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Marketing Toolbox

Subtitle, Autor or Date

Basics

Definitions / Explanations

Marketing Orientation
Orientation in companies which strongly influenced the development of marketing

Technological Orientation
(innovation, perfectionism)

Marketing Orientation
(market share, competitive advantage)

Employee Orientation
(satisfaction, qualification)

Customer Orientation
(customer satisfaction, customer loyalty)

Efficiency Orientation
(optimization, cost reduction)

Financial Orientation
(result, revenue, profitability, liquidity)

Social Orientation
(environment, public, image)

Quality Orientation
(improvement, ISO-certification, quality price)

Marketing Triangle
Company, employees and customer
Company

Marketing Triangle
Employee
interactive marketing

Customer

Marketing - Simple Model


Model of a simplified marketing system and connection between provider and market
Communication to Market / Information

Provider
Provider of the product or service

Delivery of Product / service

Market
Overall market of customers and interested parties

Transaction
Payments

Feedback to provider / information

Marketing - Perspectives
Differentiation of 3 perspectives: The entrepreneurial approach (philosophy), instrumentation (technology) and management concept

Marketing
Philosophy
Orientation of the marketing to the most optimal satisfaction of all customer requirements

Technology
Orientation of the marketing to the most optimal effect of marketing instruments

Management
Orientation of the marketing to the most optimal process development, analysis, planning, steering and controlling of all marketing activities

Development Phases of Marketing


Development phases in the last 100 years
Production orientation Sales and distribution orientation Market and competition orientation Customer / individual orientation
market oriented company management (marketing management) customer relationship management (CRM) marketing implementation

marketing implementation

marketing mix

marketing mix

marketing mix

product policy

product policy

product policy

price policy

price policy

price policy

communication policy

advertisement

communication policy

communication policy

distribution policy

sales

sales

distribution policy

distribution policy

mix extension

1900 - 1920

approx. 1920 - 1950

approx. 1950 - 1980

approx. 1980 - 1990

since 1990

Development of Marketing
Steps of development of Marketing

Product orientation
Pure production due to popular demand (eg postwar period)

Market orientation
Specialization on individual needs and market segmentation

Environment orientation
Response to environmental, political, technological or societal changes

Network orientation
Web 2.0, social networks, Word of Mouth

2020

2021

2022

2023
Competition orientation
Emphasis on unique selling points (USP)

2024

2025

2026

Sales orientation
Change from the Production to distribution

Dialog orientation
Interactive design of communication through the internet, e-mails

Marketing Pyramid
Pyramid with (higher-ranked) marketing objectives on the top

Marketing objectives

Marketing strategies

Marketing instruments
Product- and program policy Price and condition policy Communication policy Distribution policy

Marketing - Classical vs. Alternative Marketing


Overview of some marketing tools Classical Marketing
Public relations Guerilla marketing Viral marketing

Alternative Marketing

Outside advertisement / Billboard advertisement

Search engines Mobile marketing

Direct marketing

Radio / TV / Movies

Sales promotion

Print media

Product placement Fairs / Exhibitions

Classical advertisement

Sponsoring

Event marketing

Marketing Objects
Differentiation according to different marketing objects and approaches

Marketing object 1
Consumer goods marketing
marketing of products for private usage

Investment goods marketing


marketing of products for occupational use

Service marketing
marketing for immaterial goods and service performance

Non-Profitmarketing
marketing for organizations without gainful intent

Social marketing
marketing of a social idea (no organization)

Destination marketing
marketing of an explicit region (tourism)

Trade marketing

marketing of a trade and sales company (retail)

Marketing - Sales Markets


Differentiation according to 3 sales markets and the participating partners

Marketing
B - to - B
Business-to-BusinessMarketing
(company customer) Marketing of one company to another company (i.e. production machines)

B - to - C
Business-to-CustomerMarketing
(private customer business) Marketing of a company to a private house old (consumption goods)

C - to - C
Customer-toCustomer-Marketing
Marketing of a private household to another private household (i.e. private sales on ebay)

Characterization of Markets - Types of Goods


Types of assets and their usage situations

Consumer Goods
Consumer goods (e.g. food) and durables (e.g. cars) satisfy immediate needs, and are directly put into use by the buyers (consumers).

Capital Goods
Are used by production companies to produce further goods. Buyers are usually establishments or public companies.

Services
Immaterial benefits, often incurred only at the time of consumption. The customer is part of the performance / service.

Mass-Market (B2C)

Single, clear identifiable customer (B2B)

Services for customer with a high use of resources

Market Segmentation
Scientific level of consideration

Market Capture

Market Segmentation

Market Processing

Explanatory models of purchase pattern

Acquisition of information

Information processing

Selection of segments

SegmentsSpecific use of instruments

Consumer-oriented approach Method-oriented approach Management-oriented approach

Market Segmentation
Objectives, methods, strategies of market segmentation

Lead Structure

Approaches of Market Segmentation


behavior-oriented

Reasons/ Meaning

OBJECTIVES

method-oriented management-oriented

STRATEGIES

Quantitative

Qualitative

Market Definition
Hierarchy representation for the preparation of a market analysis of companies with a broad range of products or services
Strategic management
Definition of markets

Overall Market

Market 1 (Description)

Market 2 (Description)

Market 3 (Description)

Strategic business units

SBU 1

SBU 2

SBU 3

Marketing
Segment A Sub Market A Sub Market B Sub Market C Segment B Segment C

Market Analysis/ Competition


Situation analysis

Situation Analysis - Search Fields


Search fields for the identification of potential chances and risks
Environment analysis
Frame conditions: political social technological economical ecological

Market analysis

Competitor

Stakeholder: employees investors unions etc.

Supplier

Company analysis

Customer

Substitute products

Market Analysis - Strategic Situation Analysis


Analysis of market participants, political and legal situation and social, technological, geographical and economical aspects
Own organization Relevant competitor Supplier, Sales mediator and potential customers Legal, social and natural environment

Potential analysis

Competition analysis

Market analysis

Environment analysis

Strengths and weaknesses analysis

Opportunities and threats analysis

SWOT Analysis

Interpretation of data of strategic situation analysis are the foundation of the following marketing decisions

Marketing - Situation Analysis


Check list with basic questions to clarify the initial situation
What is the market where the company operates and how can it be defined and narrowed?
Who is involved in the sales process? What determines the behavior of these groups?

1 2 3
4 5

Which competitors are currently operating on the market?


Do public interest groups or any external stakeholders have an impact on your company policy? What is the actual-situation of the company? What are your strengths and weaknesses?

Market Analysis - Company Analysis


Corporate philosophy (1/6)
Corporate policy
Insert description and notes in key words.

Corporate vision
Insert description and notes in key words.

Corporate idea
Insert description and notes in key words.

Market Analysis - Company Analysis


Corporate philosophy (2/6)
Corporate identity
Insert description and notes in key words.

Corporate culture
Insert description and notes in key words.

Corporate objectives
Insert description and notes in key words.

Market Analysis - Company Analysis


Corporate potentials (3/6)
Development
-research/ development -know how -patent -development status

Marketing
-marketing concept -standards -brands

Production
-technology -capacity -productivity

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Insert description and notes in key words.

Insert description and notes in key words.

Market Analysis - Company Analysis


Corporate potentials (4/6)
Procurement
- procurement systems - supplier relationship - purchasing power

Financing
-capital requirements - investment intensity

Company
-organization -value chain

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Insert description and notes in key words.

