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AHRC Research Centre for Music as Creative Practice

Workshop 10-11 March 2010

Shaping music in performance: Structure, memory and shape


Dr Jane Ginsborg
Centre for Music Performance Research, RNCM

Outline of talk
Shape: some definitions Memory expertise and structure Effective memorising of music advice and experiments Shared performance cues: understanding of compositional structure; effects on recall Beating time Shaping contour: bodily movement Summary and conclusion: mental representations revisited

Shape: some definitions


A particular kind of mental representation Questionnaire survey on Music and Shape seeks expert musicians reports on representations evoked by the word shape For me as a performer = structure Also contour (of pitch and dynamic NB often associated cf Schumanns Mondnacht)

pp

Memory expertise and structure


Method of loci: Cicero De Oratore (55 BC) Simonides (556-468 BC) Theatre of memory birth of mnemonics

1. Relies on representation of table, theatre, house etc., and ability to walk round it

Memory expertise
Ericsson, Chase & Faloon (1980) Extended normal digitspan by utilising knowledge of running times to make associations e.g. 3492 = 3 minutes and 49.2 seconds, near worldrecord mile time

Effective memorising of music


Cognitive analysis - identifying key changes, harmonic structure, length of rests, difficult exit points (Hallam, 1997 interviews) Use of compositional structure To guide practice (Chaffin & Imreh, 1997) As retrieval scheme to perform from memory (Taylor et al., 1999) Longitudinal case study method (Chaffin et al., 2002) Impossible without information in LTM re sections, phrases, sub-phrases etc.

Advice: analyse before learning


Edwin Hughes (1915). Musical memory in piano playing and piano study. The Musical Quarterly, 1, 592-603

Tobias Matthay (1926). On Memorizing and Playing from Memory. Oxford University Press

Experiments
Benefits of analysis (Rubin-Rabson, 1937; Ross, 1964) Use of structural boundaries to guide practice: more so in skilled pianists; developed over course of practice sessions (Williamon & Valentine, 2002) singers (Ginsborg, 2002)

Development of shared performance cues


Ginsborg, Chaffin & Nicholson (2006a) Singers and conductors understanding of compositional structure Ricercar 1 from Stravinskys Cantata

Longitudinal case study method


Chaffin, Imreh & Crawford (2002) (and many other papers since 1994) One pianist 33 hours practice / memorisation of Bachs Italian Concerto one performance (a commercial CD) Written-out free recall of first page two years later

More recent case studies


Jazz pianist (Noice, Jeffrey, Noice & Chaffin, 2008) 45 minutes preparation and one performance Cellist (Chaffin, Lisboa, Logan & Begosh, 2009) also Bach 33 hours preparation, multiple performances, free and cued recall Students http://www.htfdcc.uconn.edu/psyclabs/musiclab.html http://www.htfdcc.uconn.edu/psyclabs/SYMP.html

The opportunity
Projected performance of Stravinskys Cantata for soprano and tenor soloists, small instrumental ensemble and womens choir in December 2003 at Firth Hall, Sheffield Ricercar 1 for solo soprano and instrumental ensemble Conductor / rehearsal pianist: George Nicholson Soprano soloist: me

Theoretical framework
Performer attends to important features of the music while practising / rehearsing (basic, structural, interpretive, expressive) Some of these stop being perceived as important Others are attended to automatically The remainder are retained as retrieval or performance cues landmarks in the performers mental representation of the piece when performing from memory Converging evidence that attention to features that become performance cues determines what is practised and subsequently, what is forgotten

Shared performance cues Procedure (1)


Video-record all individual practice sessions, joint rehearsals (ten in all lasting 8 hours) and performance THEN determine transcription and analysis methods (to avoid demand characteristics) Give performance Post-performance reports: indicate musical features and PCs on multiple copies of score Calculate start-and-stop beats for every practice segment

Shared performance cues Procedure (1)


Video-record all individual practice sessions, joint rehearsals (ten in all lasting 8 hours) and performance THEN determine transcription and analysis methods (to avoid demand characteristics) Give performance Post-performance reports: indicate musical features and PCs on multiple copies of score Calculate start-and-stop beats for every practice segment

Shared performance cues - original

shiny sound

Count/listen

yearning

dancing

Count/listen

Count

Tidied up (beats 92-129): expressive and prepare PCs

Shared performance cues Procedure (1)


Video-record all individual practice sessions, joint rehearsals (ten in all lasting 8 hours) and performance THEN determine transcription and analysis methods (to avoid demand characteristics) Give performance Post-performance reports: indicate musical features and PCs on multiple copies of score Calculate start-and-stop beats for every practice segment

Starts, stops and repetitions


Ginsborg, J., Chaffin, R. and Nicholson, G. (2006b). Shared performance cues: Predictors of expert individual practice and ensemble rehearsal. In M. Baroni et al. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Bologna, Aug 22-26, 2006.

