Blast Resistant Measures in a Buildings and Design of
vulnerable components By UFC334002 (2008)
By Afzal Waseem (500468008)
Blast Resisting Measures
It is highly uneconomical to use blast resistant
materials throughout the building.
Therefore there are various methods of Blast proofing a multistorey building.
•

Blast resistant window/glass.

•

Blast resistant doors/Crash Gates.

•

Prevention of Progressive collapse.

•

Blast resistant design of vulnerable structural element.

Blast resistant window/glass.
When an air blast pressure fractures
window glass, flying and
falling glass shards pose a major hazard to anyone in the proximity.
The use of blastresistant glazing in buildings subjected to air blast pressure loading, can greatly reduce the hazard, if not completely minimize it.
Guidance Available for Blast resistant Glazing
Following are the current guidelines available for the blast resistant glazing design`s
•

ASTM F 1642, Standard Test Method for Glazing and Glazing Systems Subject to Air blast Loadings

•

GSATS012003, Standard Test Method for Glazing and Window Systems Subject to Dynamic Overpressure Loadings

•

UFC 401001, Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings

•

ASTM E 1300, Standard Practice for Determining Load Resistance of Glass in Buildings

•

ASTM F 2248, Standard Practice for Specifying an Equivalent 3Second Duration Design Loading for Blast Resistant Glazing Fabricated with Laminated Glass

•

AAMA 51006, Voluntary Guide Specification for Blast Hazard Mitigation for Fenestration Systems

A software “Blast Resistant Glazing Design 2007” is available
that uses ASTM E 1300 and ASTM F 2248 standards to size rectangular laminated glass and insulating glass.
Blast resistant doors
•

The building`s doors, due to their functional requirements are a weak link in blast resistant design.

•

Since doors are likely to be the largest opening into a building they provide the largest potential source of blast wave propagation if the opening fails.

•
Therefore, doors need to be no weaker than the requirements for
the
design
of
components
other
structural
Types of Doors
Builtup Door
Solid Steel Plate Door.
Design details can be found in UFC334002 (2008)
Progressive collapse
Localized failure of one or two structural elements that lead to a steady
progression of load transfer that exceeds
the
capacity
of
other
surrounding
elements, thus initiating the progression that leads to a total or partial collapse of
the structure.
Several countries have developed design
procedures to prevent progressive collapse
so that buildings are able to withstand the accidental removal of a single column.
Ronan Point (1968) Explosion on 18 ^{t}^{h} floor
Wall panel blown out 22 floors collapse
Significance of Progressive Collapse
The partial collapse of
Murrah Fedral building
in Oklahoma City by the
April 19, 1995 bombing,
resulted 168 fatalities in
which majority of the death were due to collapse of structure
and not due to direct
blast effects.
Progressive collapse resistant design Approaches
1)

Alternate Path (AP) method, which requires that the structure be capable of bridging over a missing structural element, with the resulting extent of damage being localized.

2)

Specific Local Resistance (SLR) method, which requires that the building, or parts of

the building, provide sufficient strength to resist a specific load or threat e.g the shear
and flexural capacity of the perimeter columns and walls are increased to provide additional protection by reducing the probability and extent of initial damage

a. Good plan layout

b. Integrated system of ties

c. Changing span directions of floor slabs

d. Loadbearing interior partitions

e. Ductile detailing

f. Additional reinforcement for blast and load reversal, if the designer must consider explosive loads

g. Compartmentalized construction
Analysis of Progressive Collapse
Progressive collapse analysis is done by removal of the following columns in a building.
Flat Slab Design showing the center
column completely destroyed by blast

1. A column located at the corner of the building.

2. An exterior column near the middle of the long side of the building.

3. An exterior column near the middle of the short side of the building.

4. A column interior to the perimeter column lines for facilities that have
underground parking.
Design Guidance for Progressive collapse
The most prominent design guidance currently
available on this topic is provided by two federal
agencies  the General Services Administration (GSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD)
UFC 402303.
Not all engineers are familiar with the GSA and the DoD
design approaches for the
mitigation of progressive collapse.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USAMRIID Replacement Laboratory
BLAST WAVE
The inner part of the wave starts to
move faster and gradually overtakes the leading part of the waves, this abrupt increase in pressure is called the shock front.
Distance
t 1
t 2
t 3
t 4
t 5
t 6
Overpressure
Distance
This shock front moves away from the source, with a continuous
decrease in its magnitude till it start to develop suction pressure.
BLASTLOADING CATEGORIES
Based on the confinement of the explosive charges
Anatomy of Blast
The threat of a conventional bomb is defined by
these important elements.