Insert description and notes in key words.

Market Analysis - Company Analysis


Corporate resources (5/6)
Material resources
- installations - interior -equipment

Financial resources
- liquidity -reserves -possibilities to raise capital

Employees
-staff situation - education - staff development

Managers
- quality of leadership

IT-equipment
- sort

Other
Insert description and notes in key words.

- business experience
- age structure

- actuality
- complexity

Market Analysis - Company Analysis


Company position on the market (6/6)
Markets
-overall and partial - market share -market and sales profile

Advantages
- product and performance advantages - innovations - protection against replicates

Product mix
- revenue - profitability - age profile

Cost- Price
- price per piece- market price relations - value chain

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Insert description and notes in key words.

Insert description and notes in key words.

Insert description and notes in key words.

Potential Analysis
Inspection of the position of own company on the market according to the following factors
Image
brand image of company, separate product brands

Market
positioning of company, market share of provider of product brands

Capital
capital resources, creditworthiness

Employees
number of employees, structure, qualification and motivation

Location
location quality, infrastructure, business locations, distribution in target area

Sales
distribution organization

Partner
relation to cooperation and distribution partners

Customer
number of customers, customer potential, customer retention (loyalty vs. fluctuation)

Market Analysis - Strengths and Weakness


Strengths and weaknesses profile
Own company Other Company

Weakness Criteria Product range (quantity) Product range (quality) Price Service (general) Availability by phone Customer satisfaction Supplier satisfaction -3 -2 -1 +1

Strength +2 +3

Competition Analysis
Example
Characteristic
high low

1 Quality Price Performance Usage Image Environment-friendliness Design Additional functions


Your product Competitors product

Marketing - Representation of Market Volume


Representation of market volume and its development as a diagram
Market potential
Number of possible customer or amount if all customers are prepared to buy (at the given price) Sales volume or sales of a provider / company

Market volume

Market share

Market capcity
Total number of possible customer or max. amount of products that can be used consumed / (if price does not matter)

Actual sales or sales for all vendors at the market

Saturation =

Market volume Market potential

x 100%

Characterization of Markets - Sizes


Relationship between market potential, market volume and market share to assess the market attractiveness
Market Volume
Total sales or a turnover of an industry including all competitors Relative Market Share = Company A Market Share A Market Share B

Market Share
Market share of a company and the ratio of sales / turnover of the company to the market volume

Relative Market Share Market Potential


Capacity of the market up to market saturation Ratio of Market share of a company to the market share of the strongest competitor

Market - Description/ Term Definition


Terms to describe markets
Market potential:
equates to the absorption capacity of the market (market capacity) or the volume of the possible deductable amounts of one product at a certain market.

Market volume:
realized / scheduled sales or revenue for a similar product for example for one year. Clearly more specific than the market potential.

Market potential

Marketexhaustion

Sales / Revenue volume of the company

Absolute market share

Relative market share

Market volume

Market exhaustion:
percentage value that indicates to what degree the possible customer of a product would consume it. (Market limit used as a gauge for future market growth)

Absolute market share:


market share, that the company has realized on a certain market (sales or revenue)

Relative market share:


indicator of market position by relating their own sales to the sales of its largest competitor in the industry.

Market Analysis - Environment Analysis


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Design engineer Dep. 4

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o/1 +/3 o/1 Customer gen. /0 +/1

k/0.5 o/1

Intranet

Internet

+/1 Design engineer Dep. 4

Supplier

Attempt

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Feedback Calculation

Customer Reference

Quality of connection + perfect o normal K critical Frequency of connection 3 intensive 2 medium 1 low 0 nonexistent

Opportunities - Threats-Analysis
Analysis about the companys opinion on environmental changes and where adjustments need to be done
Criteria
Marktsituation Market structure Market potential/ market volume Customer structure Competitor Environment / Frame conditions Laws / Taxes Society Ecology Technological Development Strength Product range Prices Organization / Management Cash Flow Weaknesses Locations Marketing performance Innovation ability Financial resources

Opportunities
x x

Threats

x x
x x x x x x x x

x x
x x

Chance-Risk-Analysis
Chances and Risks with possible development outside the company and their influence on marketing strategy and business planning
Opportunities
new product development in own company own innovations new target groups and buyer levels opening new markets in other countries increasing demand recovery of the overall economy loosening or changing of relevant laws currency exchange revenues on foreign markets through positive change of exchange rates

Threats
development of a new product by the competitor innovations of the competitor development of new competitors development of new competitive suppliers in other countries development of over-production weakening of the overall economy limited measures and legislative processes exchange rate losses on foreign markets through negative changes of the exchange rate technological development / change of base technologies

Strength and Weaknesses Analysis


Analysis of internal Company Resources
Relevance Sector Success Factor 1
Range of service Pricing Image Market share

Notes 2 3 4 5

Market growth
Sales development Distribution Sales network Advertising

Marketing and Sales

Complaint management Adherence to schedules Customer structure Order processing Sensitivity to economic situations Customer service Market cultivation Sales representatives Market research Sales planning Customer loyalty

SWOT-Analysis
Enter your subheadline here

Strength

Weaknesses

External Analysis

Opportunities

Threats

Gap Analysis
Revenue targets and their development in the course of time
Target value i.e. revenue

Strategic gap
Development limit New business

Potential core business

Operative gap

Core business

Present

Planning horizon

time

ABC-Analysis
ABC Analysis is methodology that gives a quickly and simple review of assortments of products in retail, wholesale or manufacturing businesses
100%

80%

Turnover / Value in %

60%

40%

20%

Range of Products / Quantity in %


0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

ABC-Analysis
Placeholder fr Ihre eigene Subheadline
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Percent Customer Customer 5% Placeholder 10% Placeholder 15% Placeholder 20% Placeholder 50% Placeholder 100% Placeholder Sales 2010 (in Dollar) 100,000 95,000 90,000 85,000 30,000 300 610,400 Commulated Sales 16,4% 31,9% 46,7% 60,6% 82,3% 100%

Quality and Price Positioning


Relative positioning of different product categories
high

Brand article Relative quality

No-names

Trademarks

low low

Relative price

high

Seller / Buyer's Market - Features


Comparison and limits of the characteristics of the seller and buyer's market
Activities of supplier Activities of demander

Features
Economic development stage

Sellers Market
Scaricity economy

Buyers Market
Affluent societies

Ratio of supply and demand


Bottleneck area of company Primary efforts of company

Demand> Supply
(Excess demand) Demand more active than provider

Supply> Demand
(Surplus) Providers more active than buyers

Procurement and / or production

Turn over

Rational extension of procurement and production capacity

Awakening of demand and creation of preferences for their own

Market Attractiveness - Competition Advantage Portfolio 1/3


Analysis of portfolio categories according to the criteria lists
Evaluation of market attractiveness
Criteria Weigh. Coefficients 0 0,1 0,20,8 0,9 1 Index Criteria Weigh. Coefficients 0 0,1 0,20,8 0,9 1 Index

1. Market growth 2. Market quality


- Profitability of the branch
- Tolerance for price policy - Technological level - Protectability of know how - Intensity of investments - Intensity / structure of competition - Number / structure of potential consumer - Entry barriers - Distribution requirements - Variability of competition conditions - Substitution possibilities

3. Energy / Accommodation
- interference of accommodation - influence of profitability through price incensement - existence of alternatives

4. Environment situation
- Economic dependency - Inflation effects - Dependency on legislation - Dependency on public - Risk of public interference - Pollution of nature

TOTAL

1,0

Market Attractiveness - Competition Advantage Portfolio 2/3


Analysis of portfolio categories according to the criteria lists
Evaluation of market attractiveness
Criteria 1. Rel. market position
- Market share - Size and financial power - Growth rate - Profitability - Risk - Market potential

Weigh.

