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BioMEMS, Bio-Nanotechnology, and Agricultural Research

Michael R. Ladisch, Rashid Bashir, Arun Bhunia


Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering, Departments of ABE, ECE, BME and Food Science Schools of Agriculture and Engineering Purdue University

Multi-disciplinary
Agriculture Engineering

Biotechnology

Medicine

Science

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology


Nanoscience: Fabrication, study and modeling of devices and structures where at least one dimension is 200 nm or smaller. Nanotechnology: Enables devices that are compact, portable, energy efficient, integrate sensing, and carry out complex functions of a full-scale laboratory BioMEMS Bio electromechanical systems

Nanotechnology: Size and Scale


100m 10m Most Bacteria Feature Size
0.18m

Human Hair Plant and Animal Cells

75 m

1m
100nm Virus 10nm 1nm 0.1nm Atoms Transistor

Lysozyme

Nanotechnology Proteins Carbon Nano-tubes

Cooper, 2001

Evolution of Technologies
Nanotechnology Semiconductor Technology Vacuum Tube Technology
Cell Phones Nano-Robots Molecular Electronics Wearable Wireless Internet Appliances The Internet

Performance

Computers Television Transistor Radio Radar Radio

1900

1950

2000

2050
Cooper, 2001

Time

Branches of Nanotechnology
Micro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Electronic Nanotechnology

Microfluidics & Bio-Chips

10 mm

Biochip: Smaller than a Postage stamp sealed channels and wells (volume of 1 to 10 nL/well)

Glass cover

Channels/Wells

electrodes for detection


Pin

In/Out ports

connecting pads fluidic I/O ports


Epoxy adhesive

Bashir et al.

Role of Biotechnology
Provides Bioreceptors Biomarkers (targets) Knowledge of mechanisms Interfaces macro- and nano-worlds Templates for design of small devices

DNA
Information

mRNA

Protein
Component for Machine

Information

Polymer of Amino Acids

Assembly Point Disbands

Opportunities for Research


Design and Assemble Technology Platform Chips Receptors Bioseparations Signal Transduction Interface Hardware and Software Component Assembly and Packaging

Technology Issues
We must know: Target molecule and its receptor Threshhold for detection (sensitivity) We must achieve: Rapid sampling and conditioning Specificity for target over biomolecules High signal to noise

The Vision
Detect Gene Expression Products Applications Food, Agriculture Biosecurity Animal Health Medicine Research, Industry, Hospital, Home

Applications in Agriculture For


Example-What is the cost of undetected pathogens?

Food Products $13.1 billion in soda pop 7.5 billion in breakfast cereals 60.0 billion in fresh meats Branded meats, precooked products, micro-waveable red meats Livestock, poultry
Sales figures from Kilman, Wall Street Journal, Feb 20, 2002

BioMEMS - Devices and Systems


Combine micro and nano devices with biology at the molecular level
Implanted Diagnostic and Therapeutic Devices
Implants
Pacemaker
Drug Delivery
Biochips Nano-bio Polymers

Organs
Tissues Drug Delivery

Inorganic

Organic/Biological

Specific Objectives of National Research Program


1. Identify systems unique to agriculture (cell membranes, starches, cellulose, oils) 2. Study biology of self-assembly processes 3. Apply to design, fabrication of BioMEMS a. Tubes b. Channels c. Surfaces Case studies must be agriculturally related

Potential Outcomes and Impacts


1. Bio-inspired design of inorganic devices 2. Methods for mass-producing components for BioMEMS through agriculture a. A new fiber (cotton?) industry b. Self assembling oils c. Bio-based materials 3. Sampling methods and detection of pathogens

Research Budget Estimate


1. Bio-inspired assembly processes $ 1 million / year 2. Methods for assembling nano-components into micro-devices $1 million /year 3. Applications testing in the field $ 1 million / year