Ir Prof Dr J Chiang
Outline
Definitions
Punching shear problem
Code provisions: BS8110 & EC 2
Analysis procedures
Design preliminaries
Design procedures
Yield line method
Definitions
In BS8110 cl 1.3.2.1: a slab with or without
drops, supported generally without beams
and columns with or without column heads.
Next slide shows various types of RC flat slabs
commonly designed and built.
Diagrams of types of flat slabs
Flat slab with drop
panel and capital
Flat plate (with no drops, etc)
c.f. conventional beamslab design
Other possible flat slab
arrangements
Waffle slab
Band beam slab
Flat slab plan and elevation
Typical layout and
sectional view
As built RC flat plate
Refer to photograph
Note absence of beams
What is punching shear failure?
Punching shear is a type of twoway shear,
often found in flat slabs or pad footings.
Members which fail due to punching are often
examined at regions near to the columns, with
a pyramidlike diagonal crack occurring at the
distance surrounding the column.
This type of failure is catastrophic because it
gives no warning or visible signs prior to
occurrence of the failure.
Punching shear effect
Refer to diagram below
Incidents of punching shear failure
A catastrophic structural failure happened in June 1995, where a five
storey Sampoong department store in South Korea collapsed due to
punching shear failure. The disaster has killed 500 people, leaving almost
1000 others injured.
Code provisions for RC flat slabs  1
BS8110 cl 3.7.1 refers:
(1) Ratio of longer to shorter span < 2
(2) Design moments by equiv frame, simplified
or finite element methods
(3) Effective dimension of column head is
specified, where column head is shown in next
few slides ahead
(4) Effective diameter of column is specified,
again discussed in next few slides
Code provisions for RC flat slabs  2
(5) Use of drop panels influence moment
distribution, i.e. smaller dimension of drop
smaller panel dimension
(6) Panel thickness is generally controlled by
deflection, where thickness > 125 mm
Arrangement for column head
Where necessary a thickening (in width and
depth) around the column support is allowed
for to mitigate punching shear effect.
Column head dimensions
l
h
= effective dimension of column head
l
c
= column dimension (along direction of l
h
)
l
ho
= actual dimension of column head
l
h
= lesser of l
c
or l
h max
= l
c
+ 2(d
h
40)
Considerations for punching shear
locations in a flat slab
Analysis of loads on flat slab
Sufficient to use ULS loads, 1.4G + 1.6Q on all
spans.
Two methods are specified in BS8110:
(1) Frame analysis method
(2) Simplified method
Both methods require the division of strips on
the panel along column and middle strips.
Column and middle strips for
analysis 1
The floor
plan is
divided into
column
strips and
middle
strips
Column and middle strips for
analysis 2
Red outline
= column
strips
Blue outline
= middle
strips
Column and middle strips for
analysis 3
Blue outline
= middle
strips
Frame analysis method flat slab
Table 3.12 (BS 8110) refers internal panels:
Note: F = total design load on slab strip,
between column supports
l = full panel length in span direction
At first interior support Middle of interior span Interior supports
Moment 0.086 Fl +0.063 Fl 0.063 Fl
Shear 0.6F 0.5F
Simplified method
Table 3.18 (BS8119) refers moment distribution:
Some conditions apply:
Only one single load case, i.e. 1.4G + 1.6Q
At least three rows of panels approx of equal span
Moments prescribed in Table 3.12 be reduced by 0.15Fh
c
, where h
c
=
effective diameter of column head
Distribution between column and middle strip as percentage
of total negative or positive moments
Column strip Middle strip
Negative 75% 25%
Positive 55% 45%
Punching shear perimeter
As defined in BS8110
Perimeter another interpretation
Shear forces & resistance 1
Design effective shear force, at punching shear
perimeter around column:
where V
t
= design shear transferred to column
Checks for shear resistance (Table 5.1 BS8110):
At face of column:
At perimeter 1.5d from column face:
t eff
V V 15 . 1 =
2
max
/ 5 8 . 0 mm N or f
d u
V
cu
o
eff
s = v
m
s
c
eff
d bd
A
ud
V
v v /
400 100
79 . 0
4
1
3
1
(
(

.

\


.