Practice in Session 1 (black = from memory, grey = score open)

Shared performance cues Procedure (2)


Transcribe and analyse verbal data Analyse behavioural data: relate post-performance reports to practice using mixed hierarchical regression analyses Make and analyse written-out free recalls for six years post-performance

Shared performance cues Procedure (2)


Transcribe and analyse verbal data Analyse behavioural data: relate post-performance reports to practice using mixed hierarchical regression analyses Make and analyse written-out free recalls for six years post-performance

Singer Section 1 Verse 1: The maidens came when I was in my mothers bower / I had all that I wolde Refrain 1: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay Verse 2: The silver is whit, red is the golde The robes thay lay in folde Refrain 2: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay Verse 3: And through the glass window shines the sone How should I love, how should I love, and I so young? Refrain 3: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay

Conductor

Verse 1: The maidens came when I was in my mothers bower / I had all that I wolde
Refrain 1: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay The silver is whit, red is the golde The robes thay lay in folde The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay Verse 2: And through the glass window shines the sone Verse 2a: How should I love, how should I love, and I so young? Refrain 2: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay

Verse 4: For to report it were now tedius


Section 2: Recitative / fanfare: Right mighty and famus Elizabeth, Our quen princis, Preportent and eke victorius, Section 3: Prayer [first phrase is transitional] Vertuos and bening, Lett us, lett us pray all

Verse 3: For to report it were now tedius


Recitative: Right mighty and famus Elizabeth, Our quen princis, Preportent and eke victorius, Coda [change of direction in text at Lett us]: Vertuos and bening, Lett us, lett us pray all

Singer Section 1 Verse 1: The maidens came when I was in my mothers bower / I had all that I wolde Refrain 1: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay Verse 2: The silver is whit, red is the golde The robes thay lay in folde Refrain 2: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay Verse 3: And through the glass window shines the sone How should I love, how should I love, and I so young? Refrain 3: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay

Conductor

Verse 1: The maidens came when I was in my mothers bower / I had all that I wolde
Refrain 1: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay The silver is whit, red is the golde The robes thay lay in folde The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay Verse 2: And through the glass window shines the sone Verse 2a: How should I love, how should I love, and I so young? Refrain 2: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay

Verse 4: For to report it were now tedius


Section 2: Recitative / fanfare: Right mighty and famus Elizabeth, Our quen princis, Preportent and eke victorius, Section 3: Prayer [first phrase is transitional] Vertuos and bening, Lett us, lett us pray all

Verse 3: For to report it were now tedius


Recitative: Right mighty and famus Elizabeth, Our quen princis, Preportent and eke victorius, Coda [change of direction in text at Lett us]: Vertuos and bening, Lett us, lett us pray all

Content analysis of talk


Ginsborg, J., Chaffin, R. and Nicholson, G. (2006a). Shared performance cues in singing and conducting: a content analysis of talk during practice. Psychology of Music, 34 (3), 167-194.

Shared performance cues Procedure (2)


Transcribe and analyse verbal data Analyse behavioural data: relate post-performance reports to practice using mixed hierarchical regression analyses Make and analyse written-out free recalls for six years post-performance

Features (locations)
Structural start of section (9), switch (7), start of phrase (29) Basic prepare (count, listen, think, watch) (35), pronunciation of words (25), technical / breath (45) Interpretive meaning of words (29), dynamics / tempo (9) Expressive (15)

Performance cues (locations)


Individual PCs Basic prepare PC (20) , technical / breath PC (14) Interpretive stress on words PC (pronunciation + meaning) (28) Expressive PC (12) Shared PCs Basic score SPC (cue entry, co-ordinate rhythm, cadence) (11) , arrival/off SPC (8) Expressive expressive SPC (5)

