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Energy Crises in Pakistan &

Its Remedy

Department Of Telecom Engineering

Group Members Omaid Solangi

Ali Imran Siddique


Faisal Hassan Adnan Bashir Bilal Zafar Jawad Ahmed

Mohammed Danish

Topics to be covered
What is power plant Working Principle

Steam power Plant


Steam Parts of Power Plant Fossil fuel power plant Nuclear Power Plant

Solar Power Plant


Non-Steam Power Plant Hydro and windpower plant

What is Power Plant?


Power plants generate electrical power by using fuels like coal, oil or natural gas ,Nuclear or solar energy The vast majority of electricity is produced by steam-electric power plants Other types of plants that currently have a significant contribution are hydroelectric and gas turbine plants, which can burn natural gas or diesel. Photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and these are all non steam power plants

But currently do not produce much electricity as compared to steam Power plant

Nuclear power plant

400 W

Steam Power Plant?


A steam-electric power plant is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam

A simple power plant consists of


Boiler

Turbine
Condenser Pump

Basic Operation of Steam Power Plant


Fuel, burned in the boiler and heats the water to generate steam
This steam is used to rotate the turbine which powers the generator Electrical energy is generated when the generator windings rotate in a strong magnetic field After the steam leaves the turbine it is cooled to its liquid state (water) in the condenser. The liquid is pressurized by the pump prior to going back to the boiler

Picture of working of Steam power plant

Types of Steam
There are several types of steam, and these areas followsSteam Wet

Steam that contains un evaporated water as a mist


in the steam vapor.

Saturated steam

Steam at the temperature of the boiling point which


corresponds to its pressure.This type of steam is colourless and odourless

Superheated Steam Steam which is at a temperature above the temperature of boiling water at that pressure. Therefore, Superheated steam is always "Dry Steam. Superheated Steam is a clear, colorless gas

Steam Generator
A closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated under pressure Is called Steam generator or mainly Boiler It consists of two principal parts The furnace, which provides heat, usually by burning a fuel The boiler proper, a device in which the heat changes water into steam

Types of Boilers/Steam Generators


Types of steam generation systems include Fire tube boiler, Water tube boiler, Water-cooled integral furnace/boiler Once-through boilers

Water Tube Boiler


In water-tube boilers the water flows through a large number of narrow tubes around the fire Fire is around the Tubes The tubes frequently have a large number of bends and sometimes fins to maximize the surface area

Water flowing inside tubes Fire outside tubes

Fire Tube Boiler


A fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler in which hot gases from the fire pass through one or more tubes within the boiler Water is circulated outside the tubes A fire-tube boiler is sometimes called a "smoke-tube" or "shell boiler" boiler.

Steam Turbines
Steam turbines are devices which convert the energy stored in steam coming from boiler into rotational mechanical energy energy as it expands through a series of nozzles mounted on the casing or produced by the fixed blades . These machines are widely used for the generation of electricity

Normally there are two most common types of Steam turbines 1. Impulse type.

2. Reaction type

Impulse Turbine
The basic idea of an impulse turbine is that a jet of steam from a fixed nozzle pushes against the rotor blades and impels them forward. The velocity of the steam is about twice as fast as the velocity of the blades. Only turbines utilizing fixed nozzles are classified as impulse turbines

Reaction Turbine
A reaction turbine utilizes a jet of steam that flows from a nozzle on the rotor. n a reaction turbine, unlike in an impulse turbine, the nozzles that discharge the working fluid are attached to the rotor. The acceleration of the fluid leaving the nozzles produces a reaction force on the pipes, causing the rotor to move in the opposite direction to that of the fluid. The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the rotor blades

Impulse turbine

Reaction turbine

Reaction turbine

Electric Generators
A generator is a huge magnet that is turned by the turbine. As the magnet turns inside a coil of wire, electricity is produced

Condensers
The function of the condenser is to condense exhaust steam from the steam turbine by rejecting the heat of vaporization to the cooling water passing through the condenser. A typical power plant condenser has the following functional arrangement.