1. Bomb size, or charge weight W

2. Standoff distance (R) between the blast source and the target

3. The geometrical configuration of the structure.

4. The structure orientation with respect to the
explosion and the ground surface (above, flush
with, or below the ground).
Charge weight W or TNT EQUIVALENCY
TNT Equivalency is the relating of explosive energy of the "effective charge weight" of explosive materials to that of an equivalent weight of TNT.
Charge weight of a explosion are measured in term of Equivalent TNT weight.
Charge weight W or TNT EQUIVALENCY
The Oklahoma bomb in 1995 has
the charge weight of over 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) of TNT.
World Trade Center Blast in 1993
Charge weight of 816.5 kg TNT
STANDOFF DISTANCE
Standoff distance refers to
the direct, unobstructed
distance between point of explosion and its target.
The Oklahoma bomb in 1995 has a standoff of 5m
BLAST WAVE SCALING LAWS
•

Scaling laws like HopkinsonCranz or cuberoot scaling law are used to predict the properties of blast waves from large explosive devices based on test data with much smaller charges.

•

It states that similar blast waves are produced at identical scaled distances when two explosive charges of similar geometry and of the same explosive, but of different sizes, are detonated in the same atmospheric conditions.

It is customary to use as a scaled distance a dimensional parameter, Z, as follows:

Z = R/E ^{1}^{/}^{3}

or

Z = R/W ^{1}^{/}^{3}

where

•

R is the distance from the center of the explosive source

•

E is the total explosive energy released by the detonation (represented by the heat of detonation of the explosive, H)

•

W is the total weight of a standard explosive, such as TNT, that can represent

the explosive energy.
UFC 334002
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system provides planning, design, construction and modernization criteria, and applies to the Military Departments.
It is a joint project of

1. U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

2. NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND

3. AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY
This UFC 334002 presents methods of design for structures for development, testing, production, storage, maintenance, modification, inspection, demilitarization, and disposal of explosive materials.
It establishes design procedures and construction techniques whereby propagation of explosion (from one structure or part of a structure to another) or mass detonation can be prevented and personnel and valuable equipment can be protected.
Determine pressuretime blast loading curves for the front wall, roof, rear half of the side walls and rear wall of the structure shown in Figure for a surface
burst of 5,000 lbs at a distance from the front wall of 155 ft. Structure width is 30 ft and the shock front is plane.
Solution:
Step 1.
Step 2.
Given Data : Charge weight = 5,000 lbs, RG = 155 ft Factored Charged Weight W = 1.2 (5,000) = 6,000 lbs
i _{s} at Point 1
Step 3.
Determine freefield blast wave parameters Pso, tA, Lw and to at Points 1 through 3 and
For Point 1 :
a.
Z G = = = 8.53 ft/lb 1/3
b.
Determine freefield blast wave parameters
from Figure 27 for ZG = 8.53 ft/lb 1/3
Pso = 12.8 psi
tA/W 1/3 = 3.35 ms/lb 1/3
tA = 3.35 (6000) 1/3 = 60.9 ms
wave length of
Lw/W 1/3 = 2.10 ft/lb 1/3
Lw = 2.10 (6000)1/3 = 38.2 ft
to/W 1/3 = 2.35 ms/lb 1/3
to = 2.35 (6000) 1/3 = 42.7 ms
positive pressure
phase (ft)
duration of
positive phase of
blast pressure
c.
Determine incident impulse from
Figure 27 for ZG = 8.53 ft/lb 1/3
= 9.0 psims/lb 1/3
i s = 9.0(6000) 1/3 = 163.5 psims
unit positive
incident
impulse
d.
Repeat Steps 3a and 3b for Points 2 and 3.
Results are tabulated below
Step 4.


















(psi ms/lb ^{1}^{/}^{3} )





























Determine front wall reflected pressure and impulse.
Peak positive Incidence pressure
peak reflected pressure at angle of incidence a