Start section

Start phrase

Relating reports to practice in Session 3

Type

Predictor variable

STARTS positive effects


Structural Start of section Start of phrase Basic Interpretive Expressive PC Basic SPC STOPS Structural Basic SPC Start of phrase PC Arrival/off SPC Score SPC REPETITIONS Structural Basic PC Start of phrase Prepare PC 5.184*** -3.674**** -3.497*** 15.468*** 3.509*** Prepare Dynamics/Tempo Expressive PC Score SPC 7.199*** 11.378*** 4.763*** 5.023*** -2.641* -3.266**

Type

Predictor variable

STARTS positive effects


Structural Start of section Start of phrase Basic Interpretive Expressive PC Basic SPC STOPS positive effects Structural Basic SPC Start of phrase PC Arrival/off SPC Score SPC REPETITIONS positive effects Structural Basic PC Start of phrase Prepare PC 5.184*** -3.674**** -3.497*** 15.468*** 3.509*** Prepare Dynamics/Tempo Expressive PC Score SPC 7.199*** 11.378*** 4.763*** 5.023*** -2.641* -3.266**

Type

Predictor variable

STARTS negative effects (without discussion or in context)


Structural Start of section Start of phrase Basic Interpretive Expressive PC Basic SPC Prepare Dynamics/Tempo Expressive PC Score SPC 7.199*** 11.378*** 4.763*** 5.023*** -2.641* -3.266**

STOPS negative effects Structural Basic SPC Start of phrase PC Arrival/off SPC Score SPC REPETITIONS negative effects Structural Basic PC Start of phrase Prepare PC 5.184*** -3.674**** -3.497*** 15.468*** 3.509***

Shared performance cues Procedure (2)


Transcribe and analyse verbal data Analyse behavioural data: relate post-performance reports to practice using mixed hierarchical regression analyses Make and analyse written-out free recalls for six years post-performance

Very long term recall for words and music


Ginsborg, J. and Chaffin, R. (2009). Very long term memory for words and music: an expert singers written and sung recall over six years. In K. Stevens et al. (Eds), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Music Communication Science (ICoMCS2). University of Western Sydney.

Results (1): Accurate recall (%)


100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 FR0 Dec 03 FR1 Feb 05 FR2 Jun FR3 Aug FR4 June FR5 Nov FR6 Nov FR7 July FR8 July 05 06 07 07 08 09 SUNG 09 SUNG (U) (A)

FR0 to 2 (Dec 03, Feb 05, June 05)


1 0.75 0.5

0.25

0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241

0.75

0.5

0.25

0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241

0.75

0.5

0.25

0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241

FR3 to 5 (Aug 06, Jun 07, Nov 07)


1 0.75 0.5

0.25

0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241

0.75

0.5

0.25

0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241

0.75

0.5

0.25

0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241

FR6 to 8 (Nov 08, Jul 09, Jul 09)


1 0.75 0.5

0.25

0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241

0.75

0.5

0.25

Sung without accompaniment


1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241

0.75

0.5

0.25

Sung with accompaniment


1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241

Very long-term recall


Table 3: Effects of predictor variables on recall showing effects across sessions
Type
Structural Interpretive PC Basic PC Interpretive

Predictor variable
Start of section Stress on words Prepare Dynamics/Tempo

Estimate
-0.038 -0.034 0.017 1.606

Standard Error
0.008 0.009 0.009 0.320

Z
-5.02*** -3.835*** 1.98* 5.023***

*** p < .0001, **p < .001, *p < .01

Ginsborg, J. and Chaffin, R. [forthcoming 2010]. Performance cues in singing and conducting: evidence from practice and recall. In I. Delige and J. Davidson (Eds), Music and the Mind: Investigating the functions and processes of music (a book in honour of John Sloboda). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Different roles of singer and conductor


Singer: serial chaining vs content addressability as back-up (Happy birthday) Conductor: the bigger picture declarative, semantic memory

Train signalling: block system

Centralized traffic control

Singer Section 1 Verse 1: The maidens came when I was in my mothers bower / I had all that I wolde Refrain 1: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay Verse 2: The silver is whit, red is the golde The robes thay lay in folde Refrain 2: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay Verse 3: And through the glass window shines the sone / How should I love, how should I love, and I so young? Refrain 3: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay

Conductor

Verse 1: The maidens came when I was in my mothers bower / I had all that I wolde
Refrain 1: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay The silver is whit, red is the golde The robes thay lay in folde The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay Verse 2: And through the glass window shines the sone Verse 2a: How should I love, how should I love, and I so young? Refrain 2: The baily berith the bell away The lilly, the rose, the rose I lay