Coefficients 0 0,1 0,20,8 0,9 1

Index

Criteria
- Pot. increase of productivity - Environmental friendly production -Delivery conditions - Sustain market share with given supply conditions - Cost situation with energy and raw material supply

Weigh.

Coefficients 0 0,1 0,20,8 0,9 1

Index

3. Relative R&D potential


- Status of research - Development compared to market position - Innovation potential

2. Rel. product potential


- Process efficiency
- Cost advantage - Innovation ability - License relations - Adaptability - Sustain market share with capacity - Location advantage

4. Rel. employee qualification


- Professionalism and culture

- Innovation climate
- Quality of management systems

TOTAL

1,0

Market Attractiveness - Competition Advantage Portfolio 3/3


Display of portfolio graphic according to results of prior criteria lists
low medium high

A
Market attractiveness

high

Investment and growths strategies

Selective strategies

medium

C
Relative competition advantage

low

Absorption and divestment strategies

Market Segmentation
Different types and levels of market segmentation
Segmentation
Undifferentiated marketing Mass marketing
Products, distribution and advertisements are designed the same for all customers. Difference between separate segments are being ignored and the market is served with one offer.

Differentiated marketing Segment marketing


High degree of market coverage serves multiple or many different sub markets. Further sub divisions: 1. Concentration to only one segment 2. Selective specialization 3. Product specification 4. Market specialization 5. Complete segment coverage

Concentrates marketing Nische marketing


High specialization and concentration on special sub markets or clearly defined customer groups. Niche providers are highly specialized and pursuit a secure market position in procurement.

Micro marketing Individual marketing


Its the highest degree of segmentation and external opposite to mass marketing. Segmentation of market down to the individual customer by increasing individualization tendency and technical progress. Customized mass production (Mass customization / One-to-One-marketing)

Product variety marketing


Prices, distribution and advertisement measures are developed for different target groups. Orientation according to target groups creates better approaches for the determination of market chances.

Broad target group approach

Narrow target group approach

Segmenting-Targeting-Positioning (STP-Model)
Three steps to target group oriented marketing

Market segmentation

Target market determination


Development of assesment guidelines for the determination of attractiveness. Finally the selection and concentration on one or more segments.

Positioning
Development of a lasting competition position and determination of tasks and performance program for selected target segments.

Determination of segmentation variables/ segmentation of Market

Development of resulted segment profile

3
Zoning of market in clear defined target groups / Customer groups with own products and marketing-mix.

Estimation of attractiveness of each Segment

Selection of target segments

Development of possible positioning concepts

6
Time

Selection and Communication of positioning concept

Segmenting-Targeting-Positioning (STP-Model)
Three steps in the process of market segmentation

Segmentation
Determination of segment variables Definition and segmentation of the market Development and description of resulting segment profiles

Targeting

Positionierung

Analysis of estimation of attractiveness of each segment


Selection of target segments

Designing of a possible positioning concept


Selection and communication of positioning concept

Customer Segmentation
Differentiation and description of target groups
Customer segment X
Characteristics: Core motive:

Feature A

Customer segment Y
Characteristics : Core motive:

Feature B Individual

Customer segment Z
Characteristics : Core motive:

Market Entry Barriers


Institutional and behavior dependent market entry barriers
Market entry barriers
Institutional market entry barriers
Tariff barriers Tolls Non-tariff barriers Import quotes

Behavior dependent market entry barriers


Market side barriers Demand behavior Company side barriers Information availability Psychological distance of management

Capital flows limitations

Language / culture

Minimum /maximum prices

Distribution systems Administrative constrains

Local content regulations

Norms / standards

Self limitations

Values and Lifestyles (VALS)


System of lifestyle-typology of consumer

VALS Typology
Values and Lifestyles (VALS)

Extroverts
Achievers Emulators Belongers

Notleidende
Sustainers Survivors

Introverts
Socially-Conscious Experimentals I-am-mes

Competitive Advantage
Representation of the thre influencial factors customers, organization and competition
Expectation on the product and benefit

Competitive advantage

Market Research - Process Scheme


Separation of market research process in five phases

Definition Phase
Problem definition and development of survey targets Topic of research

Data Collection Phase

Documentation Phase DokumentationsPresentation of results phase


Research report distributer Prsentation der Ergebnisse Forschungsbericht Verteiler

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

Designphase
Fixation of target groups Selection of research methods and instruments Organization (time/cost) Sources for data

Data analysis phase


Evaluation of data Interpretation Prognosis

Marketing decision
Recommendations that influence decisions

Sales Orientation vs. Marketing Orientation


Comparison
The sales orientation
Initial point Main focus on Measure Target

existing production

existing products

advertisement, sales promotions

profit through high revenue

The marketing orientation


Initial point Main focus on Measure Target
long term profit expectation through sustainable satisfaction of customers

the markets

actual customer requirements

integrated marketing approach

Competition Strategies
Differentiation between cost leadership, time leadership and quality leadership

Cost leadership
Causing lower costs than competitor i.e. though production of large amounts and low priced procurements. Mostly this doesnt require a large market share.

Time leadership
Choice of time of market entry. Previous development time, handling time and production time are important here.

Quality leadership
Determination and implementation of technical improvements and product improvements with the target to always provide the best quality on the market.

Competitive Advantage - 5 Principles


A competitive advantage over the competition is a superior performance or property

A distinction is made between five principles:


Principle of survival
At least one strategic competition advantage must be present (long term).

Opportunity principle
Creating competitive advantages through important competitive parameters. (the more the greater the chance)

Perceptual principle
Only competitive advantages that the customer subjectively perceives count (not technical advantages).

Concentration principle
At least one strategic competitive advantage must be present (long term).

Consistency principle
Focus on strategic competitive benefits which are most important for the customer.

Competitive Advantage - Advantage Matrix


Representation of the relationship of competitive advantages and quantities
Volume has no /or small advantages Volume has great advantages

Many competitive advantages

Niche business (Restaurants, consultants)

Special business (Journals, instruments)

Only a few competitive advantages possible

Patt-business (Basic materials chemistry, standard paper)

Volume business (PC's, IC's)

Competition Strategies
Representation of coherences between competitive advantages and amounts

+ Cost leader Benefit leader

Profitability
-

Cost leader and benefit leader require singularity characteristics otherwise they lose their leading positions.

