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Blast Resistant Measures in a Buildings and Design of

vulnerable components By UFC-3-340-02 (2008)

By Afzal Waseem (500468008)

Blast Resisting Measures

It is highly uneconomical to use blast resistant

materials throughout the building.

Therefore there are various methods of Blast proofing a multi-storey building.

Blast resistant window/glass.

Blast resistant doors/Crash Gates.

Prevention of Progressive collapse.

Blast resistant design of vulnerable structural element.

Blast resistant window/glass.

When an air blast pressure fractures

window glass, flying and

falling glass shards pose a major hazard to anyone in the proximity.

Blast resistant window/glass. When an air blast pressure fractures window glass, flying and falling glass shards

The use of blast-resistant glazing in buildings subjected to air blast pressure loading, can greatly reduce the hazard, if not completely minimize it.

Guidance Available for Blast resistant Glazing

Following are the current guidelines available for the blast resistant glazing design`s

ASTM F 1642, Standard Test Method for Glazing and Glazing Systems Subject to Air blast Loadings

GSA-TS01-2003, Standard Test Method for Glazing and Window Systems Subject to Dynamic Overpressure Loadings

UFC 4-010-01, Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings

ASTM E 1300, Standard Practice for Determining Load Resistance of Glass in Buildings

ASTM F 2248, Standard Practice for Specifying an Equivalent 3-Second Duration Design Loading for Blast Resistant Glazing Fabricated with Laminated Glass

AAMA 510-06, Voluntary Guide Specification for Blast Hazard Mitigation for Fenestration Systems

A software “Blast Resistant Glazing Design 2007” is available

that uses ASTM E 1300 and ASTM F 2248 standards to size rectangular laminated glass and insulating glass.

Blast resistant doors

The building`s doors, due to their functional requirements are a weak link in blast resistant design.

Since doors are likely to be the largest opening into a building they provide the largest potential source of blast wave propagation if the opening fails.

Therefore, doors need to be no weaker than the requirements for

the

design

of

components

other

structural

Types of Doors

Built-up Door

Types of Doors Built-up Door Solid Steel Plate Door. Design details can be found in UFC-3-340-02

Solid Steel Plate Door.

Types of Doors Built-up Door Solid Steel Plate Door. Design details can be found in UFC-3-340-02

Design details can be found in UFC-3-340-02 (2008)

Progressive collapse

Localized failure of one or two structural elements that lead to a steady

progression of load transfer that exceeds

the

capacity

of

other

surrounding

elements, thus initiating the progression that leads to a total or partial collapse of

the structure.

Several countries have developed design

procedures to prevent progressive collapse

so that buildings are able to withstand the accidental removal of a single column.

Progressive collapse Localized failure of one or two structural elements that lead to a steady progression

Ronan Point (1968) Explosion on 18 th floor

Wall panel blown out 22 floors collapse

Significance of Progressive Collapse

The partial collapse of

Murrah Fedral building

in Oklahoma City by the

April 19, 1995 bombing,

resulted 168 fatalities in

which majority of the death were due to collapse of structure

and not due to direct

blast effects.

Significance of Progressive Collapse The partial collapse of Murrah Fedral building in Oklahoma City by the

Progressive collapse resistant design Approaches

1)

Alternate Path (AP) method, which requires that the structure be capable of bridging over a missing structural element, with the resulting extent of damage being localized.

2)

Specific Local Resistance (SLR) method, which requires that the building, or parts of

the building, provide sufficient strength to resist a specific load or threat e.g the shear

and flexural capacity of the perimeter columns and walls are increased to provide additional protection by reducing the probability and extent of initial damage

  • a. Good plan layout

  • b. Integrated system of ties

  • c. Changing span directions of floor slabs

  • d. Load-bearing interior partitions

  • e. Ductile detailing

  • f. Additional reinforcement for blast and load reversal, if the designer must consider explosive loads

  • g. Compartmentalized construction

Analysis of Progressive Collapse

Progressive collapse analysis is done by removal of the following columns in a building.

