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You Gotta Have Heart

The Circulatory System

Engage

Walt Disneys Hemo the Magnificent


Scene 3 The Heart Scene 4 Lubb-Dubb

Explore
How does exercise affect heart rate? Circulatory System Relay Color Your Heart

Hemo the Magnificent


Scene 6 The Capillaries

Circulatory System Consists of


Blood Blood Heart

Vessels

Circulatory System
BLOOD VESSELS

Two Pathways

Pulmonary Circulation
Carries blood to lungs and back

Systemic Circulation
Carries blood to body and back

Capillaries of head and arms

Superior vena cava

Aorta

Pulmonary artery

Pulmonary vein Capillaries of right lung Inferior vena cava Capillaries of left lung

Capillaries of abdominal organs and legs

Your Blood Vessels: Pathway of Circulation

3 types of vessels
Arteries Capillaries Veins

Artery vs. Vein

Arteries: carries blood Away from heart


Large Thick-walled, Muscular Elastic Oxygenated blood
Exception Pulmonary Artery

Carried under great pressure Steady pulsating Arterioles: smaller vessels, enter tissue

Capillaries
Smallest vessel Microscopic Walls one cell thick Nutrients and gases diffuse here

Veins: Carries blood to heart


Carries blood that contains waste and CO2
Exception pulmonary vein

Blood not under much pressure Valves to prevent much gravity pull

Venules: larger than capillaries

Varicose Veins Damaged Valves in Veins

Circulatory System
BLOOD

What is Blood?

Blood Simulation

The Blood
Body contains 4-6 L Consists of

Water Red Blood Cells Plasma White blood cells and platelets

Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells

Whole Blood Sample

Sample Placed in Centrifuge

Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells

Whole Blood Sample

Sample Placed in Centrifuge

Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells

Whole Blood Sample

Sample Placed in Centrifuge

Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

Parts of the Blood

Your Blood: Fluid Transport


Liquid Portion Carries Blood cells Erythrocytes (RBC - red blood cells) Leucocytes (WBC - white blood cells) Platelets (non cellular particles) Proteins
Enzymes Hormones Endocrine System

a Tissue 50% water 4% dissolved substances

Nutrients - Digestive System Gases - Respiratory System Inorganic salts

Oxygen in the Blood


Hemoglobin, iron containing molecule Loosely picks up oxygen in the lungs Loses oxygen in areas low in oxygen (diffuses)

Carbon Dioxide in the Blood


Hemoglobin carries CO2 also CO2 is a waste product of cellular work 70% of CO2 combines with water The rest travels to the lungs

What does blood contain?


50% Water 45% Erythrocytes 4% Plasma with Substances 1% Leukocytes + Platelets

Erythrocytes (RBC)

Transporters of RBC

Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Lack a nucleus Contain hemoglobin Disk-shaped

RBC are produced in red bone marrow of


ribs, humerus, femur, sternum, and other long bones

Lives for 120 days Old RBC are destroyed in liver and spleen

Leukocytes (WBC)

WBC fight infection


Attack foreign substances

Less abundant Large cells Some live for months


Most just a few days

Several types ALL contain nuclei

Platelets
PLATELETS are for CLOTTING blood Cell fragments Produced in bone marrow Short life span (1 week) Fibrin (sticky network of protein fibers)

Form a web trapping blood cells

Blood Clotting

Break in Capillary Wall

Clumping of Platelets

Clot Forms

Blood vessels injured.

Platelets clump at the site and release thromboplastin. Thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin..

Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which causes a clot. The clot prevents further loss of blood..

Circulatory System
HEART

Your Heart: The Vital Pump


At REST, the heart pumps about 5 QUARTS of blood a minute. During EXTREME EXERTION (exercise) it can pump 40 quarts a minute.