Marketing Models
Established models

Competition - Driving Forces


The five driving forces of sector competition (according to Porter)

Potentially new competitors


Threat of new competitors

Bargaining power of suppliers

Suppliers

Competitors in the industry Rivalry among existing companies


Bargaining power of buyers

Buyer

Threat of substitution products or services

Substitution products

Marketing - 4P-Model
Product, Price, Place, Promotion

PRODUCT

PRICE

PLACE

PROMOTION

Marketing - 4P-Model
Product, Price, Place, Promotion

5P-Model
Expansion of the 4P model with the aspect of Personnel

PRODUCT

PRICE

PLACE

PROMOTION

PERSONNEL

5P- Model
Expansion of the 4P model with the aspect of Personnel

Marketing 4Ps
Enter your subheadline here 4Ps Product
Main usage
Side usage Additional usage Brand Content Quality Packaging

Price
Conditions
Rebate Discount Leasing

Promotion
Advertisement
Sales Sponsoring Sales promotion Event PPR

Place
Strategic distribution/ sales
Physical distribution/logistics Location

Marketing Mix - 7P
Classical and new instruments
Product policy product Process policy process

Classical instruments New instruments

Price policy price

Distribution policy place

Equipment policy physical facilities

Personnel policy personnel

Communication policy promotion

Marketing Mix
Example with individual factors

Slogan

Brand name

Logo Product design / packaging

ad campaign

Sales Training

Brochure / Corporate design

Press conference

Brochures / Product presentation

Reseller discount

Businesspaper

Give-Aways

Website

Marketing Mix (4Ps)


Components of the marketing mix
Product policy
Product innovations Product improvements Product differentiation Marking Naming Service performance Assortment planning Packaging

Price policy
Price Price deductions Rebates and discounts Delivery conditions Payment conditions

Communication policy
Media advertisement Sales promotion Direct marketing Public relations Sponsoring Personal communication Fairs and exhibitions Multi-media communication Employee communication

Distribution policy
Distribution systems Sales organs Logistic systems

Marketing mix

Sub-markets and customer groups

Service marketing (from 4Ps to 7Ps)


Comparison of 4Ps and 7Ps
4 Ps of the classical consumption goods marketing 7 Ps of the service marketing

advertisement product positioning advertisement price

product

employees

positioning

price process management

physical facilities

AIDA- Model
Step model in 4 phases (Phases could variy)

A
Attention
Attract the customers attention

I
Interest
The customer is interested in the product

D
Desire
The desire for the product is awakened

A
Action
The cusomer probably purchases

AIDA - Action Principle


The stage model includes four phases the Customer goes through in order to make the purchase decision

Physical reaction
(economical)

Action

The customer buys the product The desire for the product is awakened (demand)

Desire
Psychological reaction
(pre- economical)

Interest

The customer is interested in the product


Attention of the customer for the product is excited

Attention

Marketing 3Cs Triangle


Enter your subheadline here

Customer

Distributors

Clients

Competitors

Suppliers

Diamond-Model - National Competitive Advantages


Thesis to assess the competitive abilities of states in terms of individual industries (according to Porter)
Strategy, structure and competition

Coincidence

Factual conditions

Demand conditions

Related and supporting industries

Government

Porters Five Forces Analysis


Enter your subheadline here

New Competitors Threat of new competition

Bargening power of supplier

Competition on relevant market = rivalry among competitors

Bargening prower of customer

Substitution products = threat of substitution

Five Forces
Five (+1) competitive forces according to Porter (supplement through stakeholder)
Potentially new competitors
threat through new competitors

Potential further stakeholder


Potential bargaining power and the ability to intervene in the industry events

Competitors/ rivalry between industry suppliers

Suppliers
bargaining strength of suppliers

Customer
bargaining power of customers

Substitute products
threat through substitute products or services

S-Curve Concept - Life Cycle


Representation of the life cycle of technology in the course of time
Basic technology

Pace setting technology


time

development phase

growth

maturity

age phases

Life cycle of a technology

Marketing Strategy / Concept


Strategic marketing / concepts

Differentiation - Strategic Marketing


Position of the strategic marketing between strategic management and marketing management

Conception Phases of Marketing


Enter your subheadline here
Situation Analysis

1
Marketing Control

Marketing Objectives

Implementation / Realization

Customer

Marketing Strategy

Marketing Instruments/ Marketing-Mix

SBU-Planning (Strategic Business Units)

Marketing - Communication Policy


Ten-step model of marketing communication
Measure effect Apply communication measures Pre- test, Control of effect, return result to step 7, to apply improvements Plan separate communication measures Budgeting and media selection (selecting advertising media)

Step 10

Step 9
Return result at 5-9

Step 8
Improvements and corrections

Step 7

Step 6
Develop communication strategy

Step 5 Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Step 1

Define communication targets and target groups

Derive marketing targets

Agree on company objectives

Situation analysis and prognosis for the company

Four Codes of Brand Communication


Communication model that implies that there are three more codes next to language responsible for concrete meaning Meaning

Language
Style

History
Tell stories

Symbols
Protagonists

Sensorics
Sensorial experience

Rhetoric
Wording

Show episodes

Figures
Places of action

Stimulation of senses
Noises / colors Shapes / haptics

Only the interaction of these four Codes makes the brand communication sustainably successful

Core Competences / Product Pyramid


Core competences as a base of the product pyramid, which are not easily adapted by other companies and therefor improve the benefit of the end product

End product

Core product

BASE

Core competences
valuable rare difficult to immitate not substitutable are strengthened the more they are used

Marketing Strategy - Influencial Factors


Influencial factors

Organizational objectives and resources

Attitude to change and risk

Marketing Strategy

Competitor strategies

Market structure and opportunities

Marketing Strategy
Marketing as market-oriented business management / business strategy
Procurement Strategy

Research and Development Strategy

Business Strategy

Production Strategy Quality Strategy

Human Resources Strategy

Elements of Marketing Concept


Connection between the separate elements and their logical process structure

Wishes, requirements and demands

Offer of products and services

Elements
Markets Customer benefit and customer satisfaction

Exchange, transactions and relations

Market Areal Strategy


Determination of geographic coverage Market areal strategies

Local

Regional

National

International

Multinational

Global

Process of geographic expansion

Market Simulation Strategies - Stuck in the Middle


Placeholder for own Subheadline
Performance IV: Advantage strategy high Outpacing strategy II: Preference strategy

Outpacing strategy Stuck-in-the-Middle low Security distance I: Over reaching strategy high Price

III: Price / Amount strategy


low

Marketing Strategy - Strategic Triangle


Integrated marketing strategies include the strategic triangle of company, customer and competitor

Customer

Competitve advantage Own Company Competition

Marketing Strategy - Strategic Pentagon


According to Ohmae 1992
Customer

Government

Currency

Company

Competitor

Innovation - Demand Pull and Technology Push


Interplay between both strategies

Company

Market

Media Strategy - Dimensions


Analysis and visualization of the six most important parameter of media strategy
Percentage of the reached target group

Range
Design of advertising (for instance: color) and their placement Frequency of addressing the target persons

Impact

Contacts

Size, formats, advertising and spot lengths

Dominance

Intensity

The number of applied media (Media mix)

Repetition
Frequency and timely intervals of the contacts

Marketing Strategies
Strategies according to individualization degree and customer relation
Level of individualization of a product

Customized Marketing
high

Individual Marketing
customer individual market development

individualization of product

Mass-Marketing
low

Relationship Marketing
Individualization of customer relationship

standardized market development

low

high

Individualization degree of customer relationship

Strategic Marketing
Questions and Marketing Where?
In which market is the company active?

How?
What is the central orientation of the marketing strategy?

When?
When will the company become active on the market?

Concentration of company's activities on particularly attractive and promising markets

Conscious selection of markets and definition of future strategies with long-term orientation

Determination of market entry time in compliance of the previous development and production effort

Marketing Orientations
Orientation of the company on the turnover market
Starting Point
Products/ Performance

Medium
Expansion / rationalization of production and procurement

Objectives
Profit on increased volume

Produce as much as you can.