Analysis of Progressive Collapse Progressive collapse analysis is done by removal of the following columns in
Analysis of Progressive Collapse Progressive collapse analysis is done by removal of the following columns in

Flat Slab Design showing the center

column completely destroyed by blast

  • 1. A column located at the corner of the building.

  • 2. An exterior column near the middle of the long side of the building.

  • 3. An exterior column near the middle of the short side of the building.

  • 4. A column interior to the perimeter column lines for facilities that have

underground parking.

Design Guidance for Progressive collapse

The most prominent design guidance currently

available on this topic is provided by two federal

agencies - the General Services Administration (GSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD)

UFC 4-023-03.

Not all engineers are familiar with the GSA and the DoD

design approaches for the

mitigation of progressive collapse.

Design Guidance for Progressive collapse The most prominent design guidance currently available on this topic is

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USAMRIID Replacement Laboratory

BLAST WAVE

An explosion is the result of rapid release of large amounts of energy within a limited space.

The sudden release of energy initiates a pressure wave in the surrounding medium, known as a shock wave.

This pressure waves moves with the velocity of sound (22,000 to 28,000 feet per second), the temperature is about 3000 o -4000 o C and the pressure is nearly 300 kilo bar of the air causing this velocity to increase.

BLAST WAVE

The inner part of the wave starts to

move faster and gradually overtakes the leading part of the waves, this abrupt increase in pressure is called the shock front.

Shock Front Pressure
Shock
Front
Pressure
Distance t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 t 5 t 6 Overpressure
Distance
t 1
t 2
t 3
t 4
t 5
t 6
Overpressure

Distance

This shock front moves away from the source, with a continuous

decrease in its magnitude till it start to develop suction pressure.

BLAST-LOADING CATEGORIES

Based on the confinement of the explosive charges

  • 1. UNCONFINED EXPLOSION

    • a. Free air burst explosion

    • b. Air burst explosion

    • c. Surface burst explosion

      • 2. CONFINED EXPLOSION

        • a. Fully vented explosion

        • b. Partially confined explosion

        • c. Fully confined explosions

Anatomy of Blast

The threat of a conventional bomb is defined by

these important elements.

  • 1. Bomb size, or charge weight W

  • 2. Standoff distance (R) between the blast source and the target

  • 3. The geometrical configuration of the structure.

  • 4. The structure orientation with respect to the

explosion and the ground surface (above, flush

with, or below the ground).

Charge weight W or TNT EQUIVALENCY

TNT Equivalency is the relating of explosive energy of the "effective charge weight" of explosive materials to that of an equivalent weight of TNT.

Charge weight of a explosion are measured in term of Equivalent TNT weight.

Charge weight W or TNT EQUIVALENCY

Charge weight W or TNT EQUIVALENCY The Oklahoma bomb in 1995 has the charge weight of

The Oklahoma bomb in 1995 has

the charge weight of over 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) of TNT.

World Trade Center Blast in 1993

Charge weight W or TNT EQUIVALENCY The Oklahoma bomb in 1995 has the charge weight of

Charge weight of 816.5 kg TNT

STAND-OFF DISTANCE

Stand-off distance refers to

the direct, un-obstructed

distance between point of explosion and its target.

STAND-OFF DISTANCE Stand-off distance refers to the direct, un-obstructed distance between point of explosion and its

The Oklahoma bomb in 1995 has a standoff of 5m

BLAST WAVE SCALING LAWS

Scaling laws like Hopkinson-Cranz or cube-root scaling law are used to predict the properties of blast waves from large explosive devices based on test data with much smaller charges.

It states that similar blast waves are produced at identical scaled distances when two explosive charges of similar geometry and of the same explosive, but of different sizes, are detonated in the same atmospheric conditions.

It is customary to use as a scaled distance a dimensional parameter, Z, as follows:

 

Z = R/E 1/3

or

Z = R/W 1/3

where

R is the distance from the center of the explosive source

E is the total explosive energy released by the detonation (represented by the heat of detonation of the explosive, H)

W is the total weight of a standard explosive, such as TNT, that can represent

the explosive energy.

