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MODULATION

1. What is modulation?

Modulation is the process of putting information

onto a high frequency carrier for transmission
(frequency translation).
1. What is modulation?

Once this information is received, the low frequency

information must be removed from the high frequency
carrier. This process is known as Demodulation.

2. What are the reasons for
modulation?

1. Frequency division multiplexing (To support multiple
transmissions via a single channel)
To avoid interference
2. What are the reasons for
modulation?

f
M
1
(f)
0
f
M
2
(f)
0
f
M(f)
0
f
1
f
2
Multiplexed
signal
+

2. Practicality of Antennas
Transmitting very low frequencies require antennas with
miles in wavelength

3.What are the Different of
Modulation Methods?

1. Analogue modulation- The modulating signal and
carrier both are analogue signals
Examples: Amplitude Modulation (AM) , Frequency
Modulation (FM) , Phase Modulation (PM)
2. Pulse modulation- The modulating signal is an
analogue signal but Carrier is a train of pulses
Examples : Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), Pulse
width modulation (PWM), Pulse position modulation
(PPM)
3. What are the Different of
Modulation Methods?

3. Digital to Analogue modulation- The modulating
signal is a digital signal , but the carrier is an
analogue signal.
Examples: Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), FSK, Phase
Shift Keying (PSK)
4. Digital modulation -
Examples: Pulse Code Modulation, Delta
3.What are the Different of
Modulation Methods?

ANALOG AND DIGITAL
ANALOG AND DIGITAL
Analog-to-analog conversion is the representation of
Analog-to-analog conversion is the representation of
why we need to modulate an analog signal; it is already
why we need to modulate an analog signal; it is already
analog. Modulation is needed if the medium is
analog. Modulation is needed if the medium is
bandpass in nature or if only a bandpass channel is
bandpass in nature or if only a bandpass channel is
available to us.
available to us.
Amplitude Modulation
Frequency Modulation
Phase Modulation
Topics discussed in this section:
Topics discussed in this section:

Figure Types of analog-to-analog modulation

Figure Amplitude modulation

The total bandwidth required for AM
can be determined
from the bandwidth of the audio
signal: B
AM
= 2B.
Note

Figure AM band allocation

The total bandwidth required for FM can
be determined from the bandwidth
of the audio signal: B
FM
= 2(1 + )B.
Note

Figure Frequency modulation

Figure FM band allocation

Figure Phase modulation

The total bandwidth required for PM can
be determined from the bandwidth
and maximum amplitude of the
modulating signal:
B
PM
= 2(1 + )B.
Note

4. What are the Basic Types of
Analogue Modulation Methods ?

Consider the carrier signal below:
s
c
(t ) = A
c
(t) cos( 2f
c
t

+

)
1. Changing of the carrier amplitude A
c
(t) produces
Amplitude Modulation signal (AM)
2. Changing of the carrier frequency

f
c
produces
Frequency Modulation signal (FM)
3. Changing of the carrier phase

produces
Phase Modulation signal (PM)
4. What are the Basic Types of
Analogue Modulation Methods ?

Analogue Modulation Methods

5. What are the different Forms
of Amplitude Modulation ?

1. Conventional Amplitude Modulation (DSB-LC)
(Alternatively known as Full AM or Double Sideband
with Large carrier (DSB-LC) modulation
2. Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC)
modulation
3. Single Sideband (SSB) modulation
4. Vestigial Sideband (VSB) modulation
5. What are the different Forms
of Amplitude Modulation ?

Conventional Amplitude Modulation
(Full AM)

6. Derive the Frequency Spectrum for Full-AM
Modulation (DSB-LC)

1 The carrier signal is
c c c c c
f t A t s 2 where ) cos( ) (
2 In the same way, a modulating signal (information
signal) can also be expressed as
t A t s
m m m
cos ) (
6. Derive the Frequency Spectrum for Full-AM
Modulation (DSB-LC)

3 The amplitude-modulated wave can be expressed as
[ ] ) cos( ) ( ) ( t t s A t s
c m c
+
[ ] ) cos( ) cos( ) ( t t A A t s
c m m c
+
4 By substitution
c
m
A
A
m
5 The modulation index.

6 Therefore The full AM signal may be
written as
) cos( )) cos( 1 ( ) ( t t m A t s
c m c
+
)] cos( ) [cos( 2 / 1 cos cos B A B A B A + +
t
mA
t
mA
t A t s
m c
c
m c
c
c c
) cos(
2
) cos(
2
) (cos ) ( + + +

7. Draw the Frequency Spectrum of the above AM
signal and calculate the Bandwidth

f
C
f
c
+f
m
f
c
-f
m
2f
m
7. Draw the Frequency Spectrum of the above AM
signal and calculate the Bandwidth

8. Draw Frequency Spectrum for a complex input
signal with AM

8. Draw Frequency Spectrum for a complex input
signal with AM
f
c
f
c
-f
m
f
c
+f
m

The frequency spectrum of AM waveform contains
three parts:
1. A component at the carrier frequency f
c

2. An upper side band (USB), whose highest frequency
component is at f
c
+f
m
3. A lower side band (LSB), whose highest frequency
component is at f
c
-f
m
The bandwidth of the modulated waveform is twice the
information signal bandwidth.
Frequency Spectrum of an AM signal

Because of the two side bands in the frequency spectrum its

often called Double Sideband with Large Carrier.(DSB-LC)

The information in the base band (information) signal is

duplicated in the LSB and USB and the carrier conveys no
information.