Production orientation (sellers market)


Sales-political instruments Profit on accordant volume

Products/ Performance

Write off what youve produced.

Sales orientation (saturation tendency)


Marketresearch Customer wishes Bundle of marketing measures Profit on long-term satisfaction of customers

Produce what you can write off.

Market orientation (buyers market)

Cost Leadership
The strategy of a company to reach sustainable competitive advantage be low costs is differentiated in 8 methods

Economies of scale

Economies of scope

Experience effects

Economies of learning

Product design

Process design Residual effects the operational effectiveness

Capacity utilization

Input-Costs

Cost leadership

Differentiation Strategy
The strategy of a company to differentiate themselves positively from the competition from the customers point of view is separated in 6 different methods

Price

Image

Support

Design

Quality

Not differentiated

Differentiation Strategy

Market Field Strategies according to Ansoff


Ansoff-matrix with the representation of product-market-strategies
Markets Products/ Performance

Existing

New

Market penetration
Existing Market presence Market suppression

Market development
Internationalisation Market segmentation

Product development
New Product innovation Product differentiation

Diversification
Vertical diversification Horizontal diversification Lateral diversification

Market Area Strategies


Basic principles for market areas / market development
International Strategies
Multinational market International market World market

National Strategies
Local market Regional market Cross regional market National market

Marketing - STP-Strategies
Strategies of market davelopment

S
Segmenting
Market segmetation, segmentation criteria to divide the markets into clearly defined customer groups

T
Targeting
Segment evaluation, target market determination and target group determination. Selection of the most attractive market segments

P
Positioning
Positioning versus Differentiation. Establishment of a competition position in each target segment. Selection and communication of a concept

Competition Strategies
Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies
Overall market

Degree of competition

Differentiation strategy performance/quality uniqueness

Cost leadership price/costs standard product

Sub-market

Differentiation focus specific need relatively price-inelastic

Cost focus limited need price elastic

Performance advantage

Cost advantage

Competitive advantage

Competition Strategies
Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies
Overall market

Degree of competition

Strategy of quality leadership

Strategy of aggressive cost leadership

Strategy of selective Quality leadership


Sub-market

Strategy of selective Cost leadership

Performance advantage

Cost advantage

Competitive advantage

Competition Strategies
Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies
Strategic advantage Strategic target object

Singularity from customers perspective

Cost advantage

Industry wide

differentiation

Extensive cost leadership

Limitation to one segment

Focusing

Market Field Strategies according to Ansoff


Ansoff-matrix with the representation of product-market-strategies

Product Market Existing New

Existing

Market penetration

Market development

New

Product development

Diversification

Norm Strategies - McKinsey/GE


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Marketattractiveness high

Specializing in few strength Overcoming weaknesses Retreat when missing signs for continuous growth

Fight for the market leadership Usage of strength Strengthening of poorly performing areas

Maximum investments Concentration on preservation of existing strength

Invest Develop

medium

Search for low risk expansion possibilities Rationalizing of internal processes

Defending of position
Concentration of investments of attractive and low risk areas

High investments in attractive segment Defense against competitors Increasing productivity

Minimizing of investments

Devest Develop

low

Sales with increasing profits Reduction of fixed costs No investments

Defense of position in most profitable area


Improvement of product line Minimizing investments

Realization of profit
Concentration of most attractive segments Defense of existing strength

Selective action Profit priority

Competitive strength

low

medium

high

Norm Strategies - McKinsey/GE


Matrix of norm strategies (threefold division of axis )

High

Investment or retreat

Investment

Keep market leadership

Market attractiveness

Medium

Absorption and gradual divestment

Transition

Growth

Low

Divestment

Absorption and gradual divestment Medium

Absorption

Low

High

Relative competitive advantages

Market Growth
Representation of market sizes, like market potential, market volume and market growth in the course of time
Amount / Value

6
5 4 3 2 1 0 Period 1

Market Potential

Sales Volume Provider A Sales Volume Provider B Sales Volume Provider C Sales Volume Provider D

Market Volume

Time

Period 2

Period 3

Period 4

Outpacing-Strategie
Increase in profitability by maximizing quality (high customer benefit) and cost reduction
high
Cost reduction Offer differentiation

Target of outpacing
Quality/ Customer benefit Innovator

low expensive

Follower

Price / Costs

cheap

Innovation Strategies - Innovation Pentagram


A tool of innovation management

Motive: Which motive targets the innovation?

Business system: With what kind of business system is the innovation implemented?

Advantage: What kind of advantages does the innovation provide?

Timing: When are we applying these measures?

Revenue model: How is the revenue generated?

Marketing Concepts - Dimensions


Platzhalter fr Ihre eigene Subheadline

Internationalization Strategies
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Integration advantage

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high

3
Global marketing

4
Transnational marketing

low

1
International marketing
low

2
Multinational marketing
high

Differentiation advantage

Marketing Planning / Objectives

Marketing Management - Process


Representation of the ideal type process of marketing management
Analysis phase
Marketing situation analysis

Determination of market segments and marketing targets

Four classic phases

Definition of marketing strategy

Planning phase
Determination of marketing budget

Determination of marketing measures

Implementation phase Control phase

Implementation of marketing measures

Control of marketing results

Marketing-Planning Process
Marketing as a process devided in the five steps of market analysis, marketing objective, strategy, marketing instruments and success control
Market analysis (actual-condition)
Where are you? What is the initial situation? Wher do you want to be?

Marketing targets (establish objectives)


Marketing strategy Marketing instruments Success control

How will you reach your objectives?

Which instruments will be used?

Analysis of the difference between target and result

Marketing Targets
Economic and non-economic objectives of a business
Economic marketing targets
Close connection to general economic company objectives
revenue / profitability profit contribution / Return-on-Investment growth (revenue/sales/profit) rationalizing capacities security (risk distribution)

Non-economic marketing targets


Connecting to mental processes of buyer (purchase behavior)
customer retention

customer satisfaction
name recognition attitude (image / sympathie) repurchase rate level of distribution effects of knowledge strength of purchase intention

market position /market share

Goal criteria SMART


The 5 criteria that define a goal so that it can be used in project management

Specific
Objectives have to be specific and positively described.

Measurable
A goal achievement should be measurable.

Attainable
It should be attractive for the project team to reach the goal.

Realistic
The objective needs to be achievable in a realistic way.

Time-bound
The goal has to set within a time frame.