UFC 3-340-02

Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system provides planning, design, construction and modernization criteria, and applies to the Military Departments.

It is a joint project of

  • 1. U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

  • 2. NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND

  • 3. AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY

This UFC 3-340-02 presents methods of design for structures for development, testing, production, storage, maintenance, modification, inspection, demilitarization, and disposal of explosive materials.

It establishes design procedures and construction techniques whereby propagation of explosion (from one structure or part of a structure to another) or mass detonation can be prevented and personnel and valuable equipment can be protected.

Determine pressure-time blast loading curves for the front wall, roof, rear half of the side walls and rear wall of the structure shown in Figure for a surface

burst of 5,000 lbs at a distance from the front wall of 155 ft. Structure width is 30 ft and the shock front is plane.

Solution:

Step 1.

Step 2.

Given Data : Charge weight = 5,000 lbs, RG = 155 ft Factored Charged Weight W = 1.2 (5,000) = 6,000 lbs

i s at Point 1

Step 3.

Determine free-field blast wave parameters Pso, tA, Lw and to at Points 1 through 3 and

For Point 1 : a. Z G = = = 8.53 ft/lb 1/3 b. Determine free-field
For Point 1 :
a.
Z G = = = 8.53 ft/lb 1/3
b.
Determine free-field blast wave parameters
from Figure 2-7 for ZG = 8.53 ft/lb 1/3
Pso = 12.8 psi
tA/W 1/3 = 3.35 ms/lb 1/3
tA = 3.35 (6000) 1/3 = 60.9 ms
wave length of
Lw/W 1/3 = 2.10 ft/lb 1/3
Lw = 2.10 (6000)1/3 = 38.2 ft
to/W 1/3 = 2.35 ms/lb 1/3
to = 2.35 (6000) 1/3 = 42.7 ms
positive pressure
phase (ft)
duration of
positive phase of
blast pressure
c.
Determine incident impulse from
Figure 2-7 for ZG = 8.53 ft/lb 1/3
= 9.0 psi-ms/lb 1/3
i s = 9.0(6000) 1/3 = 163.5 psi-ms
unit positive
incident
impulse
d.
Repeat Steps 3a and 3b for Points 2 and 3.
Results are tabulated below

Step 4.

Point

R G

Z G

P SO

t A /W 1/3

t A

L W /W 1/3

L W

t O /W 1/3

t O

i S /W 1/3

i S

No.

(ft)

(ft/lb 1/3 )

(psi)

(ms/lb 1/3 )

(ms)

(ft/lb 1/3 )

(ft)

(ms/lb 1/3 )

(ms)

(psi- ms/lb 1/3 )

(psi-ms)

  • 1 12.8

155.0

8.53

3.35

60.9

2.10

38.2

2.35

42.7

9.00

163.5

  • 2 10.8

170.0

9.35

3.90

70.9

2.24

40.7

2.48

45.1

-

-

  • 3 9.0

185.0

10.18

4.60

83.6

2.35

42.7

2.62

47.6

-

-

Determine front wall reflected pressure and impulse.

Step 4. Point R Z P t /W t L /W L t /W t i

Peak positive Incidence pressure

peak reflected pressure at angle of incidence a

  • a. Read Crα for Pso = 12.8 psi and α = 0° from Figure 2-8 for Point 1. Crα = 2.70 then Prα = Crα x Pso = 2.70 x 12.8 = 34.6 psi

Step 4. Point R Z P t /W t L /W L t /W t i
  • b. Read irα /W 1/3 for Pso = 12.8 psi and α = 0° from Figure 2-9 for Point 1. irα/W 1/3 = 17.0 then irα = 17.0 (6,000) 1/3 = 308.9 psi-ms Front wall loading, positive phase.

Step 5.

