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Revision Booklet: Cold War

Cold War Satellite State Iron Curtain Truman Doctrine Containment George F. Kennan Berlin Blockade NATO Marshall Plan Warsaw Pact Jing Jieshi Mao Zedong 38th Parallel Douglas MacArthur Limited War SEATO Nuclear Arms Race Mutually Assured Destruction CIA NASA

Cold War: Different Ideologies

Soviets support Communism or the idea that the government controls all aspects of the economy Russia is a Dictatorship were the leader of the country is chosen by the Communist Party Americans support Capitalism or the idea that the government allows the market to control the economy America also has a democracy where the leaders of the country are chosen by voting

Cold War: Beginning

Stalin, Churchill and Truman met at Yalta to discuss the peace after WWII Stalin wants a weak and divided Germany He also wants Eastern European Satellite states (Hungary, Romania, Poland and Czechoslovakia) to feed resources to Russia and act as a buffer against another German invasion Truman wants free elections in Eastern Europe and a strong, united Germany but believes that Russia wants to conquer the world

Truman Doctrine
Truman sees Europe in 1946 divided by an Iron Curtain with Germany also split in two Truman must face a choice as Turkey and Greece might fall to Communism Truman gives economic aid to these countries and states that America will support any country attempting to fight armed minorities or an outside threat The Armed minority were Communists and the outside threat was Soviet Russia Truman gives $400 Million in economic aid to Greece and Turkey

George F. Keenan and Containment

George F. Keenan an American diplomat proposed the American policy of Containment This was the goal of keeping Communism within its existing borders (At this time Russia and Eastern Europe) Keenan believed Russia would not go to war to spread communism and that America should do everything short of direct war with Russia to fight Communism

Marshall Plan
Europe was on its back after World War II and its economy was in the toilet The Marshall Plan was a series of $13 Billion grants and loans to European countries to buy food, rebuild Europe and to improve their economies

Berlin Blockade
Germany was divided into four zones after the war Berlin was also divided into four zones even though it was in the Russian territory Stalin decided he wanted Berlin for himself and refused all road, rail and water transport of goods to Berlin from the allies The only method left was air, which Stalin did not oppose Truman, did not want to see Berlin fall to the Russians and supported Berlin by flying in billions of kgs of food, oil, coal and other essential supplies to keep Berlin operating After 11 months the Russians admitted defeat and ended the blockade. Trumans Doctrine of resisting Communism is vindicated

NATO and the Warsaw Pact

NATO or North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was set up as a way to counter further Russian aggression It was a military alliance between the Western Europe countries and America to protect each other if war happened Russia responded by creating the Warsaw Pact which was a military alliance between the Communist countries of Eastern Europe and Russia

Chinese Civil War

China was controlled by Japan until end of WWII Two Chinese groups fight Japanese Jiang who led the Nationalist and Mao who led the Communists After Japanese leave China these two groups fight a civil war Russia supports Mao a communist and America supports Jiang a capitalist America and Russia supply weapons, food and economic aid to their group but neither country supplies soldiers Mao and the Communists win because Jiang is corrupt and Mao wins the support of the people Maos victory is a big set back for the Americans China is still communist in 2012!!!!!

Korean War
Korea was controlled by Japan until end of WWII Russia and America agree to divide Korea in half along the 38th Parallel line The Soviets set up a Communist government in the North of Korea and the Americans set up a capitalist government in the south The South Vietnamese govt. suggests democratic elections but is refused North Korea fed up with waiting invades the South and pushes the South Korean army down to the Pusan Peninsula

Korean War (II)

America decides as part of the Truman Doctrine that it must act. America sends American soldiers to Counter the North Korean Army. The Americans push North to Yalu River but China gets nervous and sends its army to attack the Americans. The result of all this is stalemate North Korea stays Communist and South Korea forms a capitalist Democracy This situation is the same in 2012!!!! Result : Stalemate Neither Russians nor Americans win.

Nuclear Arms Race

America drops Nuclear bombs on Japan and shows the world its huge military advantage. Russia develops its own Nuclear Bomb by 1949. America develops the Hydrogen Bomb in 1952. President Eisenhower supports a build up of Nuclear Bombs ad Americas main enemy is Russia and any war with Russia will be Nuclear. America and Russia increase the stores of their Nuclear bombs in order to be prepared for a nuclear war. Both countries adopt the policy of Mutually Assured Destruction (M.A.D) the fact that both America and Russia would be destroyed as a deterrent against Nuclear war.

Space Race
Russia and America both experiment with Space Craft. In 1957 Russia launches Sputnik 1 a satellite which orbits earth This scares America that Russia is ahead of it and America launches a gigantic effort to put the first Man on the Moon. The Space race becomes a symbol for which ideology Communism or Capitalism is superior. In 1969 America finally succeeds in putting a Man on the Moon.