Marketing Objectives - Target Pyramid


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Corporate objectives

Retention of the economic and legal independency, increasing development of flexibility Increase in sales, improvement of company image

Marketing objectives

Financial target

Price Communication Distribution policy target target target

Preparation of contract conclusions

PR- objectives

Exhibition objectives Advertisement objectives

Managing customer data, raise purchase interest, increasing popularity of brand

Marketing objctives / Hierarchical levels of objectives


Objective system in form of a hierarchy
Object of the company

Company objective

Function targets Marketing targets are function targets Instrumental target Levels of objectives and marketing instruments

CR-Marketing - Target Hierarchy


Operative and strategic main and sub objectives

Corporate objectives

Company related sub-objectives - Positioning on the market - Employee loyalty - Employee motivation - Innovation Customer related sub-objectives -Customer contribution margin - Customer loyalty - Customer satisfaction - Perceived performance quality

Profit / Yield

Marketing overall targets Costs / Productivity / Revenue / Sales

Conventional Marketing Targets


Targets for successful business

Increasing market shares


Popularity

Increasing revenues
Price segment

Improving contribution margin

Image
Customer reach Customer satisfaction Customer loyalty

Revenue
Distribution

Marketing Plan
Process to create a marketing plan
Objectives and Indicators Strategic and operational objectives Financial objectives Market-and customer-related objectives Strategy Implementation (Marketing Mix) Product and pricing policy Communication and distribution policy

1. Analysis 2. Target

3. Strategy

4. Mix

5. Control

Strategic Analysis Market and environment analysis Customer and competitor analysis

Strategy Selection and Combination Competitive strategies Portfolio strategies Positioning strategies Innovation strategies

Success Control (progress and results) Effectiveness of marketing tools Performance of the people involved Profitability of the chosen products, markets and (customer success estimation)

Marketing Management

Marketing Management Cycle


Display as 4 phases model / marketing cycle

Procurement, evaluation and

interpretation of market data

Determination of

Management Cycle

marketing objectives Development of marketing strategy

Success control of target

achievement (target-actualcomparison)
Planning and

implementation of marketing measures

Marketing Management Cycle


Display as 4 phases model / marketing cycle
Situation analysis
Customer and competitor behavior, environment trends, resources, where do we stand?

Controlling
Reference objects (products, customers, branches, etc.), early detection systems (environment development)

Targets
Competences, orientation, target segments, revenue, market share, DB, image

Organization
Development and process organization, primarily and secondary organization, key processes, qualification

Management cycle

Strategies
Product market innovation, cooperation, acquisition, competition strategy, brand

Mix
Product, communication, distribution, price

Budget
Fundraising, allotment, methods, function and overall budget

Internal Marketing
Preparation of employees about the interaction with customers by internal marketing
Customer

Optimal supplier buyer interaction

Marketing-Mix

Skills Know-How Motivation Setting Competencies

Service Culture
Employees
Internal Marketing Internal training and interactive communication Recruitment advertisement and Internal market research

Company

Integrated Marketing
Integration of marketing oriented views in all economic subdivisions of a company

Public
Public marketing Sales marketing (pull)

Suppliers
Procurement marketing

Employees
Internal marketing

Sales intermediary
Sales marketing (push)

End customer

Process orientation
Competitor
Competitive marketing

Marketing Oriented Management


Design of the organization and its interactions (functional chain)

Market orientation of company structure


Customer related effects Company success

Market orientation of managerial subsystem within the company:


personal management organization system QM system information system control system

Service offer Employee behavior

Customer satisfaction loyalty willingness to pay a certain price

Market success, economic success

Marketing Structure
Enter your subheadline here Fundamentals

Marketing Planning
Marketing Research

Marketing Strategy

Product Policy

Pricing Policy

Communications Policy

Sales Policy

Marketing Organization

Marketing Controlling

Marketing Organization - Function-oriented


Function-oriented marketing organization
Management
Procurement Production Marketing Finance

Marketing-Informations

Marketing-Operations

Marketing Research

Marketing Planning

Communication

Physical Distribution

Sales

Marketing Organization - Product-oriented


Enter your subheadline here
Management
Procurement Production Marketing Finance

Marketing product group A

Marketing product group B

Marketing product group C

Central communication

Central marketing research

Central marketing planning

Central distribution

Product group C sales

Product group C communication

Product group C market research

Product group C marketing planning

Product group C physical distribution

Marketing Organization - Customer-oriented


Enter your subheadline here
Management

Marketing-management for the separate customer groups

Marketing customer group 1

Marketing customer group 2

Marketing customer group 3

Marketing customer group 4

Prod. development customer group 2

Advertisement customer group 2

Distribution customer group 2

Market research customer group 2

Matrix Organization in Marketing


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Management
Procurement Production Marketing Finance

Marketing columns
Public relations Marketing planning Physical distribution Market research

Advertisement Product A Product B Product C

Sales

Sales promotion

Matrix Organization in Marketing


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Sales Manager

Market Research Manager

Advertising and Promotions Manager

Product Manager Product 1

Placeholder

Placeholder

Placeholder

Product Manager Product 2

Placeholder

Placeholder

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Product Manager Product 3

Placeholder

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Funktional Sales - Marketing-Organization


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Managing Director

Sales Director

Marketing Director

Sales Manager 1

Sales Manager 2

Market Research Manager

Advertising and Promotions Manager

Product Development Manager

Marketing Management - Tasks


Differentiation between three important task areas in marketing management

Market related tasks


to control the demand, fulfillment of demand, demand development and activation and reduction of demand.

Company related tasks

Tasks
of marketing management

for the coordination and avoidance of possible interest conflicts through integration of marketing in existing company organization.

Society related tasks


in respect to social responsibilities of marketing management (Economics, humanistic and ethical standards)

Marketing Management
Four central parameter of company management that need to be aligned to market and customer requirements
Which objectives need to be achieved? How should the objective be accomplished?

Strategy

Process

Market Customer

What values and norms are lead by our actions?

Culture

Structure

Which organisatorial structures secure the acomplishment of the objectives?

Marketing Management - Task Areas


Task areas in the company / environment
Participants of the commercial world

Demographiceconomic environment
Product

Technologicenvironmental environment

Distribution

Supplier

Target customer

Price

Interest groups

Sales promotion

Politicallegal environment
Competitors

socio-cultural environment

Marketing in the Company


Representation of marketing as a sub-process (function) in a company
Note: If marketing is the central bottleneck, all processes have to act accordingly (subject heading "MarketOriented Management"). By the way: Each process can be a central bottleneck.

Management processes

Management
Planning Organization Management Control

Business core processes Procurement market Procurement Production Marketing Market

Finance, F&E, personal, controlling, administration

Supporting processes
Note: Commercial companies have mainly just the two core processes Procurement and Marketing (Sales). In service companies no one speaks of production but of service performance; in technology-intensive companies is research and development usually the core process (in terms of contribution to value creation ).

Marketing control - Basic Scheme


Marketing control to varify structures, processes and results
Input / Output
Objectives Observed results

Compare objectives/ result

Consequence 1: Change and adjustments of objectives


Decisions about response

Consequence 2: Change and adjustments of current measures

Company Communication
The sum of all communications measures of a company (corporate communications)

Self image

Performance potential, abilities, benefit, intention, values

Corporate Communication

Public image

Customer, employees, partners, suppliers, public

Multi-Channel-Marketing
Display of different marketing channels
Personal Sales

E-Mail Marketing

Database Marketing

Search Engine Marketing

Multi-Channel Marketing

Direct Mail Marketing

Online Advertising

Telemarketing

Social Media

Innovation Management - Overview


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Innovation strategy Innovation organization

Customer

Environment

Innovation ideas

Innovation processes

Product Planning

Value Chain (Supply Chain)


Supply chain that shows the way of all components of a product from commodity to supplier, manufacturer till customer

Supplier

Customer

Procurement

Production

Sales

Cash Flow - Product


Typical curve of the cumulative cash flow of a product
Cumulative Cash Flow
positive Investments Development Costs Market Entry Costs Prototype