  • a. Calculate sound velocity in reflected overpressure region Cr from Figure 2-10 for P so = 12.8 psi Cr = 1.325 ft/ms

    • b. Calculate clearing time tc from Equation 2-3:

t c = where:
t c =
where:

S = 12.0 ft < 30/2 G = 30/2 = 15.0 ft > 12.0 ft

R = S/G = 12.0/15.0 = 0.80

then:

t c =

= 20.1 ms

  • c. Calculate t of from Equation 2-6. Use impulse from Step 3c. t of =

25.5 ms

Figure 2-8

Reflected Pressure Coefficient versus

Angle of Incidence [UFC-3-340-02 (2008)]

Figure 2-8 Reflected Pressure Coefficient versus Angle of Incidence [UFC-3-340-02 (2008)] Figure 2-9 Reflected Scaled Impulse
Figure 2-9 Reflected Scaled Impulse versus Angle of Incidence [UFC-3-340- 02 (2008)]
Figure 2-9
Reflected Scaled Impulse
versus Angle of Incidence [UFC-3-340-
02 (2008)]

Figure 2-10

Velocity of Sound in Reflected

Overpressure Region versus Peak Incident

Overpressure

[UFC-3-340-02 (2008)]

Figure 2-10 Velocity of Sound in Reflected Overpressure Region versus Peak Incident Overpressure d. Determine q

d. Determine q o from Figure 2-12 for P so = 12.8 psi. q o = 3.5 psi

peak dynamic

pressure

  • e. Calculate Pso + C D q o :

(Drag Coefficient) C D = 1.0 from Section 2-1.3.2

then,

P so + C D q o = 12.8 + (1.0 x 3.5) = 16.3 psi

  • f. Calculate t rf from Equation 2-6 and results of Step 4.

Figure 2-10 Velocity of Sound in Reflected Overpressure Region versus Peak Incident Overpressure d. Determine q
  • g. Construct the pressure time curve. As shown in

Figure 2-11.

Pressure Time Curve for Front Wall

Pso + C D qo = 16.3 Pressure, psi 10 20 30 40 to + 0.27
Pso + C D qo = 16.3
Pressure, psi
10
20
30
40
to + 0.27 trf - = 86.8
tof = 25.5
to + trf - =
trf = 17.9
to = 42.7
206.0
150
Pr = 34.6
Pr - = 3.25
tc = 20.1
-20
250
200
100
-10
50
0
0

Time, msec

Pressure Time Curve for Side Walls

tof = 44.9 Pressure, psi 1 3 5 7 9 to + 0.27 tof - =
tof = 44.9
Pressure, psi
1
3
5
7
9
to + 0.27 tof - = 97.6
-5
-3
-1
to + tof - =
0
td = 12.0
to = 45.1
239.5
C E Psof + C D qo = 7.6
Pr - = 3.0
300
250
200
150
100
50

Time, msec

Pressure Time Curve for Roof

to = 42.7 Pressure, psi 1 3 5 7 to + 0.27 tof - = 100.1
to = 42.7
Pressure, psi
1
3
5
7
to + 0.27 tof - = 100.1
-5
-3
-1
to + tof - =
tof = 56.3
0
td = 22.7
255.3
C E Psof + C D qo = 6.24
Pr - = 3.33
300
250
200
100
150
50

Time, msec

Pressure Time Curve for Rear Wall

tof = 44.5 Pressure, psi 1 3 5 7 9 to + 0.27 tof - =
tof = 44.5
Pressure, psi
1
3
5
7
9
to + 0.27 tof - = 99.1
-5
-3
-1
to + tof - =
0
to = 47.6
td = 9.3
238.4
C E Psob + C D qo = 6.95
Pr - = 2.57
300
250
200
100
150
50

Time, msec

Pressure Time Curve for Rear Wall tof = 44.5 Pressure, psi 1 3 5 7 9

The time variation of the

blast wave at a given distance from the explosion is shown in Figure, to indicate the time duration of the positive phase and also the time at the end of

the positive phase.