Commonly Used Fuels for Steam Generation


Coal Oil Natural Gas Nuclear:Uranium Fossil Fuels

Solar

Coal/Oil Fired Power Plant


The coal is burned in a boiler which produces steam. The steam is run through a turbine which turns a generator which produces electricity
Boiler Turbine Fuel Generator

Advantages and Disadvantages of Fossil fuel power plant


Coal
Advantages:
Low Cost Plentiful: we will not run out of coal in the foreseeable future

Disadvantages
Not sustainable
Produces more carbon dioxide (CO2) per Watt-hour of energy than any other generation method The methods of mining coal can be very destructive, although responsible coal miners do a remarkably good job of restoring the land after the coal has been mined out. Very large quantities of ash have to be disposed of A lot of smoke is produced

Oil
Advantages: Low cost

Generators are very compact


Produces less CO2 than coal Disadvantages Not sustainable Produces carbon dioxide (CO2), which is an important greenhouse gas

The world's oil reserves are limited


Oil spills, especially at sea, cause severe pollution

Natural Gas
Advantages: Low cost

Generators are very compact


Produces less CO2 than coal Disadvantages Not sustainable Produces carbon dioxide (CO2), which is an important greenhouse gas

The world's natural gas reserves are limited

Feed Water Treatment


Boilers are filled with water that contains naturally occurring impurities. Common impurities such as calcium, magnesium and oxygen can, if they are not controlled, effect boiler performance and durability. All water contains dissolved minerals such as calcium and magnesium. If these minerals are allowed to reach high enough levels in the boiler water they will come out of solution and form as a hard shell on the hot surfaces of the boiler. This hard shell is called scale and is often found on the outside of the fire tubes. Scale insulates the heating surfaces reducing the ability of the fire tubes to transfer heat from the hot combustion to the boiler water. High stack temperatures or ruptured fire tubes are common problems related to scale build up. Boiler water also contains dissolved gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide. These gases in the presence of water and metal can cause corrosion. Corrosion eats away the metal effecting the durability of the boiler

Nuclear Power Plant


The principle of electricity generation in nuclear power plants is similar to that of conventional thermal power plants. The difference consists in the source of heat only. In thermal plants, heat is produced from fossil fuels (coal, gas) whereas in nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel is used (natural or enriched uranium).

Working principle of Nuclear Power Plant


Fuel in the form of fuel assemblies is placed in reactor pressure vessel to which chemically treated water flows. The water flows through channels in the fuel assemblies and removes the heat that is produced during fission reaction. Water coming from the reactor has a temperature of about 297C; it is then led through the hot arm of the primary piping into heat exchanger steam generator. In steam generator, water flows through a bunch of pipes and delivers the heat to water from secondary circuit and has a temperature of 222C. When cooled down, primary circuit water is led back to reactor core. Secondary circuit water is evaporated in steam generator and the steam is led via steam collector to the blades of a turbine. The turbine shaft turns a generator that generates electric energy

Parts of Nuclear Power Plant


Concrete shielding Control rods Fuel rods Moderator

Coolant water
Steam Generator Steam Turbine

Fuels For Nuclear Power Plants


In a nuclear powered steam generating plant, heat is produced to boil water into steam from the slow, controlled nuclear reaction known as "fission", or splitting of atoms and releasing a large amount of energy. Only certain types of atom are fissionable. The naturally occurring metal uranium (a heavy, unstable element) is most commonly used A uranium-235 atom not only splits when bombarded with a neutron or other sub-atomic particle, but also releases two or three more neutrons which go on to strike other U-235 atoms, triggering what is known as a chain reaction. A nuclear power station facilitates this chain reaction under controlled conditions while harnessing the energy to generate electricity.

Fission Reaction
1. Neutron strikes unstable nucleus of Uranium 235 2. Nucleus splits releasing large amount of energy Further neutrons are also released

3.

