market in imported illicit CFCs has grown. Estimates of the contraband CFC trade range from 10,000 to 22,000 tons a year, with most of the CFCs originating in India and China, whose agreements under the Protocol still allow them to produce CFCs. In fact, the United States Customs Service reports that CFC-12 is a contraband problem second only to illicit drugs.

The passage suggests which of the following about the illicit trade in CFCs? It would cease if manufacturers in India and China stopped producing CFCs. Most people who participate in such trade do not believe that CFCs deplete the ozone layer. It will probably surpass illicit drugs as the largest contraband problem faced by the United States Custom Services. It is fostered by people who do not want to pay the price of CFC substitutes. (E) It has grown primarily because of the expansion of the refrigenration, heating, and air-conditioning industries in foreign countries.