DYNAMIC STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

Structure subjected to blast loading exhibits a higher strength than a similar element subjected to a static loading.

This increase in strength for both the concrete and reinforcement is

due to the rapid rates of strain that occur in dynamically loaded members.

These increased stresses or dynamic strengths are used to calculate the element's dynamic resistance to the applied blast load.

Both the concrete and reinforcing steel exhibit greater strength under rapid strain rates. The higher the strain rate, the higher the compressive strength of concrete and the higher the yield and ultimate strength of the reinforcement.

This phenomenon is accounted for in the design of a blast resistant structure by using dynamic stresses to calculate the dynamic ultimate resistance of the reinforced concrete members.

ALLOWABLE MATERIAL STRENGTHS

Behavior of a structural element subjected to a

blast loading depends upon the ultimate strength

and ductility of the materials.

The

required

strength

of

a

ductile

element is

considerably less than that necessary for a brittle

element to resist the same applied loading. A ductile element maintains its peak strength

through large plastic strains whereas a brittle

element fails abruptly with little energy absorbed in the plastic range.

Reinforcement

Reinforcing steel, ASTM A 615 and 706 Grade 60 (Also known as the earth quake grade) is considered to have adequate ductility in sizes up to No. 11 bars.

The large No. 14 bars also have the desired ductility.

No. 18 bars are not recommended for use in blast resistant structures.

For all reinforcement, ductility is reduced at bends, lapped splices, mechanical splices, etc., and location of these anchorages near points of maximum stress is undesirable and should be avoided.

It is recommended that for these high strength bars only straight lengths of bars be utilized, splicing of bars be avoided.

The recommended design values for ASTM A 615, Grade 60 reinforcement, are:

f y = 66,000 psi and f u = 90,000 psi

Strategies to Improve Ductility

  • I. Use low flexural reinforcement ratio

II.

Add compression reinforcement

III. Add confining reinforcement

Concrete

The strength of the concrete used in a blast resistant structure may be selected to suit the particular design requirements of the structure.

However, under no circumstances should the concrete strength f'c be less than 3,000 psi.

It is recommended that 4,000 psi or higher strength concrete be used in all blast resistant structures regardless of the magnitude of the blast load and deflection criteria.

DYNAMIC DESIGN STRESSES FOR

REINFORCED CONCRETE

Ductility is a significant parameter influencing the dynamic response and behavior of reinforced

concrete members subjected to blast loadings.

The importance of ductility increases as the duration of the blast load decreases.

Ultimate resistance decreases with increasing ductility of the member.

A section can be designed to be very ductile by

maintaining an under-reinforced section, adding

compression reinforcement, and utilizing lacing bars to prevent buckling of the compression reinforcement.

EXAMPLE:

DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONRETE WALL

Required: Design a wall which spans in two directions and is fully restrained at all supports for a given blast load.

Solution:

Step 1. Given:

  • a. Pressure-time loading (Figure 3-8).

  • b. Maximum deflection equal to 3 times elastic

deflection.

  • c. L = 180 in, H = 144 in and fixed on four sides (Figure 3-8).

  • d. Type I cross section.

Step 2.

Select cross section of element

and static stress of reinforcement and

concrete (Figure 3-9).

EXAMPLE: DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONRETE WALL Required: Design a wall which spans in two directions and

f'c = 4,000 psi fy = 66,000 psi Assume Tc = 12 in and concrete cover as shown.

Step 3.

Determine dynamic stresses.

a. Dynamic increase factors - DIF (Table 3-1). Concrete: Bending - 1.19 Diagonal tension Reinforcement: -
a. Dynamic increase factors - DIF (Table 3-1).
Concrete:
Bending
- 1.19
Diagonal tension
Reinforcement:
- 1.00
Bending
Diagonal tension
- 1.17
- 1.00
Direct shear
- 1.10
b.
Dynamic strength of materials
Concrete (f'dc):
Bending
- 1.19 (4,000) = 4,760 psi

Diagonal tension Reinforcement (fdy):

Bending Diagonal tension Direct shear

- 1.00 (4,000) = 4,000 psi

- 1.17 (66,000) = 77,200 psi - 1.00 (66,000) = 66,000 psi - 1.10 (66,000) = 72,600 psi

Step 4.

