Você está na página 1de 40

The Interstitial fluid

4/2/12

Tissue cell

=12 L
4/2/12

Exchange of nutrients and substances through the capillary wall

Diffusion

Bulk flow

4/2/12

Diffusion

The kinetic movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

The main mechainism

Solubility Temperature Surface area

Rate of diffusion
Molecular size

4/2/12

Pathways of diffusion

Water& water soluble


Slit pores Fenestae

proteins

lipid Soluble, O2,CO2


Transcellul ar transport
4/2/12

Pinocytosi s (Vesicular

Transcellular transport

Slit pores

fenestrae

4/2/12

Bulk flow

= increased diffusion It is the process by which substances are forced through a membrane because of difference in pressure on both sides of the membrane

Bulk flow= increased diffusion


FILTRATION REABSORPTION

4/2/12

Filtration
It is an increased diffusion of water and solutes through a membrane towards the opposite side of high hydrostatic pressure. It is bulk flow of water and solutes from the plasma into the interstitial fluid through the capillary wall.
4/2/12

Reabsorption
It is an increased diffusion of water and solutes through a membrane towards the same side of high osmotic pressure. It is bulk flow of water and solutes from the interstitial fluid into the plasma through the capillary wall
4/2/12

Fluid Movement depends on Starling Factors:


1-capillary Pressure 2-Interstitial Fluid Pressure 3-Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure 4-Interstitial Fluid Colloid Osmotic Pressure

4/2/12

4/2/12

1-Capillary pressure
At the arterial end. At the summit (loop) At the venous
4/2/12

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

1)Capillary level: heart Below the


or Above the heart

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

2)Venous pressure:

4/2/12

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

2)Venous pressure: by a tumor outside or a Venous obstruction

thrombus inside. increased venous pressure by right heart failure the enlarged uterus in the last three months of pregnancy. Nephrosis.
4/2/12

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

3) Condition of arterioles:
1- Dilation 2Constrictio n
4/2/12

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

4)Arterial blood pressure:


Arterial blood pressure tends to capillary pressure The

However, acute control of local blood flow brings capillary pressure back to normal.

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

Increased arterial pressure Increased capillary pressure


4/2/12

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

5) Visceral characteristics:
In the viscera, the capillary pressure differs according to the nature of the local mechanism. For example,

The renal glomeruli : 60 mmHg


.
4/2/12

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

5) Visceral characteristics:
The intestinal capillaries: 10-20 mmHg

4/2/12

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

5) Visceral characteristics:
The liver : 6 mmHg

4/2/12

Factors affecting the capillary pressure

5) Visceral characteristics:
The lungs : 8-10 mmHg.

4/2/12

2-Interstitial fluid pressure


Either slightly positive (+1 or +2 mmHg) i.e. moves the fluid inward or slightly negative (-6 or -8 mmHg) i.e. moves the fluid outward.
4/2/12

3-Plasma colloid osmotic pressure


Normal value: 28 mmHg Causes of plasma osmotic pressure a-75% from the albumin b-25% from the globulins c-very small percentage from the fibrinogen
4/2/12

Why the concentration of proteins in the plasma averages over three times as much as that in the interstitial fluid? (7.5 g/ 100 ml the plasma versus 2 g/ 100 ml in the interstitial fluid).

4-Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure


Average is 5 mmHg Depends on interstitial protein concentration 6gm/100ml which varies in different 4gm/100ml organs 1.4
gm/dl
4/2/12

Dynamics of fluid exchange (tissue fluid formation)

Net outward force=40-29=11 Total outward force= 30+5=40 Total inward force= 28+1=29

Net inward force= 29-20=9 Total outward force= 15+5=20 Total inward force= 28+1=29

At the arterial end


1. Filtration of fluid through capillary pores . 2. It causes 24L of plasma fluid to be filtered/day out of capillary to interstitial spaces.

At the venous end


1. About 90% of filtered fluid at arterial end are reabsorbed at venous end.

10 %

However, in some capillaries this balance is different

Click to edit Master subtitle style

Filtration

Reabsorption
4/2/12

Distribution of fluid between plasma and interstitial fluid

Under

normal

1.The inward and outward forces are nearly equal. conditions 2. The rate of net movement across the capillary membrane is normally very low. 3. Volumes of both blood and interstitial fluid normally changes very little from hour to hour.

4/2/12

Distribution of fluid between plasma and interstitial fluid

If filtration >reabsorption
Decreased blood volume (hypotension) or edema

4/2/12

Distribution of fluid between plasma and interstitial fluid

If reabsorption>filtration
Increased blood volume and tissue dehydration

4/2/12

Differences between filtration and diffusion

4/2/12

Lymphatic Functions: Circulation

1- The lymphatic system removes from the interstitium albumin and other macromolecules which have escaped from the microcirculation. 2- Lymphatics drain fluid from the interstitium to maintain its normal structure.
4/2/12

Lymphatic Circulation Lymphatic flow rate:


2 L/day for the entire body, containing 200g of proteins. most lymph comes from the liver and GIT

Mechanism of flow:
Lymph is mobilized by the contraction of large lymphatics and skeletal muscles. The lymphatics have an extensive system of one-way valves to maintain the flow of lymph to the heart. 4/2/12

Lymphatic Importance

Circulation

The lymphatic system represents the only mechanism of returning interstitial proteins to the circulatory system.

4/2/12

Hr&c.o.p
S.V HR C.O.P Non atheletes atheletes During exercise During rest 70 ml Click to edit b\m subtitle style 70 Master 5 l\m 120 ml 120 ml 200 ml 45-55 b\m 5 l\m 180 b\m 180 b\m

22-25 l\m Nonatheletes 35-36 l\m atheletes


4/2/12