\

= < =
Shear forces & resistance 2
Conditions applied and terms used:
v
c
= design concrete shear stress (i.e shear capacity)
A
s
= area of bottom tension steel reinforcement along mid
span of column strip
m
= partial safety factor for material = 1.25
f
cu
= concrete grade for compressive strength (N/mm
2
)
If is ok, then
no shear reinforcement is required.
m
cu s
c
eff
f
d bd
A
ud
V
v v /
25
400 100
79 . 0
3
1
4
1
3
1
(
(

.

\


.

\


.

\

= < =
1
400
; 3
100
/ 40 , / 25
25
2 2
3
1
> s
< >

.

\

d bd
A
and
mm N f but mm N f if
f
s
cu cu
cu
c
v
Case for shear reinforcement
When then
shear reinforcement is required to resist punching shear.
The shear reinforcement located within the checked shear
perimeter is given by
where,
o = angle between shear reinforcement and plane of slab
u = length of outer perimeter of the zone
EA
sv
= total area of shear reinforcement (in mm
2
)
m
cu s
c
eff
f
d bd
A
ud
V
v v /
25
400 100
79 . 0
3
1
4
1
3
1
(
(

.

\


.

\


.

\

= > =
( )
( )
2
/ 460 ,
95 . 0
4 . 0
sin
2 6 . 1
95 . 0
7 . 0 5
sin
6 . 1
95 . 0
sin
mm N f and
f
ud
A
case either in
where
f
ud
A
or where
f
ud
A
yv
yv
sv
c
yv
c
sv
c
yv
c
sv
s >
s <
>
s
>
o
v v
v v
o
v v
v v
o
Provision of shear reinforcement
Successive perimeters for punching
shear check
Plan of slab around
a concentrated
load showing
successive
perimeters for
punching shear
check, e.g.
( )
( )
( ) d b a U
d b a U
d b a U
12 2
9 2
6 2
3
2
1
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
Typical arrangement of shear
reinforcement
Distribution of shear reinforcement
In three successive perimeters around loaded area (or column support)
Worked example 1
Worked example 1 solution p1
Worked example 1 solution p2
Capacity of slab to take punching shear is ok
Worked example 2
Worked example 2 solution p1
Worked example 2 solution p2
Worked example 2 solution p3
Worked example 2 solution p4
Worked example 2 solution p5
Worked example 2 solution p6
Plan view of
punching shear steel
reinforcement layout
Worked example 3 1
Worked example 3 2
Worked example 3 3
Worked example 3 4
Worked example 3 Solution p1
Worked example 3 Solution p2
Worked example 3 Solution p3
Worked example 3 Solution p4
Worked example 3 Solution p5
Worked example 3 Solution p6
Worked example 3 Solution p7
Worked example 3 Solution p8
Worked example 3 Solution p9
Worked example 3 Solution p10
Worked example 3 Solution p11
Worked example 3 Solution p12
Worked example 3 Solution p13
Design flat slab to Eurocode 2
Using Eurocode 2 for the analysis of flat slabs is
similar to using BS 8110. The following methods may
be used:
Equivalent frame method
Finite element analysis
Yield line analysis
Grillage analogy
The Eurocode gives further advice on the equivalent
frame method in Annex I and designers used to BS
8110 will find this very familiar.
Difference in EC 2 concrete grade
The Eurocode gives recommendations for the
design of concrete up to class C90/105.
However, for concrete strength greater than
class C50/60, the stress block is modified.
It is important to note that concrete strength
is based on the cylinder strength and not the
cube strength (i.e. for class C28/35 the
cylinder strength is 28 MPa, whereas the cube
strength is 35 MPa).
BM coeffs for flat slabs in EC 2
End support/slab connection
First
interior
support
Interior
spans
Interior
supports
Pinned Continuous
End
support
End
span
End
support
End
span
Moment 0 0.086Fl 0.04Fl 0.075Fl 0.086Fl 0.063Fl 0.063Fl
Notes
1 Applicable to slabs where the area of each bay exceeds 30 m
2
,
Q
k
, 1.25 G
k
and q
k
5 kN/m
2
2 F is the total design ultimate load, l is the effective span
3 Minimum span > 0.85 longest span, minimum 3 spans
4Based on 20% redistribution at supports and no decrease in span
moments
Punching shear resistance (w/o
shear reinforcement)
Table 8
v
Rd,c
resistance of members without shear reinforcement, MPa
Table derived from: where
For f
ck
= 30 N/mm
2
l
Effective depth, d (mm)
s200 225 250 275 300 350 400 450 500 600 750