Verse 4: For to report it were now tedius


Section 2: Recitative / fanfare: Right mighty and famus Elizabeth, Our quen princis, Preportent and eke victorius, Section 3: Prayer [first phrase is transitional] Vertuos and bening, Lett us, lett us pray all

Verse 3: For to report it were now tedius


Recitative: Right mighty and famus Elizabeth, Our quen princis, Preportent and eke victorius, Coda [change of direction in text at Lett us]: Vertuos and bening, Lett us, lett us pray all

Beating time
Aim: to investigate associations between singers practice and rehearsal behaviour (start-beats, stop-beats and repetitions) with different kinds of movement pulsing, conducting and gesturing, and no movement (NB independent judge) and musical features/performance cues Method: as before but with multiple rather than mixed hierarchical regression analysis

Sessions 1 and 2 (individual: learning): pulse beating, conducting

Session 3 (individual, memorising): conducting

Sessions 5 (individual, memorising) and 6 (joint): pulse beating, conducting, no movement

Session 8 (individual): conducting, gesture

Sessions 9, 12 and 15 (joint): gesture, no movement

Outline of findings
Different kinds of body movement are associated with kinaesthetic learning at different stages of the process of preparing to perform from memory Beating a pulse provides framework for ensuring rhythmic accuracy Conducting during memorizing phase helps form metrical representation SHAPE Gesture once piece is learned and memorized underpins communication of semantic meaning (musical or verbal) Need for singer also to practise not moving in preparation for performance

Beating time
Ginsborg, J. (2009). Beating time: the role of kinaesthetic learning in the development of mental representations for music. In A. Mornell (ed.) Art in Motion. Vienna: Peter Lang.

The story so far


Shared performance cues 1. Verbal commentaries and discussions: content analysis of four sample practice sessions / rehearsals Cognitive, metacognitive and hints at social processes 2. Annotations (representing features and PCs) as predictors of very long term recall via practice behaviour (stops, starts, repetitions) 3. with and without bodily movement (singer only)

Shaping contour: Bodily movements


Study of gestures and glances (Ginsborg & King, 2009; King & Ginsborg, forthcoming [2010]) Research questions: How do performers 1. bodily movements (gestures) and 2. use of eye contact (glances) compare when they collaborate in ensemble rehearsal with performers of different levels of A.Expertise (student vs professional) B.Familiarity (regular vs new duo partners)

Shaping contour: Bodily movements


Study of gestures and glances (Ginsborg & King, 2009; King & Ginsborg, forthcoming [2010]) Research questions: How do performers 1. bodily movements (gestures) and 2. use of eye contact (glances) compare when they collaborate in ensemble rehearsal with performers of different levels of A.Expertise (student vs professional) B.Familiarity (regular vs new duo partners)

Ekman & Friesen (1969, in Davidson, 2001, 2006)


Emblems
Illustrators Adaptors Affect displays Regulators

Direct verbal translation e.g. thumbs up for yes


Used to describe or reinforce points Satisfy personal needs e.g. twiddling fingers Reveal affective or emotional state Regulate interaction

Cassell (1998, in Davidson, 2005)


Propositional
Iconic Metaphoric Deictic Beat

To denote meaning
Describe action Illustrating metaphor Indicative or pointing gesture Repetitive motor gestures

Cassell (1998, in Davidson, 2005)


Propositional
Iconic Metaphoric Deictic Beat

To denote meaning
Describe action Illustrating metaphor Indicative or pointing gesture Repetitive motor gestures

Ekman & Friesen (1969)


Illustrators Emblems Adaptors Regulators

Cassell (1998)
Iconic Propositional

Deictic or beat

Ekman & Friesen (1969) Illustrators Emblems


Adaptors Regulators

Cassell (1998) Iconic Propositional

Delalande (1988) of Glenn Goulds gestures Meditative, vibrant, fluid, delicate, vigorous

Deictic or beat

Participants
Name (singer & pianist)
Amanda & Colin Isobel & George Betty & Robert Sophie & Guy

Mean age (years)


68 57 25.5 21.5

Experience together (years)


10 15 2 2

Level of expertise
Professional Professional Student Student

Materials
Three songs by Ivor Gurney (1890-1937) Epitaph On the Downs I Shall be Ever Maiden Video-recordings of practice sessions, rehearsals and performances stored as DVDs Analysis using Noldus The Observer