b. Read irα /W ^{1}^{/}^{3} for Pso = 12.8 psi and α = 0° from Figure 29 for Point 1. irα/W ^{1}^{/}^{3} = 17.0 then irα = 17.0 (6,000) ^{1}^{/}^{3} = 308.9 psims Front wall loading, positive phase.
Step 5.
S = 12.0 ft < 30/2 G = 30/2 = 15.0 ft > 12.0 ft
R = S/G = 12.0/15.0 = 0.80
then:
t _{c} =
= 20.1 ms
25.5 ms
Figure 28
Reflected Pressure Coefficient versus
Angle of Incidence [UFC334002 (2008)]
Figure 29
Reflected Scaled Impulse
versus Angle of Incidence [UFC3340
02 (2008)]
Figure 210
Velocity of Sound in Reflected
Overpressure Region versus Peak Incident
Overpressure
_{[}_{U}_{F}_{C}_{}_{3}_{}_{3}_{4}_{0}_{}_{0}_{2} _{(}_{2}_{0}_{0}_{8}_{)}_{]}
d. Determine q _{o} from Figure 212 for P _{s}_{o} = 12.8 psi. q _{o} = 3.5 psi
peak dynamic
pressure
(Drag Coefficient) C _{D} = 1.0 from Section 21.3.2
then,
P _{s}_{o} + C _{D} q _{o} = 12.8 + (1.0 x 3.5) = 16.3 psi
Figure 211.
Pressure Time Curve for Rear Wall
tof = 44.5
Pressure, psi
1
3
5
7
9
to + 0.27 tof  = 99.1
5
3
1
to + tof  =
0
to = 47.6
td = 9.3
238.4
C E Psob + C D qo = 6.95
Pr  = 2.57
300
250
200
100
150
50
The time variation of the
blast wave at a given distance from the explosion is shown in Figure, to indicate the time duration of the positive phase and also the time at the end of
the positive phase.
DYNAMIC STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
•
Structure subjected to blast loading exhibits a higher strength than a similar element subjected to a static loading.
This increase in strength for both the concrete and reinforcement is
due to the rapid rates of strain that occur in dynamically loaded members.
These increased stresses or dynamic strengths are used to calculate the element's dynamic resistance to the applied blast load.
•
Both the concrete and reinforcing steel exhibit greater strength under rapid strain rates. The higher the strain rate, the higher the compressive strength of concrete and the higher the yield and ultimate strength of the reinforcement.
This phenomenon is accounted for in the design of a blast resistant structure by using dynamic stresses to calculate the dynamic ultimate resistance of the reinforced concrete members.
ALLOWABLE MATERIAL STRENGTHS
Behavior of a structural element subjected to a
blast loading depends upon the ultimate strength
and ductility of the materials.
The
required
strength
of
a
ductile
element is
considerably less than that necessary for a brittle
element to resist the same applied loading. A ductile element maintains its peak strength
through large plastic strains whereas a brittle
element fails abruptly with little energy absorbed in the plastic range.
Reinforcement
•

Reinforcing steel, ASTM A 615 and 706 Grade 60 (Also known as the earth quake grade) is considered to have adequate ductility in sizes up to No. 11 bars.

•

The large No. 14 bars also have the desired ductility.

•

No. 18 bars are not recommended for use in blast resistant structures.

•

For all reinforcement, ductility is reduced at bends, lapped splices, mechanical splices, etc., and location of these anchorages near points of maximum stress is undesirable and should be avoided.

•

It is recommended that for these high strength bars only straight lengths of bars be utilized, splicing of bars be avoided.

•

The recommended design values for ASTM A 615, Grade 60 reinforcement, are:

f _{y} = 66,000 psi and f _{u} = 90,000 psi
Strategies to Improve Ductility
II.
Add compression reinforcement
III. Add confining reinforcement
DYNAMIC DESIGN STRESSES FOR
REINFORCED CONCRETE
•

Ductility is a significant parameter influencing the dynamic response and behavior of reinforced

concrete members subjected to blast loadings.

•

The importance of ductility increases as the duration of the blast load decreases.

•

Ultimate resistance decreases with increasing ductility of the member.

•

A section can be designed to be very ductile by

maintaining an underreinforced section, adding
compression reinforcement, and utilizing lacing bars to prevent buckling of the compression reinforcement.
EXAMPLE:
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONRETE WALL
Required: Design a wall which spans in two directions and is fully restrained at all supports for a given blast load.
Solution:
Step 1. Given:
deflection.
Step 2.
Select cross section of element
and static stress of reinforcement and
concrete (Figure 39).
f'c = 4,000 psi fy = 66,000 psi Assume Tc = 12 in and concrete cover as shown.
Step 3.
Determine dynamic stresses.
a. Dynamic increase factors  DIF (Table 31).
Concrete:
Bending
 1.19
Diagonal tension
Reinforcement:
 1.00
Bending
Diagonal tension
 1.17
 1.00
Direct shear
 1.10
b.
Dynamic strength of materials
Concrete (f'dc):
Bending
 1.19 (4,000) = 4,760 psi
Diagonal tension Reinforcement (fdy):
Bending Diagonal tension Direct shear
 1.00 (4,000) = 4,000 psi
 1.17 (66,000) = 77,200 psi  1.00 (66,000) = 66,000 psi  1.10 (66,000) = 72,600 psi
Concrete (fdc = f'dc):
Bending Diagonal tension
 4,760 psi  4,000 psi
Reinforcement (fds = fdy):
Bending Diagonal tension
Direct shear
 77,200 psi  66,000 psi
 72,600 psi
After 24 Steps  Wall Section
Reinforcement Detail:
No. 4 bars at 10 in c/c in vertical direction No. 4 bars at 12 in c/c in horizontal direction. No.5 diagonal bars @ 12"
• Further the step by step (24 Steps) detailed design of a Blast resistant Beam and Column elements using UFC334002 (2008) are included in the complete design report.
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