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Why should we care

about Human Factors in UGDC?

Because it will improve performance while cutting costs, errors and incidents.

Human Factors
It means designing or modifying the way UGDC does business to fit the characteristics and abilities of our people. By using Human Factors to adjust tasks, training, equipment, processes and the work environment, UGDC will improve productivity, cut costs and enhance health, safety and environmental performance. Human Factors?

What does UGDC mean by Human Factors?

Human Factors focuses on people and their interaction with other people and with our plant and processes. People the right number of competent people Plant plant that can be used safely and reliably Process risks from human failure controlled
Human Factors is about taking proper account of peoples characteristics and abilities including their attitudes and likely behaviour when designing or modifying tasks, procedures, equipment, processes, operations and work environments. Human Factors and Ergonomics are just

two different terms for the same subject.

Its all about managing the human element of risk.


Why do people fail?

People have inherent strengths and weaknesses which can affect their performance. Everyone is likely to fail at something at some time in their life. Human performance, however, is heavily influenced by factors both internal and external to the individual. For example: fatigue

Human errors and noncompliances are how people cause accidents.

Errors are unintentional actions or inactions that deviate from what would have been expected. For example, an operator approaches a console with the intent to press button A but becomes distracted and presses button B by mistake. Non-compliances, also called violations, are intentional actions or inactions that are not in conformance with agreed rules or procedures. For example, an operator shortcuts a procedure to save time. Sometimes it is not possible to get the job done by following the procedure strictly. For example, during maintenance a technician discovered that the torque wrench they were supposed to use cannot be used in the space available. They used a drilling wrench instead.

distraction poor job design inadequate training incorrect procedures inappropriate equipment.

Evaluating and improving these performance shaping factors is a primary approach for maximising human reliability and for minimising failures.

Importance of Humane Factors

Where in UGDC can Human Factors bring benefits?

Many regulatory authorities now require Major Hazard site operators to address and report on Human Factors issues in their safety case reports. Human factors is a very broad subject but it can be broken up into fourteen areas of concern. There are four human factors areas that every safety case should address. There are ten other human factors areas that should be addressed by MAR sites on a case by case basis.

These are:
1. 2. 3.

These are:

and competence - people are trained and able to deal with process safety issues assessment - human failure sources assessed and managed

4. 5.



investigation failure root causes identified


6. 7. 8. 9.


critical procedures procedures that are available and usable.


Organizational change effective change processes that do not compromise process safety Staffing and workload the right number of people to operate and maintain the asset Safety critical communication effective communication exists within and between shifts and across the Organisation on process safety Shift work and fatigue there is a rested and alert workforce Human Factors in design (including alarm management) - plant and equipment can be used safely and reliably Safety culture there exists a shared belief that process safety is important Behavioural safety inappropriate behaviors can be modified Safety leadership there is a visible leadership commitment to process safety Workforce involvement the workforce is actively engaged in process safety Maintenance error equipment is reliably maintained.

Implementation & Integration

How can UGDC managers implement Human Factors ?

Who can ensure successful Human Factors integration?






Provide leadership, commitment and participation. Managers drive improved performance wherever they focus their attention. Raise awareness through training, and give people roles and responsibility for Human Factors delivery. Identify gaps and solutions, and use cost/benefit analysis to target effort and measure performance. Management of, and continuous improvement, in the human element of risk should be achieved through UGDC Operating Management System Performance Improvement Cycle.

2. 3.


The best solutions are usually developed by those closest to the problem. Involve your workforce, for example, in procedure development, in risk assessment, and in incident investigation. Appoint Human Factors champions and set up a working group. Make sure your teams understand Human Factors and the benefits it can deliver. Ask UGDC Human Factors specialists for support.

when has Human Factors delivered benefits?

The benefits of human factors can be understood by anyone who has had to complete a task using badly designed tools and procedures.
Operations: During routine ship loading, an experienced employee connected a product output pipeline to a ballast intake valve. It was a very expensive mistake. Everyone expected the operator to lose his job. A human factors analysis identified that the conformation of ballast and product intake valves was so inconsistent that it was very surprising more mistakes had not been made. As a result, the loading equipment arrangement, working procedures and conditions were reviewed and adjusted. Knowledge was shared with other sites to prevent similar mistakes. The operator kept his job.

Tired people make mistakes. Fatigue has been found to impair performance to the same extent as alcohol levels are deemed to impair driving. Traditionally, fatigue was managed by setting and monitoring hours of work limits. But effective fatigue management has to extend beyond this. UGDC businesses are now developing fatigue management programmes that are looking at: Roles and responsibilities Training Risk assessment Risk reduction Health issues Monitoring Incident investigation