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Market exit

0 Break-Even-Point Technical feasibility is clarified negative Production technique is ready 1 2 3

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Market entry 4 5

Product Variation - New- and Replacement Demand


Course of the overall demand of a product by product variation

Replacement demand 1

Replacement demand 2

Change of model or variation

Product variation - Product life cycle


Theoretical course of life cycle of a product when revenue is increased by product variation
Revenue

Variant 3 Variant 2 Variant 1

Product Life Cycle


Life cycle with the representation of sales, profit and loss zones in the course of time in separate phases
Development Introduction Growth Maturity Saturation Degeneration Elimination

Sales and Profit

Revenue Profile of an Assortment


Revenue profile analysis with defense of production capacities
Revenue in %
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% I - III = Product programs

III II I
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

10%
0%

Production capacity in %

Revenue and Profit according to products


Contributions of individual product programs to sales and profit
50% 42% Sales Profit

25%

20%

18%

20%
15% 10%

Product 1

Product 2

Product 3

Product 4

Product programm

Price / Cost Management

Composition of Profit
The price is the only component of the marketing mix, which directly affects sales and profits Profit

Sales

Sales
High cost reduction potential reached

Amount
Product development /

Price
Factor with the greatest unexploited profit potential

innovation
Product line expansion product differentiation New customer groups New territories

Price Strategies
Matrix with high-price, low price and value-oriented price strategies
Low price strategies: Traditional approach with the lowest possible price for the product. High price strategies: Target specific customer through high price level.
Value oriented price strategies high

High price strategies

Price level

Value oriented price strategies: Prices of the service correspond exactly to the customer value.
Low price strategies

low low

Service/Performance (Customer value)

high

Marketing - Leaning/Experience Curve


Every doubling of the cumulated Revenue of a product results in a cost lowering potential between 10 and 30%

Unit costs

Market price

20% Decline 30% Decline

Cumulated volume and market share

Break-Even Analysis
Evaluation model to determine the sales volume required to achieve the break-even point
Cost of sales
Revenues

Total cost

Break-even sales Break-even-Point

Variable costs

Fixed costs

Break-even quantity

Quantity

Marketing / Controlling - Experience


Volume related cost reduction (cost reduction effect)
Rationalisation / standardisation

Learning effects
(knowledge collection)

dynamic

Technical development

experiences

Economies of scale

static
Favorable procurement

Degression of fixed costs

Marketing Strategy - Cost Factors


Cost factors that should be considered in a marketing strategy

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Marketing Strategy
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Financing
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Price Differentiation and Profit Potential


Exhaustion the profit potential through price differentiation
Sales

Lost profits

Your sales

B
Your profits

A
Unit cost

C
Your price

Price

Types of price differentiation


4 types according to various characteristics of differentiation
Customer-related price differentiation
Demographic characteristics: age sex size of household Socio-economic characteristics: income profession education business Psychological characteristics: lifestyle personality

Regional price differentiation


Different prices in two or more regions or countries -> By partitioning the markets of each other (clients cant obtain market overview)

Temporal price differentiation


Customers pay different prices for the same performance as a function of the day, week or year

Usage-related price differentiation


Price differentiation according to applications such as for example Fuel oil for heating / diesel for motor vehicles -> Difficult to implement because its rarely seen in practice

Distribution / Sales

Marketing - Communication Instruments


Comparisson of the classical (above the line) and the non-classical (below the line) communication instruments
Above The Line (ATL) Classical marketing
Classical advertisement Print media Radio / TV / Movies

Below The Line (BTL) Alternative marketing


Sponsoring Event marketing Exhibitions / Trade fair

Outdoor advertisement / Billboard advertisement


Public relations

Product placement
Promotions

Direct marketing
Mobile marketing Online marketing / Search engines Viral marketing / Guerilla marketing further instruments

Advertising Measures
Advertising types in classic media and online

Classic Media
Direct mail Events

Online-Medien
Affiliate - program Banner campaign

Movies

Posters

E-Mail marketing

Keyword advertising

PR

Print media

PR

Mobile marketing

Sponsoring

Telephone/Fax

Sponsoring

Product serarch engines

Teletext

TV & Radio

Teletext

Marketing - Communication Instruments


Comparisson of the classical (above the line) and the non-classical (below the line) communication instruments
Classical advertisement Print media Radio / TV / Movies Outdoor advertisement / Billboard advertisement Public relations

Above The Line (ATL)


Classical marketingrecognizable for everybody

Below The Line (BTL)


Alternative marketingmainly visible only for targeted groups

Sponsoring Event marketing Exhibitions / Trade fair Product placement Promotions Direct marketing Mobile marketing Online marketing / Search engines Viral marketing / Guerilla marketing

Purchase Decision Process Phases


Graphical representation of the five phases of an extensive buying decision process (real purchasing decision)
Demand or lack recognition (motive) Information search offline / online

Purchase Decision

Evaluation, feedback, service

Acquisition decision, if the necessary purchasing power is available.

Testing of alternatives regarding suitability and satisfaction of the purchase need (requirement / demand)

Diffusion model by Rogers


Distinction of customers for their willingness to adopt a new product
Adopter 2,5% 13,5% 34% 34% 16%

Innovators (Pioneers)

Early adopter

Early majority

Late majority

Straggler

t-2

t-

t+ Adoption time

Pyramid of Needs according to Maslow


Representation of hierarchies of different levels of needs

Selfrealization Need for recognition

Adventure, independence Power, status, recognition

Social needs
Security needs Basic physiological needs

Love, friendship, membership Protect the health, Protection of belongings


Eating, drinking, sleeping, sex

SOR- Model according to Howard & Sheth


Stimulus-response scheme with assumptions about perception and information processing (learning effects) S O (organism) R
(stimulus)
Input variables Information from commercial sources
quality price peculiarity service availability stimulus ambiguity search behavior security

Hypothetical constructs
Perception constructs Learning constructs

(response)
Output variablen purchase
intention to buy

intention to buy attitude brand knowledge

Einstellung

Information from social sources


family friends and

attention
attention motives electoral criteria brand knowledge

acquaintances
colleagues

perceptive distortion

satisfaction

Procurement Center Model


Roles in the purchase decision-making in the corporate sector
Gatekeeper
Secretary

Decision maker
Manager

Buyer
Employee

User
Employee

Influencer
Management consultant

Gatekeeper
Information

Decision maker
purchase decision vendor selection

Buyer
Purchase Price negotiations,

User
suggestions for

Influencer
criteria

collection
comparison of offers decision-making

purchase
assessment after the

discounts, and quantities


delivery conditions

preparation

purchase (qualitatively)

formulation for selection and evaluation of offers

Sales Development - Options


Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Use of existing distribution

Advantages
No surcharges

Disadvantages
No competence

Own distribution
Construction of new distribution Building up own competence Short-term not possible

Distribution options
Distribution order Faster market access No customer relations

Foreign sales
Use of distribution partners Faster market access Partners optimize first

Customer Relations

Copy Platform / Copy Strategy


Model to develop an advertising argumentation

tone, kind of approach

Promise of usage

Justification of performance of product or company

Win- Win- Situation


Six different options of interpersonal interaction

Customer interest

Win / Lose
(only one partner wins)

Win / Win
(both partners win)

optional

Compromise
which both agree on

Lose / Lose
(both are deprived)

Lose / Win
(only one partner wins)

optional

No business

Supplier interest

Customer Strategies
Offensive or defensive organization of a company's customer strategy

Customer Strategies

offensive
Win new customers

defensive
Commit existing customers

Expand market

Increase market share

Build hurdles against provider switch

Increase customer satisfaction

Market Communication - One step Model


Model of a one-step communication / information transmission

Sender
Intended signal Coded signal

Information transmission Advertising medium


Received signal

Recipient
Decoded signal Behavioral effects

Feedback

The sender has to ensure that the recipient can decode the message correctly.