Dynamic design stresses from Table 3-2.

Concrete (fdc = f'dc):

Bending Diagonal tension

- 4,760 psi - 4,000 psi

Reinforcement (fds = fdy):

Bending Diagonal tension

Direct shear

- 77,200 psi - 66,000 psi

- 72,600 psi

Step 4. Dynamic design stresses from Table 3-2. Concrete (fdc = f'dc): Bending Diagonal tension -

Further Steps

Step 5.

Assumption on Horizontal and Vertical Steel

Step 6.

Calculate dc and steel ratios for each direction

Step 7.

Calculate moment capacity of both positive and negative reinforcement

Step 8.

Determine ultimate resistance of the element

Step 9.

Determine modulus of elasticity and modular ratio

Step 10.

Determine average moment of inertia for an inch strip

Step 11.

Calculate unit flexural rigidity

Step 12.

For points of interest

Step 13.

Properties at first yield

Step 14.

Properties at second yield

Step 15.

Properties at final yield (ultimate unit resistance).

Step 16.

Resistance deflection curve

Step 17.

Equivalent elastic deflection

Step 18.

Calculate equivalent elastic stiffness

Step 19.

Calculate effective mass of element

Step 20.

Calculate natural period of vibration.

Step 21.

Determine response chart parameters

Step 22.

Check diagonal tension

After 24 Steps - Wall Section

Reinforcement Detail:

No. 4 bars at 10 in c/c in vertical direction No. 4 bars at 12 in c/c in horizontal direction. No.5 diagonal bars @ 12"

After 24 Steps - Wall Section Reinforcement Detail: No. 4 bars at 10 in c/c in

Further the step by step (24 Steps) detailed design of a Blast resistant Beam and Column elements using UFC-3-340-02 (2008) are included in the complete design report.

• Further the step by step (24 Steps) detailed design of a Blast resistant Beam and
• Further the step by step (24 Steps) detailed design of a Blast resistant Beam and

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • 1. A structure cannot be made fully blast proof however its performance under blast loads can be improved.

  • 2. Heavier the structure more is its resistance against blast loads.

  • 3. Blast resistant structure should be design to have some degree of inelastic response in order to achieve

economy.

  • 4. Progressive collapse analysis of the building should be done to understand the behavior of the building in collapse stage.

  • 5. Shear wall structure should be preferred on rigid frame structure due to their inherent capability of resisting large blast loads.

REFERENCES

  • 1. UFC 3-340-02 - Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions - USA
    2008

  • 2. TM 5-1300 - Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions - USA 1990

  • 3. Thesis “Prediction of Blast Loading and its impact on Buildings” by Nitesh N. Moon- 2009

  • 4. Paper “Blast Loading and Blast Effects on Structures – An Overview” by T. Ngo, P. Mendis, A. Gupta & J. Ramsay -2007

  • 5. Paper “Effects of Plastic Hinge Properties in Non-Linear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings” by Mehmet Inel & Hayri Baytan Ozmen-2006

  • 6. Book “Blast Effects on Buildings” First Edition by G.C. Mays and P.D. Smith

  • 7. Paper “Blast Resistant Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures.” by Dennis M. McCann, Ph.D., P.E and Steven J. Smith, Ph.D., P.E. -2007

  • 8. “Design of Blast Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities” by American Society of Civil Engineers (1997), Reston, VA.

  • 9. Book “Structural Dynamic- Theory and Computation.” Second Edition by Mario Paz

    • 10. Book “Handbook for Blast Resistant Design of Buildings.” First Edition by Donald

O. Dusenberry

  • 11. Book “Explosion Resistant Buildings.” First Edition by M.Y.H. Bangash and T. Bangash