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MICROBIOLOGY
The study of bacteria, parasitic worms and viruses

Chapter 1
Topics
Scope of Microbiology Importance of Microorganisms Characteristics of Microorganisms History of Microbiology Taxonomy

Microorganisms are living things too small to be seen without magnification


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Black Death: The Bubonic Plague

1348 black death cut the population of Europe by 50%.

Yersinia pestis
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Fungi
Ergot: toxin produced by fungus found on rye

- Convulsions - Derangement - Hallucinations - Gangrene

Malaria: plasmodium protozoa


-1.5 million malaria deaths per year - Malaria is generally endemic in the tropics - Malaria in travelers arriving by air is now an important cause of death in non-malaria areas
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Red Tide: Dinoflagellates

RED TIDE SUSPECTED IN over 50 RECENT MANATEE DEATHS

Trichinella spiralis

Streptococcus pyogenes:

flesh eating bacteria

Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever


No treatment, no cure 75-100% fatal

275 cases-255 dead in Angola

Microbes are involved in photosynthesis account for >50% of the earths oxygen. Decomposition nutrient recycling.

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Scope of Microbiology

Immunology: allergic reactions and immune responses Public health microbiology & epidemiology: monitor the spread of disease (CDC, WHO) Food, dairy and aquatic microbiology Agricultural microbiology: relationship between microbes and crops Biotechnology: tools using microbes to produce substances for humans Genetic engineering & recombinant DNA technology: techniques to alter the genetic makeup of organisms to create transgenetic organisms.
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Knowledge of microorganisms:

Allows humans to
Prevent food spoilage Prevent disease occurrence

Led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination in medicine and in microbiology laboratories.


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A Brief History of Microbiology

Ancestors of bacteria were the first life on Earth. The first microbes were observed in 1673.

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Spontaneous generation
Early belief that some forms of life could arise from vital forces present in nonliving or decomposing matter. (flies from manure, etc)

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Germ theory of disease


Many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and not by sins, bad character, or poverty, etc.

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The First Observations

In 1665, Robert Hooke reported that living things were composed of little boxes or cells. In 1858, Rudolf Virchow said cells arise from preexisting cells. Cell Theory. All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells
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The First Observations

1673-1723, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek described live microorganisms that he observed in teeth scrapings, rain water, and peppercorn infusions.

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The Debate Over Spontaneous Generation

The hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter is called spontaneous generation. According to spontaneous generation, a vital force Forms life. The Alternative hypothesis, that the living organisms arise from preexisting life, is called biogenesis.
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The Theory of Biogenesis

Pasteurs S-shaped flask kept microbes out but let air in.

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The Golden Age of Microbiology

1857-1914 Beginning with Pasteurs work, discoveries included the relationship between microbes and disease, immunity, and antimicrobial drugs
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Fermentation and Pasteurization

Pasteur demonstrated that these spoilage bacteria could be killed by heat that was not hot enough to evaporate the alcohol in wine. This application of a high heat for a short time is called pasteurization.
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The Germ Theory of Disease

1860s: Joseph Lister used a chemical disinfectant to prevent surgical wound infections after looking at Pasteurs work showing microbes are in the air, can spoil food, and cause animal diseases.
1876: Robert Koch provided proof that a bacterium causes anthrax and provided the experimental steps, Kochs postulates, used to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease.

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Vaccination

1796: Edward Jenner inoculated a person with cowpox virus. The person was then protected from smallpox. Called vaccination from vacca for cow The protection is called immunity

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The Birth of Modern Chemotherapy


1928: Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic. He observed that Penicillium fungus made an antibiotic, penicillin, that killed S. aureus. 1940s: Penicillin was tested clinically and mass produced.

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Naming and Classifying Microorganisms

Linnaeus established the system of scientific nomenclature. Each organism has two names: the genus and specific epithet. Are italicized or underlined. The genus is capitalized and the specific epithet is lower case. Are Latinized and used worldwide. May be descriptive or honor a scientist.
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There is a difference between the cell structure of a procaryote and a eucaryote. Viruses are neither but are considered particles.

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There are six main types of microorganisms

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The Domain system was developed by Dr. Woese. The basis of the Domain system is the rRNA sequence information.

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Bacteria

Prokaryotes Peptidoglycan cell walls Binary fission For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis
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Archaea:

Prokaryotic Lack peptidoglycan Live in extreme environments Include: Methanogens Extreme halophiles Extreme thermophiles
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Fungi

Eukaryotes Chitin cell walls Use organic chemicals for energy Molds and mushrooms are multicellular consisting of masses of mycelia, which are composed of filaments called hyphae Yeasts are unicellular

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Protozoa

Eukaryotes Absorb or ingest organic chemicals May be motile via pseudopods, cilia, or flagella

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Algae

Eukaryotes Cellulose cell walls Use photosynthesis for energy Produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds

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Viruses

Acellular Consist of DNA or RNA core Core is surrounded by a protein coat Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope Viruses are replicated only when they are in a living host cell

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Multicellular Animal Parasites


Eukaryote Multicellular animals Parasitic flatworms and round worms are called helminths. Microscopic stages in life cycles.
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Bioremediation

Bacteria degrade organic matter in sewage. Bacteria degrade or detoxify pollutants such as oil and mercury

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Infectious Diseases

When a pathogen overcomes the hosts resistance, disease results.


Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID): New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence

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The most common infectious diseases worldwide.

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Emerging Infectious Diseases


E. coli O157:H7 H1N1: Swine Flu Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Invasive group A Streptococcus Ebola hemorrhagic fever MRSA

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E. Coli O157:H7

Raw meat products


Undercooked hamburger

Produce!
Spinach Lettuce Strawberries

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