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Active And Passive Voice

The opposite of active is passive In Active Voice Subject is active As in Raju wrote a letter . Here Raju is subject & action is done by him In Passive its not subject rather the object which is active As in A letter was written by Raju . Here letter is object

Why we need passive voice


When sometimes subject is not available by himself and we want to talk about the work done by him that time we need passive voice .otherwise in newspapers also for direct or indirect reporting of the news we need this

Change of
I into Me We into Us They into Them He into Him She into Her You will not be changed It also will remain same .

Rules for the change of voice from Active to Passive


Replace the active verb phrase by the matching passive verb phrase. 2. Make the object of the active clause the subject of the passive clause. 3. Make the subject of the active clause the agent of the passive clause. It may be preceded by the preposition by. 4. An interrogative sentence remains an interrogative in the changed form. e.g. Active- My father gave me this watch. subject object Passive- I was given this watch by my father object as sub. Subject as object
1.

Present Indefinite Tense


Active Passive Is Am 3rd verb Are
1. 2. 3.

R u l e :

First form of the verb+s/es Do- first form Does-First form

4.
5. 6.

I play a match We see pictures Do you like music? He writes a lesson. Does Surjit play hockey? You do not abuse him.

Past indefinite tense


Active R Second u form of L the verb e Did-first form passive Was / Were & 3rd form of the verb
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

I saw a match. You played Cricket. Did they paint this board? He stole my pen. Did she not pay her dues? We did not like the colour.

Future Indefinite
1.

Active

passive
2.
3.

R Will/Shall } Will be u 1st Shall be L form 3rd form e:

4.
5. 6.

She will visit this place I shall help you We shall not spare you. Will you say your prayers? They will accept the verdict. You will sign the bond.

Present Continuous
1.

Active R Is U Am 1stv L & e Are ing

passive Is Am

2. 3.

being 4. are 3rdv


5.

6.

I am writing a book They are throwing dust into our eyes. She is teasing you. You are not making a noise. Is she doing her work? Are they polishing their shoes?

Past continuous
1.

ACTIVE

PASSIVE
2.

R WAS WAS BEING 3. 1ST V U 3RD V WERE & L 4. ING WERE e


5. 6.

The peon was ringing the bell. Were we watching the match? He was building a house. Mohan was not flying a kite. He was not teasing you. She was not paying the taxes.

Present perfect
Active R U L e Has passive
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Has been 3rd 3rd v v Have been

Have

I have finished the work He has sold the house. We have painted pictures. You have shut the window. Has he not abused me? She has not combed her hair.

Past Perfect
Active R Had U L e 3rd Passive v Had been 3rd v
1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6.

I had broken the glass. You ad changed your mind. Had they learnt a lesson? Had she dismissed the servant? We had not bought the house. John had not changed his dress.

Future perfect
1.

Active

Passive
2.

R Will have Will have been U have L Shall rd form Shall have 3 been e 3rd form

3. 4. 5. 6.

She will have delivered a speech. You will have caught the train. They will have seen this Will you have taken tea by then? I shall not have spoken the truth. We will not have played the game.

Home work
A

poem is written by Radha. I agreed to his proposal. Will you prepare tea? The child is enjoying the game. By whom were the poor being helped? I have won the match. Had this place not been visited by you? He will have been abused by us. He has not taken tea. A race is run by him.

Interrogative beginning with -- what, why, when, how, which, where, who

Note : an interrogative remains interrogative when changed from active to passive

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

What do you want? Who teaches you English? Whom do you love? Where will you spend your holidays? Whence have you bought this pen? When will you see him? Why did he abuse you ?

Imperative sentences expressing order, command. Request, advice etc.


The

passive sentence will take the words you are reqested/ ordered/ advised to The sentence can better be changed by taking Let in case of advice or order.

1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

Please post this letter. Kindly help me. Save your soul. Give me those books. Never tell a lie. Do it. Never hurt others.

Infinitives

Rules:

You

Active
R U L E To & 1st v

Passive
To be & 3rd v

have to do it It is time to close the shop. I shall have to strike off his name. You may have to give him up. He likes his subordinates to respect him.

Subject implied type.

Rule: In some sentences (generally in passive form) , the subject has to be implied according to the context while changing them into active

1. 2. 3.

4.
5.

6.

He has been asked to resign. He was elected president of the club. You are wanted outside. The thief was arrested. Duty must be done. Your case will be discussed tomorrow.

Double object type


1.

Note Either of the two objects may become the subject of the passive voice . It is more common to make indirect object the subject

2. 3.

4.
5.

I gave him a book. He teaches us English. You have written him a letter. She handed Ram a letter. They gave her a test

Modals & Auxiliaries


1) 2)

Can, could, may, might, will,would, shall, should, dare, must, ought to , etc Be & 3rd form in passive form

3)
4) 5) 6) 7)

Who can bell the cat? She should not speak a word. Ramu dare not disobey me. We should respect our elders. Everybody ought to do his duty The department might spare him He may avoid you

Quasi-passive verbs
This

mango tastes sweet. This book is selling like hot cakes. This book is printing. This carpet needs dusting. I do not like his staring at me.

Miscellaneous sentences
Let

him come . He pretends to know everything. He begged the teacher to forgive him. Bad intentions pave the road to hell. Let her sing. I like playing hockey. They took no notes He hoped to pass Fortune favours the brave. May you prosper.

Home work
The

bond was signed It is time to say our prayers. Does she know the manager? Kindly grant me leave. Why am I cursed by you? Let your time never be wasted. It has to be seen to be believed. They were forced to listen. My uncle sent me a present You have to do it.