0.25% 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.38 0.36
0.50% 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.45
0.75% 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.53 0.51
1.00% 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.59 0.57
1.25% 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.61
1.50% 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.70 0.67 0.65
1.75% 0.90 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.68
>2.00% 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.77 0.74 0.71
k 2.000 1.943 1.894 1.853 1.816 1.756 1.707 1.667 1.632 1.577 1.516
( )
ck ck c Rd
f k f k
5 . 1
3
1
1 ,
035 . 0 100 12 . 0 > = v
02 . 0 ; 2 / 200 1
1
s + = s + =
lz ly
d k
bd A bd A
sz lz sy ly
/ , / = =
Basic control perimeter for
punching shear in EC 2
u
1
= basic control perimeter
Control perimeters at a distance less than 2d should be
considered where the concentrated force is opposed by a high
distributed pressure (e.g. soil pressure on a base), or by the
effects of a load or reaction within a distance 2d of the
periphery of area of application of the force.
2d
u
1
u
1
2d
b
z
b
y
2d
2d
u
1
Control perimeter near an opening
For loaded areas situated near openings, if the shortest distance between the
perimeter of the loaded area and the edge of the opening does not exceed 6d,
that part of the control perimeter contained between two tangents drawn to the
outline of the opening from the centre of the loaded area is considered to be
ineffective
l
2
2d
 opening A
s 6d
l
1
s l
2
s 6d
\(l
2
l
1
)
l
1
> l
2
A
A
B
B
 ineffective control perimeter B
Control perimeters for loaded
areas close to or at edge or corner
For loaded areas situated near or on an edge
or corner, i.e. at a distance smaller than d,
special edge reinforcement should always be
provided.
u
1
2d
2d
u
1
2d
2d
u
1
2d
2d
Slab with enlarged column head
where I
H
< 2.0 h
H
A
u = arctan ()
= 26.6
u
c
I
H
< 2.0 h
H
d
u
r
cont
h
H
r
cont
u
u
I
H
< 2.0 h
H
h
H
B
B  loaded area A
load
A  basic control section
Slab with enlarged column head
where I
H
> 2(d + h
H
)
A
u = arctan ()
= 26.6
u
c
I
H
> 2(d + h
H
)
d
u
r
cont,int
h
H
r
cont,int
u
u
I
H
> 2(d + h
H
)
h
H
B
B  loaded area A
load
A  basic control sections
for circular columns
d
H
d
H
r
cont,ext
r
cont,ext
d
Shear distribution
due to an unbalanced moment at a slab
internal column connection
c
1
c
2
2d
2d
s 0.5
1.0
2.0
> 3.0
k 0.45 0.60 0.70 0.80
2
1
c
c
2
1
c
c
Punching shear formula  1
The design punching shear stress is given by:
( ) ( )
cp min cp
3
1
ck l c Rd, c Rd,
10 0 10 0 100 o v o v . . f k C + > + =
f
ck
is the concrete characteristic compressive strength in MPa.
k
a value given by:
l
is the steel ratio for longitudinal reinforcement given by:
ly
,
lz
relate to the bonded tension steel in y and zdirections respectively. The values
ly
and
lz
should be
calculated as mean values taking into account a slab width equal to the column width plus 3d each side.
o
cp
compressive stress in the concrete from axial load or prestressing, and it is given as:
o
cp
= (o
cy
+ o
cz
)
where
o
cy
, o
cz
are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in y and zdirections (in
MPa), positive if compression:
N
Edy
, N
Edz
are the longitudinal forces across the full bay for internal columns and the
longitudinal force across the control section for edge columns. The force may be
from a load or prestressing action.
A
c
is the area of concrete according to the definition of N
Ed
Punching shear formula  2
Where shear reinforcement is required:
o v v sin
1
5 1 75 0
1
ef ywd, sw
r
c Rd, cs Rd,


.

\



.

\

+ =
d u
f A
s
d
. .
A
sw
is the area of one perimeter of shear reinforcement around the
column.
s
r
is the radial spacing of perimeters of shear reinforcement.
f
ywd,ef
is the effective design strength of the punching shear
reinforcement according to:
f
ywd,ef
= 250 + 0.25d s f
ywd
(MPa)
d is the mean of the effective depths in the orthogonal directions
(mm).
o the angle between the shear reinforcement and the plane of the
slab.