Example
Example
We have an audio signal with a bandwidth of 5 KHz.
What is the bandwidth needed if we modulate the signal
using AM?

Example
Example
We have an audio signal with a bandwidth of 5 KHz.
What is the bandwidth needed if we modulate the signal
using AM?
Solution
Solution
An AM signal requires twice the bandwidth of the original
signal:
BW = 2 x 5 KHz = 10 KHz

Modulation Index (m)

m is merely defined as a parameter, which determines the

amount of modulation.

What is the degree of modulation required to establish a

desirable AM communication link?
Answer is to maintain m<1.0 (m<100%).

This is important for successful retrieval of the original

transmitted information at the receiver end.
9. What is the significance of modulation index ?

Modulation Index (m)
9. What is the significance of modulation index ?

If the amplitude of the modulating signal is higher than the

carrier amplitude, which in turn implies the modulation
index . This will cause severe distortion to the
modulated signal.
%) 100 ( 0 . 1 m

Power distribution in full AM
10. Calculate the power efficiency of AM signals

2
2
2
2
2 2 / 1
2 /

m
m
m
m
power total
power sidebands
+

In terms of power efficiency, for m=1 modulation, only

33% power efficiency is achieved which tells us that only
one-third of the transmitted power carries the useful
information.
10. Calculate the power efficiency of AM signals

The carrier component in full AM or DSB-LC does not convey any

information. Hence it may be removed or suppressed during the
modulation process to attain higher power efficiency.

The trade off of achieving a higher power efficiency using DSB-SC is

at the expense of requiring a complex and expensive receiver due to
the absence of carrier in order to maintain transmitter/receiver
synchronization.
Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier
(DSB-SC) Modulation

1 Consider the carrier
c c c c c
f t A t s 2 where ) cos( ) (
2 modulated by a single sinusoidal signal
m m m m
f t A t s 2 where cos ) (
m

3 The modulated signal is simply the product of these two
( )

LSB
m c
c m
USB
m c
c m
m c m c
m m c c
t
A A
t
A A
B A B A B A
t t A A
t A t A t s
) cos(
2
) cos(
2

) cos( ) cos(
2
1
cos cos since
) cos( ) cos(
) cos( ) cos( ) (

+ +
+ +

11. Derive the Frequency Spectrum for Double Sideband

Suppressed Carrier Modulation (DSB-SC)

t A t s
m m m
cos ) (
t A t s
c c c
cos ) (
) cos( ) cos( ) ( t A t A t s
m m c c

X
f
c
f
c
-f
m
f
c
+f
m
Frequency Spectrum of a DSB-SC AM Signal

All the transmitted power is contained in the two sidebands

(no carrier present).

The bandwidth is twice the modulating signal bandwidth.

USB displays the positive components of s
m
(t) and LSB
displays the negative components of s
m
(t).

Generation and Detection of DSB-SC

The simplest method of generating a DSB-SC signal is

merely to filter out the carrier portion of a full AM (or DSB-
LC) waveform.

Given carrier reference, modulation and demodulation

(detection) can be implemented using product devices or
balanced modulators.

BALANCED MODULATOR
AM Modulator 1
AM Modulator 2
Carrier
S
m
(t)
S
m
(t)
-S
m
(t)
A
c
cos(
c
t)
A
c
cos(
c
t)
S
2
(t)
S
1
(t)
S(t)
DSB-SC

The two modulators are identical except for the sign reversal
of the input to one of them. Thus,
) cos( )) cos( 1 ( ) (
1
t t m A t s
c m c
+
) cos( )) cos( 1 ( ) (
2
t t m A t s
c m c

) cos( ) cos( 2
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
t t mA
t s t s t s
c m c

DSB-SC Signal s(t)
Local Oscillator
LPF X
Cos
c
t
v(t)
v
o
(t)
COHERENT (SYNCHRONOUS) DETECTOR OR
DSB-SC (PRODUCT DETECTOR)

Since the carrier is suppressed the envelope no longer

represents the modulating signal and hence envelope
detector which is of the non-coherent type cannot be used.