Heart: Structure and Function


Keeps blood moving Large organ composed of

cardiac muscle, rich in mitochondria Enclosed by a sac


PERICARDIUM

The Structures of the Heart


Superior Vena Cava Large vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium Pulmonary Veins Bring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium Pulmonary Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle after it has entered the pulmonary artery Right Atrium Tricuspid Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium after it has entered the right ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium Aorta Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body Pulmonary Arteries Bring oxygen-poor blood to the lungs Left Atrium Aortic Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after it has entered the aorta Mitral Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium after it has entered the left ventricle Left Ventricle Septum Right Ventricle

Structure of Heart (cont)

Four chambers Two upper (Atria) Walls thinner Less muscular Two lower (Ventricles) Walls thicker More muscular Do more work

Blood Flow Through the Heart

COPY 1997 HeartPoint

Bloods Path Through the Heart

Both Atria fill at same time


Rt atrium receives oxygen POOR blood from body from vena cava Left atrium receives oxygen RICH blood from lungs through four pulmonary veins

After filled with blood atria contract, pushing blood into ventricle

Both ventricles contract


Right ventricle contracts and pushes oxygen-poor blood toward lungs,
against gravity, through pulmonary arteries

Bloods Path Through the Heart (cont)


Left ventricle contracts and forces oxygen rich blood
out of heart through aorta (largest vessel)

Hemo the Magnificent


Scene 7 Gatekeepers

Control of the Heart (Nervous System)


Medulla oblongata regulates rate Sensory cells stretch when too fast Pressure drops when beat is too low

Heartbeat Regulation

Force of blood from left ventricle into arteries (pulse) Pacemaker (SA Node), group of cells at top of right atrium Electrical impulse, signals BOTH atria to contract Triggers 2nd set of cells (AV Node)-base of the right atrium to send message to ventricles, they contract EkG record of electrical changes in the heart

The Sinoatrial Node


Contraction of Atria Contraction of Ventricles

Sinoatrial (SA) node Conducting fibers

Atrioventricular (AV) node

Blood Pressure

Blood against the blood vessels walls


The systolic pressure refers to
the pressure recorded while the ventricles pump the blood.

The diastolic pressure refers to


the pressure recorded as the ventricles fill with blood.

A normal blood pressure is 120/80

DISORDERS

ATHEROSCLEROSIS
Fatty deposits called plaque Builds up in walls of arteries Obstructs flow Also a risk if clot breaks free and blocks flow elsewhere

Disorders (cont)

Hypertension
High blood pressure Hearts works harder than necessary Increases risk of heart attack or stroke

Disorders (cont)

Heart Attack
Atherosclerosis in coronary artery Heart muscle begins to die
Symptoms
Nausea Shortness of breath Severe chest pain IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION NECESSARY

Disorders (cont)

Stroke
Blood clot gets stuck in blood vessels leading to brain Brain cells die due to lack of oxygen
Or blood vessel burst

Can lead to paralysis,


loss of ability to speak death

Current PREVENTION Recommendations


Regular exercise Weight control Well balanced diet Do not smoke Diet low in saturated fat

Elaboration

Blood Typing: To Clump or Not to Clump?

Blood Types
Massive loss of blood requires a transfusion Four Types

A B AB O

Inherited from your parents

Blood Types

What happens when you mix blood types?


Plasma

contains proteins that correspond to the shape of the different antigens If you mix one type with the wrong one, you get CLUMPING
Type O is the universal donor Type AB is the universal acceptor

What Makes Our Blood Type?

Blood Transfusions

Blood Type of Donor A B AB O

Blood Type of Recipient

AB

Unsuccessful transfusion

Successful transfusion

Rh Factor

Rhesus factor (Rh), also inherited


Rh+ (have antigen) Rh- (NO antigen)

Can cause complications in pregnancies


mother Rh- 1st baby Rh+ : blood mixes with mother; mothers body makes anti-Rh+ antibodies 2nd Rh + body attacks baby Now have medicine to prevent antibody formation