4. New neutrons strike other nuclei, initiating chain reaction

Types of Nuclear power Plants


Nuclear power plants are classified according to the type

of there reactor.Generally speaking there are two types of


nuclear power plants 1. Boiling water reactor 2. Pressurise water reactor

Difference between Pressurised water and boiling water reactor


Operating pressure for such reactors is about 70 bar Water boils at about 285 oC Only 42% with a practical operating efficiency

Boiling water reactor


The obvious advantage to this is that a fuel leak in the core would not pass any radioactive contaminants to the turbine and condenser. Another advantage is that the PWR can operate at higher pressure and temperature, about 160 atmospheres and about 315 C. This provides a higher Carnot efficiency than the BWR, but the reactor is more complicated and more costly to construct. Most of the U.S. reactors are pressurized water reactors

Pressurized water reactor

Nuclear waste
During fission, very harmful radiation rays are released. The most harmful of which are gamma rays. When the human body is exposed to radiation, it can cause tumours and can do extreme damage to the reproductive organs. For this reason, problems associated with radioactivity can be passed on to the victim's children as well. That is why radioactive waste produced by nuclear power plants is so dangerous

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear power


Advantages Nuclear power generation does emit almost no carbon dioxide (CO2). The emission of green house gases and therefore the contribution of nuclear power plants to global warming is very little. It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant.

Disadvantages
Risk of major accidents - an example of the worst possible situation is what happened to Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (which did not have a conventional containment building) Nuclear waste - high level radioactive waste produced can remain dangerous for thousands of years if not reprocessed. Plutonium produced from nuclear reactions can be used to make nuclear bombs, aiding nuclear proliferation High initial costs High energy inputs during construction (equivalent to ~7 years power output) High maintenance costs Security concerns High cost of decommissioning plants Thermal pollution (although all power plants emit thermal pollution)

Non-Steam power Plants


Hydro Power Plant
Wind Power plant

HOW HYDROPOWER WORKS


Hydro-electric power plants convert the kinetic energy of falling water into electricity. Water from a reservoir or river flows through a turbine to produce rotating shaft power, converting kinetic energy into mechanical energy This mechanical energy then runs a generator to produce electricity. Hydropower plants use different types of turbines based on sitespecific characteristics, especially the height of the water ("head) & the volume of water available (flow).

TYPES OF HYDROPOWER TURBINES


Three Main Types
Pelton turbine (a) Suitable for very large heads of water (up to 1800 m) and low water flows. Francis turbine (b) Originally designed for relatively low heads of water, today used for heads up to 700 m. Most widely used type of turbine. Kaplan turbine (c) Used primarily on rivers with large water flows and low heads (up to 30 m).

Turbine selection is based primarily on available head & flow. Other considerations include how deep the turbine must be set, efficiency, and cost.

flow

TYPES OF HYDRO PLANTS


Three Main Types
IMPOUNDMENT: Dams water in a reservoir to be released as necessary to spin turbines RUN-OF-RIVER (also call Diversion): Uses flow of water within the natural range of the river to spin turbines, requires little or no impoundment. PUMPED STORAGE: Pumps water from a lower to upper reservoir during period of surplus electricity; releases it back to lower reservoir to spin turbines when electricity is needed
Run-of-River Facility

Pumped Storage Facility

SIZES OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Micro Mini Small Large

Up to 100kW 100-1000kW 10,000-30,000kW +30MW-Gigawatts

Hydropower Pros & Cons


Advantages Disadvantages
Free Fuel High initial capital costs Small plants have relatively Variable river flows can low environmental impact limit firm power output Low O&M Costs Environmental considerations Reliable & long lasting

Wind Power Generation

1400 1800 years ago, in the Middle East 800 900 years ago in Europe 140 years ago, water-pumping wind mills 70 years ago, electric power

Wind Power History

How Wind Works


Wind energy is created by uneven heating of the earths surface. Wind energy is kinetic energy mass and momentum.

How Does a Wind Turbine Work?


Rotor (blades) Generator and drivetrain
In a nacelle for large turbines

Tower Foundation Power conditioning and control


Source: Small Wind Electric Systems, a U.S. Consumer's Guide, U.S. Department of Energy

Wind Turbine Components