Procedure
Session 1: familiar / same expertise
Professional A / Professional 1 Professional B / Professional 2 Student A / Student 1 Student B / Student 2

Session 2: unfamiliar / same expertise


Professional A / Professional 2 Professional B / Professional 1 Student A / Student 2 Student B Student 1

Session 3: unfamiliar / different expertise


Professional A (Isobel) / Student 1 (Guy) Professional 1 (George) / Student A (Betty)

Analysis (1)
States Gesture

Pulsing with hand / head Shaping with hand

Conducting with hand


Glance Points Gesture Gazing at partner / elsewhere Gesture

Glance

Glance at partner / elsewhere

Analysis (2)
420.301",Betty & Guy","pianist","Glance other","Point","" "447.876","Betty & Guy","singer","Pulse hand","State start","26-35" "457.251","Betty & Guy","pianist","Gesture","Point","lifts hand" "467.770","Betty & Guy","singer","Pulse hand","State stop","" "467.770","Betty & Guy","singer","Still","State stop","" "467.770","Betty & Guy","singer","Pulse hand","State start","29-38" "477.834","Betty & Guy","pianist","Glance other","Point","" "478.133","Betty & Guy","singer","Pulse hand","State stop","" "478.477","Betty & Guy","singer","Glance other","Point","29-38" "480.144","Betty & Guy","singer","Gesture","Point","point "heart"" "481.066","Betty & Guy","pianist","Glance other","Point","" "482.083","Betty & Guy ","singer","Gesture","Point","point "was"" "513.205","Betty & Guy","singer","Gesture","Point"," = 'stop"' (error)" "513.682","Betty & Guy","singer","Pulse hand","State start","26-41" "514.039","Betty & Guy","singer","Gesture","Point",""heart"" "518.674","Betty & Guy","singer","Pulse hand","State stop","" "532.370","Betty & Guy","singer","Pulse head","State start","" "537.722","Betty & Guy","singer","Pulse head","State stop",""
"

Analysis (3)
States % of rehearsal time Pulsing with hand / hand Shaping with hand Conducting with hand Gazing at partner / elsewhere

Points Rate per minute of rehearsal time

Gesture
Glance at partner / elsewhere

Pulsing (hand / head), shaping and conducting (% of rehearsal time)


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Isobel (P) Betty (S) George (P) Guy (S) Pulse Shape Conduct

Isobel (P) with her three partners (% of rehearsal time)


35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 George (P) Colin (P) Guy (S) Pulse hand

Betty (S) with her three partners (% of rehearsal time)


18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Robert (S) Guy (S) George (P) Pulse hand Pulse head Shape hand

Gesture (rate per minute)


1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Isobel (P) Betty (S) George (P) Guy (S) Gesture

Isobel and George (both P)

Betty and Robert (both S)

Discussion: gestures (1)


Performers used more physical gestures when rehearsing with familiar and same-expertise than new or different-expertise partners Wider range of gestures in familiar partnerships

Discussion: gestures (2)


Emblems Illustrators Consolidate technical details Establish rhythms and secure pitching Convey narrative Regulators Co-ordination / structural boundaries

Beats (deictic)
Metaphoric gestures

Conducting to establish tempo or pulse Convey musical information

Discussion: gestures in relation to music


Contribute to the development of mental representations for formal structure (cf Williamon & Davidson, 2002) Pianists gestures primarily expressive and communicative; singers gestures support technical production of sound and convey information Movement-related information may be limited to relatively general, instrument-independent forms of body motion, e.g. swaying, rocking and expressive gesturing (Keller, 2008, p. 209)

Discussion: effects of familiarity and expertise


Closer harmonisation of gestures in established duo: combined rhetoric of movements Ensemble performers anticipate, attend and adapt to their own and each others playing (Keller, 2008) so as to develop joint mental representations and implement shared decisions; auditory and motor information Complemented by verbal information (Ginsborg & King, 2007ab, 2008)

Summary and conclusions: mental representations revisited


Understanding of structure (and structural boundaries) crucial to memory Shared performance cues research serial chaining (block signalling) vs content addressability (centralized traffic control) Beating time role of kinaesthetic memory in forming mental representation of metrical structure Shaping contour role of bodily movement (also kinaesthetic memory?) in creating mental representation of meaning

Thank you for your attention


Any questions? Jane.ginsborg@rncm.ac.uk