[ ]

2 cos )
) cos( ) ( since
) 2 cos( ) cos( ) cos(
2
2 cos 1
) cos( 2
) ( cos ) cos( 2
) cos( ) cos( ) cos( 2 ) cos( ) ( ) (
2

d by LPF) erm(remove Unwanted t
c m m
m m m
c m m m m
c
m m
c m c
c
m
c c m c c
t) ( (t s (t) s
t A t s
t t A t A
t
t A
t t A
A
A
t t t mA t t s t v

,
_

It is necessary to have synchronization in both frequency

and phase between the transmitter (modulator) & receiver
(demodulator), when DSB-SC modulation ,which is of the
coherent type, is used.
Both phase and frequency must be known to demodulate
DSB-SC waveforms.

LACK OF PHASE SYNCHRONISATION
Let the received DSB-SC signal be
( )
c c m SC DSB
A t t s t s +

cos ) ( ) (
if is unknown,
( )
( ) [ ]

+ +
+

t t s
A
t t t s A
t t s t v
c m
c
c c m c
c SC DSB
2 cos cos ) (
2
cos cos ) (
cos ) ( ) (
Output of LPF
cos ) (
2
) ( t s
A
t v
m
c
o

But we want just
) (
2
) ( t s
A
t v
m
c
o

Due to lack of phase synchronization, we will see that the
wanted signal at the output of LPF will be attenuated by an
amount of cos.
In other words, phase error causes an attenuation of the
output signal proportional to the cosine of the phase error.
The worst scenario is when =/2, which will give rise to
zero or no output at the output of the LPF.

LACK OF FREQUENCY SYNCHRONISATION
Suppose that the local oscillator is not stable at f
c
but at
f
c
+ f, then
( )
( )
( ) [ ]

+ +
+
+

t t t s
A
t t t s A
t t s t v
c m
c
c c m c
c SC DSB
2 cos cos ) (
2
cos cos ) (
cos ) ( ) (
Output of LPF
t t s
A
t v
m
c
o
cos ) (
2
) (
Thus, the recovered baseband information signal will vary
sinusoidal according to cos t

This problem can be overcome by adding an extra
synchronization circuitry which is required to detect and
t and by providing the carrier signal to the receiver.
A synchronizer is introduced to curb the synchronization
problem exhibited in a coherent system.
Let the baseband signal be
t A t s
m m m
cos ) (
t t s A t s
c m c
cos ) ( ) (

( )
2
PLL BPF 2
SYNCHRONISER
Mathematical analysis of the synchronizer is shown below:
[ ][ ]
[ ]
( ) ( )
1
]
1

+ + + + +
+ + +
+ +

t t t t
A A
t t t t
A A
t t
A A
t t A A t s
m c m c c m
m c
c m c m
m c
c m
m c
c m m c

2 cos
2
1
2 cos
2
1
2 cos 2 cos 1
4
2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 1
4
2 cos 1 2 cos 1
4
cos cos ) (
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
Output of BPF
t
A A
c
m c
2 cos
4
2 2

Output of frequency divider
t k
c
cos
where k is a constant of proportionality.
DISADVANTAGE OF USING COHERENT SYSTEMS

The frequency and phase of the local oscillator signal must

be very precise which is very difficult to achieve.
It requires additional circuitry such as synchronizer circuit
and hence the cost is higher.

Single-Sideband Modulation
How to generate SSB signal?

Band-pass filter to pass only one of the sideband

and suppress the other.
For the generation of an SSB modulated signal
to be possible, the message spectrum must have
an energy gap centered at the origin.
Single Side Band Modulation (SSB)

Example of signal with -300 Hz ~ 300 Hz energy gap

Voice : A band of 300 to 3100 Hz gives good articulation

Vestigial Sideband Modulation

Instead of transmitting only one sideband as SSB, VSB
modulation transmits a partially suppressed sideband and a
vestige of the other sideband.
Vestigial Side Band Modulation (VSB)

Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods

Full AM (or DSB-LC)
-
Sidebands are transmitted in full with the carrier.
-
Simple to demodulate / detect
-
Poor power efficiency
-
Wide bandwidth ( twice the bandwidth of the information
signal)
-
Used in commercial AM radio broadcasting, one transmitter
Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods

DSB-SC
-
Less transmitted power than full AM and all the transmitted
power is useful.
-
Requires a coherent carrier at the receiver; This results in
increased complexity in the detector(i.e. synchroniser)
-
Suited for point to point communication involving one
transmitter and one receiver which would justify the use of
Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods

SSB
-
Good bandwidth utilization (message signal bandwidth =
modulated signal bandwidth)
-
Good power efficiency
-
Demodulation is harder as compares to full AM; Exact filter
design and coherent demodulation are required
-
Preferred in long distance transmission of voice signals
Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods

VSB
-
Offers a compromise between SSB and DSB-SC
-
VSB is standard for transmission of TV and similar signals
-
Bandwidth saving can be significant if modulating signals
are of large bandwidth as in TV and wide band data signals.

For example with TV the bandwidth of the modulating

signal can extend up to 5.5MHz; with full AM the
bandwidth required is 11MHz
Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods