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April 3, 2012

April 3, 2012

Directional drilling ?
Application ? Benefit ? Type ? Method ?

April 3, 2012

Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) has emerged as a preferred crossing method in many situations for the installation of oil and gas pipelines as well as other utilities under watercourses, roads, rail lines, steep slopes and other obstacles.

April 3, 2012

Industry Technological Milestones


1883: Anticlinal theory (where to drill)

1914: Seismograph invented (remote sensing)


1920s: Introduction of rotary drilling (well control, environment) Start of waterflooding (improved recovery) 1924: First electrical well logging (formation evaluation) 1930s: Offshore drilling (access to prospective areas)

1960s: Digital computers (data manipulation)


1970s: Directional drilling 1980s: 3D seismic (enhanced imaging)

April 3, 2012

Directional drilling ?
Application ? Benefit ? Type ? Method ?

April 3, 2012

Applications Directional Drilling

Sidetracks
One of the primary uses of directional drilling was to sidetrack a well even if it was to go around a stuck BHA

April 3, 2012

April 3, 2012

Multiple sidetracks
Sometimes multiple sidetracks are used to better understand geology or to place the wellbore in a more favorable portion of the reservoir

Spacing considerations
Straight hole drilling is a special application of directional drilling To keep from crossing lease lines To stay within the specifications of a drilling contract To stay within the well spacing requirements of a developed field

April 3, 2012

Multiple wells from single structure or pad


Drilling multiple wells from a single structure or pad

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Most offshore development would not be possible without directional drilling

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Inaccessible surface location


Inaccessible location surface

Drilling in towns, from land to offshore and under production facilities

Drilling around salt domes


Drilling around salt domes Salt can cause significant drilling problems and directional drilling can be used to drill under the overhanging cap

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April 3, 2012

Steeply dipped sands


Steeply dipping sands can be drilled with a single wellbore

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Fault drilling
Fault drilling In hard rock, deviation can be a problem Sometimes the bit can track a fault Drilling at a higher incident angle minimizes the potential for deflection of the bit

Relief well drilling


Relief well drilling Directional drilling into the blowout when the surface location is no longer accessible Very small target and takes specialized equipment

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Horizontal wells
Horizontal drilling Increasing exposure of the reservoir to increase productivity

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March 22, 2012

Directional drilling ?
Application ? Benefit ? Type ? Method ?

Why Drill Horizontal Wells?

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Increase Reserves
Increase Production Rates Control Water Production Control Gas Production

Why Drill Horizontal Wells?

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Control Sand Production

Produce From Thin Reservoirs


Connect Vertical Fractures Produce Methane from Coal Seams Increase Injectivity - (steam, water, polymers, etc.)
Control Sand Production

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April 3, 2012

Directional drilling ?
Application ? Benefit ? Type ? Method ?

Types of Directional Wells


Type 1: Build and Hold -this pattern employs a shallow initial deflection and a straight-angle approach to the target. Its used to reach single targets at moderate depths, and sometimes for drilling deeper wells with large horizontal departures. Type 2: Build, Hold and Drop -- after a relatively shallow deflection, this pattern holds angle until the well has reached most of its required horizontal displacement. This pattern is most applicable to wells

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April 3, 2012

Types of Directional Wells


Type 3: Continuous Build -unlike the Type 1 and 2 patterns, this trajectory has a relatively deep initial deflection, after which angle is maintained to the target. The continuous build pattern is well-suited to saltdome drilling, fault drilling, sidetrack sand redrills. Type 4: Build, Hold and Build -- this is the general pattern describing horizontal wells. The decision to drill horizontally is primarily based on reservoir engineering and

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Type I
KOP EOC

Type II

Type III

Build and Hold

Build-Hold and Drop

Continuous Build

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Directional drilling ?
Application ? Benefit ? Type ? Method ?

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April 3, 2012

Long Radius (~1,000-3,000 ft) {~2-6 deg/100 ft}

Medium Radius (140~700 ft) {~8-40 deg/100 ft}

Short Radius (~20-40 ft) {~1.5-3 deg/ft}

<1,000 ft

~5,000 ft

~8,000 ft

Long - Radius Wells

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Used for achieving large horizontal displacements from platforms or drilling pads Used for achieving very long horizontal sections (to 6,000 ft +) Build Rate Build Radius Length of Horiz. Section : ~ 2-6 degrees/100 ft : ~ 1,000-3,000 ft : 1,000 - 8,000 ft (1995)

Meth od:

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Use conventional technology

directional

drilling

Use rigid bottom hole assemblies, motors dan bentsubs, stabilizers or Use Navigation drilling systems with steerable drilling motors

Medium Radius Wells

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Build Rate : ~ 8 - 20 degrees/100 ft (up to 40 deg/100 ft in some cases) Build Radius : ~ 300 - 700 ft

Length of Horiz. Section : 6,000 ft

1,000-

Meth od:

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Use modified long-radius drilling technology

Use different motors for Angle Build and Angle Hold sections
Use a Tangent Section between the two build sections Use compressive service drillpipe through the curve if Build Rate > 15 deg./100 ft (CS drillpipe has integral wear knots every ~ 10 ft)

Short-Radius Wells

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Build Rate Build Radius

: ~ 1 - 3 degrees/ft : ~ 20 - 40 ft

Length of Horiz. Section

: 200 - 1,000 ft

Metho d:

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Two downhole motor designs are available

Drill vertical rathole to identify horizon


Build angle with special curve-drilling assembly with a non-rotating shell that gives curvature to the tool

After building angle to horizontal, use a special angle-hold assembly: this consists of two undergauge stabilizers behind the bit,

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May 15, 2012

Summary
Horizontal wells are often very attractive in formations with extensive vertical fractures Horizontal wells has increased our recoverable reserves.
Horizontal wells may produce at 3-5 times the rate of vertical wells in the same area ( as much as 20 times higher in special cases).

Horizontal wells typically cost 1.5-3 times as much as vertical wells in the