Market Communication - One step Model


Model of a one-step communication / information transmission
Information transmission

Advertising message

Advertiser
Intended signal Coded signal Received signal

Customer
Decoded signal Behavioral effects

Sender

Advertising medium
Feedback

Recipient

The sender has to ensure that the recipient can decode the message correctly.

Market Communication - Two Step Model


Model of a two-step Communication / Information transmission by mass media

Opinion leaders are influenced by experts

Members of the "followers-group are influenced by the opinion leader

Mass
Mass media

Personal
Opinion leader

communication

communication

"Passive" audience

Opinion leader is the central element. He obtains a mediating role where he passes on information to advertising subjects in his social environment.

Customer Satisfaction - Graphic


Graphic of customer satisfaction as a result between expectation and perceived performance quality (Customer satisfaction = B / A)

Individual (subjective) expectation of Customer Perceived product- / service quality

Process of comparison

Customer Satisfaction
A product leads to customer satisfaction if it is capable to satisfy customers requirements (Expectations-Experience)

On Purchase

Usage

Expectation of the product

Product

Experience with the product

Comparison
Accord with the expectations that a customer has on the purchase of the product Expecrations that are made during the use of the product.

Customer Satisfaction

Purchase Decision and Influencing Variables


Representation of the factors that can influence a buying decision
Bundle of (Product-) functions Price Type of function

Quality

Design

Time relevant availability on market Other factors (i.e. maintenance costs, service, etc.)

Physical features (size, weight, etc.)

Experience of Customer
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Instructions
Usage of goods Service visit Invoice Packaging Delivery

Ad

Other communication

Customer
Brochure Fax, E-Mail

Data sheet Vendor contact Product presentation

Phone conversation Offer Price list

Purchase Decision Process - Circle


Interaction cycle and phases of the purchase decision processes

Order handling

Pre- acquisition

Order

Inquiry

Negotiations with customers phase

Purchase Decision Process

Submit tender to customer

Offer preparation with cooperation partner

Bidding phase

Development Stages of Customers


Representation of the different stages of customers with increased customer satisfaction and customer loyalty
Suspected / Promising New customer (prospective) First-time customern Repeated customer Exclusive customer Active intercessory customer Integrated partners
If necessary procurement from suppliers or competitors. Customer loyalty strategies to make him repeated purchases.

Qualified new customer with potentially strong interest in the product or service. Existing financial resources.

Purchase only from a provider / your company and dont accept competitive products. Use of CRM tools e.g. membership in the customer club. Transfer positive aspects about the company / product to other potential customers Active cooperation between customer and company (especially B-to-B)

Development Stages of Customers


Representation of the different stages of customers with increased customer satisfaction and customer loyalty

Suspected / Promising New customer (prospective)

First-time customern

Repeated customer

Exclusive customer

Active intercessory customer

Integrated partners

Increasing customer satisfaction

The Value Chain


Value that the customer is prepared to pay for the services of a company
Infrastructure management

Personal management
Support Activities Technology development

Procurement

Input logistics

Operation

Output logistics

Marketing and Sales

Service

Main Activities

DAGMAR-Formula
Step model of advertising effectiveness and advertising success
Theory based on the assumption that advertisement doesnt only have economic objectives but that it also has to meet particular communication tasks. The advertisement goes through several levels of consciousness with each customer:

Contact
Is the advertising recognized?

Acceptance
Is the promotional information recognized quickly?

Understanding
Is the advertising message instantly understood by the target group?

Storage
Is the core message easily absorbed?

Attitude
Is the advertising message credible, likeable, prestigious?

Action
Purchase due to the positive perception of the consumer.

Core Competences
Visualize core competences as a matrix with evaluations according to increase in value for the company and customer satisfaction
high
R&D Production Logistics Sales

Core competences

Increase in value

medium

Service Procurement

Potential key skills (ressources)

low not satisfied

Customer

satisfied

amazed

Customer Lifetime Circle


Timing and phases of the customer life cycle (customer relationship)

strength / Intensity (Quality) the customers relationship

stability

extension

development

termination

duration of customer relationship initiation

Customer acquisition
- Initiation Phase - Socialization Phase

Customer loyalty
- Growth Phase - Maturity Stage

Customer recovery
- Exposure Period - Resolution Phase - Abstinence Phase

Customer Profile
Customer profile analysis according to sales and number of customers
Sales in %
100% 90% 80%

70%
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 10

10 Customers make 50% of the sales The majority of the customer accounts for less than 10% of sales.

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 Number of

customers

CRM- Functional Chain


A CRM- busines model should relate to a functional chain

CustomernOrientation

Customernzufriedenheit

Customernwert

QualittsOrientation

Customernbindung

Unternehmenserfolg

CRM - Contact Chain


Company's entire contact chain from initial contact to the re-sales contact
Interested Party
First Contact Pre-Sales-Contact

Customer
Sales-Contact After-Sales- Contact

Regular Customer
Re-Sales- Contact

opinion making

consulting quotation purchase negotiations

order purchase delivery

usage of the product service

repurchase

Customer Lifetime Circle

CR-Marketing - Phases
Customer Relationship Marketing (CRM) is a management approach that focuses on the systematic development and the maintenance of customer relationships

This process runs through the following 5 phases:

Accost

Win

Inform

Handle

Maintain

Brand / Corporate Identity

Corporate Identity vs. Image


Differentiation of two perspectives

Company

Corporate Identity

Image

Image from inside

Image from Outside

Branding policy - Requirements for a Brand


Major tasks of branding policy: development of brand names and trademarks

Criteria and characteristics of a brand

Brand name/ marking


Product design Packaging Trademark

Brand protection
Protectability of brand differentiation from other brands

Distinctiveness

Difference in performance compared with competitive offerings

Standards

Price stability

Availability

Publicity

Standardized Quality Consistently high Quality

No specials, action prices or sales

Availability and widespread distribution

Perception and recognition in the market through advertising

Differentiation of Trademarks
Examples according to trademark types

Word signs

Graphic trademark

Word-Image Trademark

Recognition by selfdeveloped script. Easily represented in all media.

Only work if you about to be published across years (through advertising)

Highest conciseness by logo and illustration of the peculiarity of the offer.

Corporate Identity
The total of all communication political measures, the behavior, appearance and market communication of a company

Corporate Identity

Corporate Identity
Detailed presentation of the three activities of a company, aligned upon a corporate philosophy
Appearance:
logo, fonts, color, layout

Internal and external corporate communication:


press releases, ads, posters, TV spots, staff newspaper, customer magazine, website, banners, Open house, company celebration, trade show appearance, packing design

Behavior from inside to outside:


to employees, customers and suppliers

Graphics

Competition - Graphic
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Own Company
C4
C5

C3

C2

C1

Customer

Graphic - Marketing vs. Strategy Signs


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Marketing - Buzzword Cubes


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Marketing - Buzzword
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Graphic - Mouse Cursor Marketing


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Graphic - Flowchart Sale Options


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Puzzle - Marketing 4Ps


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